27 ch06cellmembranediffusion2008


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  • {"16":"The four human blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) differ in the external carbohydrates on red blood cells.\n","22":"Some transport proteins do not provide channels but appear to actually translocate the solute-binding site and solute across the membrane as the protein changes shape. These shape changes could be triggered by the binding and release of the transported molecule. This is model for active transport.\n","23":"Plants: nitrate & phosphate pumps in roots.\nWhy?\nNitrate for amino acids\nPhosphate for DNA & membranes\nNot coincidentally these are the main constituents of fertilizer\nSupplying these nutrients to plants\nReplenishing the soil since plants are depleting it\n","12":"Signal transduction - transmitting a signal from outside the cell to the cell nucleus, like receiving a hormone which triggers a receptor on the inside of the cell that then signals to the nucleus that a protein must be made.\n","19":"Movement from high concentration of that substance to low concentration of that substance.\n","8":"<number>\n","9":"<number>\n","15":"The carbohydrates are not inserted into the membrane -- they are too hydrophilic for that. They are attached to embedded proteins -- glycoproteins.\n","21":"Donuts!\nEach transport protein is specific as to the substances that it will translocate (move).\nFor example, the glucose transport protein in the liver will carry glucose from the blood to the cytoplasm, but not fructose, its structural isomer.\nSome transport proteins have a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or ions can use as a tunnel through the membrane -- simply provide corridors allowing a specific molecule or ion to cross the membrane.\nThese channel proteins allow fast transport.\nFor example, water channel proteins, aquaporins, facilitate massive amounts of diffusion.\n"}
  • 27 ch06cellmembranediffusion2008

    1. 1. The Cell Membrane AP Biology 2007-2008
    2. 2. Phospholipids  Phosphate head  “attracted to water” hydrophilic  Fatty acid tails  Phosphate hydrophobic  Arranged as a bilayer Fatty acid “repelled by water” Aaaah, one of those structure–function examples AP Biology
    3. 3. Arranged as a Phospholipid bilayer  Serves as a cellular barrier / border sugar polar hydrophilic heads nonpolar hydrophobic tails H2O salt impermeable to polar molecules polar hydrophilic heads waste AP Biology lipids
    4. 4. Cell membrane defines cell  Cell membrane separates living cell from aqueous environment  thin barrier = 8nm thick  Controls traffic in & out of the cell  allows some substances to cross more easily than others  hydrophobic (nonpolar) vs. hydrophilic (polar) AP Biology
    5. 5. Permeability to polar molecules?  Membrane becomes semi-permeable via protein channels  specific channels allow specific material across cell membrane inside cell NH3 AP Biology salt H2O aa sugar outside cell
    6. 6. Cell membrane is more than lipids…  Transmembrane proteins embedded in phospholipid bilayer  create semi-permeabe channels lipid bilayer membrane AP Biology protein channels in lipid bilyer membrane
    7. 7. Why are proteins the perfect molecule to build structures in the cell membrane? AP Biology 2007-2008
    8. 8. Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? nonpolar & hydrophobic AP Biology
    9. 9. Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? I like the polar ones the best! AP Biology polar & hydrophilic
    10. 10. Proteins domains anchor molecule  Within membrane  Polar areas of protein nonpolar amino acids  hydrophobic  anchors protein into membrane  On outer surfaces of membrane in fluid  polar amino acids  hydrophilic  extend into AP Biology extracellular fluid & into cytosol Nonpolar areas of protein
    11. 11. H+ H + Examples Retinal chromophore NH2 aquaporin = water channel in bacteria Porin monomer H2O β-pleated sheets Bacterial outer membrane Nonpolar (hydrophobic) α-helices in the cell membrane COOH H H+ + Cytoplasm proton pump channel in photosynthetic bacteria HO AP Biology 2 function through conformational change = protein changes shape
    12. 12. Many Functions of Membrane Proteins “Channel” Outside Plasma membrane Inside Transporter Enzyme activity Cell surface receptor Cell adhesion Attachment to the cytoskeleton “Antigen” AP Biology Cell surface identity marker
    13. 13. Membrane Proteins  Proteins determine membrane’s specific functions  cell membrane & organelle membranes each have unique collections of proteins  Classes of membrane proteins:  peripheral proteins  loosely bound to surface of membrane  ex: cell surface identity marker (antigens)  integral proteins  penetrate lipid bilayer, usually across whole membrane  transmembrane protein AP Biology  ex: transport proteins  channels, permeases (pumps)
    14. 14. Cell membrane must be more than lipids…  In 1972, S.J. Singer & G. Nicolson proposed that membrane proteins are inserted into the phospholipid bilayer It’s like a fluid… It’s like a mosaic… It’s the Fluid Mosaic Model! AP Biology
    15. 15. Membrane is a collage of proteins & other molecules embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer Glycoprotein Extracellular fluid Glycolipid Phospholipids Cholesterol Peripheral protein AP Biology Cytoplasm Transmembrane proteins Filaments of cytoskeleton 1972, S.J. Singer & G. Nicolson proposed Fluid Mosaic Model
    16. 16. Membrane carbohydrates  Play a key role in cell-cell recognition  ability of a cell to distinguish one cell from another  antigens important in organ & tissue development  basis for rejection of foreign cells by immune system  AP Biology
    17. 17. Any Questions?? AP Biology
    18. 18. Movement across the Cell Membrane AP Biology 2007-2008
    19. 19. Diffusion  2nd Law of Thermodynamics governs biological systems  universe tends towards disorder (entropy)  Diffusion  AP Biology movement from HIGH → LOW concentration
    20. 20. Simple Diffusion  Move from HIGH to LOW concentration “passive transport”  no energy needed  AP Biology diffusion movement of water osmosis
    21. 21. Facilitated Diffusion  Diffusion through protein channels   channels move specific molecules across cell membrane facilitated = with help no energy needed open channel = fast transport HIGH LOW AP Biology “The Bouncer”
    22. 22. Active Transport  Cells may need to move molecules against concentration gradient    conformational shape change transports solute from one side of membrane to other protein “pump” “costs” energy = ATP LOW conformational change ATP HIGH AP Biology “The Doorman”
    23. 23. Active transport  Many models & mechanisms ATP AP Biology ATP antiport symport
    24. 24. Getting through cell membrane  Passive Transport  Simple diffusion  diffusion of nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules  lipids  HIGH → LOW concentration gradient  Facilitated transport  diffusion of polar, hydrophilic molecules  through a protein channel  HIGH → LOW concentration gradient  Active transport  diffusion against concentration gradient  LOW → HIGH   AP Biology uses a protein pump requires ATP ATP
    25. 25. Transport summary simple diffusion facilitated diffusion active transport AP Biology ATP
    26. 26. How about large molecules?  Moving large molecules into & out of cell through vesicles & vacuoles  endocytosis   phagocytosis = “cellular eating”  pinocytosis = “cellular drinking”  AP Biology exocytosis exocytosis
    27. 27. Endocytosis phagocytosis fuse with lysosome for digestion pinocytosis non-specific process receptor-mediated endocytosis triggered by molecular signal AP Biology
    28. 28. The Special Case of Water Movement of water across the cell membrane AP Biology 2007-2008
    29. 29. Osmosis is just diffusion of water  Water is very important to life,  so we talk about water separately Diffusion of water from HIGH concentration of water to LOW concentration of water  AP Biology across a semi-permeable membrane
    30. 30. Concentration of water  Direction of osmosis is determined by comparing total solute concentrations  Hypertonic - more solute, less water  Hypotonic - less solute, more water  Isotonic - equal solute, equal water water AP Biology hypotonic hypertonic net movement of water
    31. 31. Managing water balance  Cell survival depends on balancing water uptake & loss AP Biology freshwater balanced saltwater
    32. 32. 1 Managing water balance  Hypotonic  a cell in fresh water  high concentration of water around cell  problem: cell gains water, swells & can burst  example: Paramecium  ex: water continually enters KABOOM! Paramecium cell  solution: contractile vacuole  pumps water out of cell ATP  ATP  AP Biology plant cells No problem, here  turgid = full  cell wall protects from bursting freshwater
    33. 33. Pumping water out  Contractile vacuole in Paramecium ATP AP Biology
    34. 34. 2 Managing water balance  Hypertonic I’m shrinking, a cell in salt water I’m shrinking!  low concentration of water around cell   problem: cell loses water & can die  example: shellfish  solution: take up water or pump out salt I  AP Biology plant cells  plasmolysis = wilt  can recover will survive! saltwater
    35. 35. 3 Managing water balance  Isotonic That’s perfect!  animal cell immersed in mild salt solution  no difference in concentration of water between cell & environment  problem: none  no net movement of water flows across membrane equally, in both directions I could  cell in equilibrium be better…   volume of cell is stable  example: blood cells in blood plasma  slightly salty IV solution in hospital AP Biology balanced
    36. 36. 1991 | 2003 Aquaporins  Water moves rapidly into & out of cells  evidence that there were water channels  protein channels allowing flow of water across cell membrane AP Biology Peter Agre Roderick MacKinnon John Hopkins Rockefeller
    37. 37. Do you understand Osmosis… .05 M .03 M Cell (compared to beaker) → hypertonic or hypotonic Beaker (compared to cell) → hypertonic or hypotonic AP Biology Which way does the water flow? → in or out of cell
    38. 38. Any Questions?? AP Biology
    39. 39. Ghosts of Lectures Past (storage) AP Biology 2007-2008
    40. 40. Diffusion through phospholipid bilayer  What molecules can get through directly?  fats & other lipids inside cell NH3  What molecules can lipid salt NOT get through directly?  polar molecules  H2O  outside cell sugar aa H2O ions (charged)  salts, ammonia  large molecules  starches, proteins AP Biology
    41. 41. Membrane fat composition varies  Fat composition affects flexibility  membrane must be fluid & flexible  about as fluid as thick salad oil  % unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids  keep membrane less viscous  cold-adapted organisms, like winter wheat  increase % in autumn  AP Biology cholesterol in membrane
    42. 42. Diffusion across cell membrane  Cell membrane is the boundary between inside & outside…  separates cell from its environment Can it be an impenetrable boundary? NO! OUT IN food carbohydrates sugars, proteins amino acids lipids salts, O2, H2O AP Biology OUT IN waste ammonia salts CO2 H2O products cell needs materials in & products or waste out