18 ch56ecosystemdisaster2008


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18 ch56ecosystemdisaster2008

  1. 1. AP Biology What have we done!
  3. 3. Deforestation:Deforestation: -Changes a forest into an area used for grazing-Changes a forest into an area used for grazing land, logging, or urban purposesland, logging, or urban purposes -Reduces biodiversity-Reduces biodiversity -Occurs even here on Long Island when a new-Occurs even here on Long Island when a new model home or shopping center is builtmodel home or shopping center is built - Or can occur naturally- Or can occur naturally
  4. 4. Impacts of Deforestation:Impacts of Deforestation:  Can degrade carbon storageCan degrade carbon storage  Throws off the regulation ofThrows off the regulation of water balance and river flowwater balance and river flow  Can cause regional climate patternsCan cause regional climate patterns to change drastically over timeto change drastically over time  increase effect of infectious diseasesincrease effect of infectious diseases
  5. 5. Rainforests:Rainforests:  Rainforests are home to two-thirds of allRainforests are home to two-thirds of all the living animal and plant species onthe living animal and plant species on Earth.Earth.  Rainforests cover only a small part of theRainforests cover only a small part of the earth's surface - about 6%, yet they areearth's surface - about 6%, yet they are home to over half the species of plantshome to over half the species of plants and animals in the world.and animals in the world.  Deforestation and the Global CarbonDeforestation and the Global Carbon CycleCycle  Deforestation and BiodiversityDeforestation and Biodiversity
  6. 6. How to saveHow to save  AddressingAddressing deforestationdeforestation  Restoring andRestoring and rehabilitatingrehabilitating ecosystemsecosystems  Funding rainforestFunding rainforest conservation effortsconservation efforts  Expand protectedExpand protected areasareas :rainforests and stop the deforestation:rainforests and stop the deforestation
  7. 7. AP Biology 2008-2009 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Next…
  8. 8. • What is Acid Rain? – Term used to describe ways that acid falls from the atmosphere. – Two Types of Acid Deposition: – Wet Deposition – Dry Deposition Wet Deposition~ Acid that falls in the form of rain, fog and snow. Dry Deposition~ Acid that is present in dust or smoke and sticks to the ground, cars, buildings, and trees.
  9. 9. • What Causes Acid Rain? • Natural Causes: Volcanoes and decaying vegetation. • Human Causes: Factories and other productions using fossil fuels. What is in Acid Rain? • Acid Rain consist of gasses such as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO). • These gasses react in atmosphere with water, oxygen and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds. • These compounds can travel sometimes hundred of miles from prevailing winds.
  10. 10. • Plants: • Roots become damaged from the acidic rainfall. • Acid rain can cause the growth of the plant to be killed or stunted. • Nutrients in the soil can be destroyed, limiting the resources for the plants to take in. • Waxy Layer-Cuticle can be reduced, allowing the plant to dry out and be susceptible to disease. • Animals: • Acid Rain and other populations can hurt a food web. • All organisms are interdependent on each other for energy. • If one organism is effected, everything above is effected.
  11. 11. 1. Reducing Acidic Lakes & other bodies of Water • Adding large quantities of alkaline substances. Clean Coal Technology: promises to dramatically reduce the contaminants and pollutes that are problematic for burning coal. Over time as power plants switch to clean coal tech. we can help reduce pollution and reduce our dependence on foreign oil. 2. In your home: • Only run dishwasher/washing machine with full load. • Turn off lights in empty rooms or when you will be away from home. • Turn down heat at night and when will not be at home at night. • Don’t use your air condition often. 3. In the Yard: • Keep pool covered when your not using it.
  12. 12. AP Biology 2008-2009 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Next…
  13. 13. • Ozone Layer: A form of oxygen gas that makes up a layer of the stratosphere, where it filters out UV radiation from the sun. • The production and emission of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) is the leading cause of depletion. • A Chlorine atom is removed from the CFC and attracts 1 of the 3 oxygen atoms in the ozone molecules. • CFC’s can come from cooling systems, fire extinguishers, Styrofoam containers, home insulation, plastic foam, and throwaway food containers.
  14. 14. • Stratospheric ozone hole discovered in 1975 by Sherwood Roland and Mario Molina. • Reappeared every year since then during the Antarctic winter. •In 2000, it covered an area larger than the U.S., Canada, and Mexico combined, which is approximately 11.4 million square miles. • The hole intensifies in September, and as a result, in 2000, it extended over a city of about 120,000 people in southern Chili.
  15. 15. • Life on Earth appeared only after the oxygen layer was sufficiently thick enough to generate a successful ozone that would shield the surface from destructive rays. • Ultraviolet Radiation from the sun can reach the surface of the Earth faster when the ozone layer is being diminished. • When 1% of the ozone layer is depleted, there can be up to 6% of an increase in the incidence of skin cancer, which is caused by UV-B rays. • Life cycles in plants will change, ultimately disrupting the food chain, which can lead to severe effects on animals. • Long Island may be subjected to severe flooding in the future because of the excessive Ultraviolet radiation. The ice caps in Antarctica will continue to melt, and could one day destroy any
  16. 16. • Montreal Protocol: Responsible for the reduction and elimination of the production of many ozone-depleting substances in industrialized countries. • Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program: Evaluates and regulates substitutes for ozone-depleting chemicals. • Clean Air Act: An agency within the act is authorized to identify and publish lists of acceptable and unacceptable substitutes for class I and II ozone-depleting substances. • As individuals, we can recycle, car-pool, educate others (peers, younger siblings, parents,) form student organizations to protect the environment, use energy-savers, reuse plastic.
  17. 17. AP Biology 2008-2009 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Next…
  18. 18. Loss of Biodiversity/Endangered Species (Loss of Habitat and Fragmented Habitat) Elena Veronin & Gabby Griffing
  19. 19. Description • Biodiversity: variation of life forms, or species • Endangered Species: species that are close to extinction. – Example: 1/8 of all plant species are endangered, and some estimates put 140,000 species extinct per year • The Long Island Sound’s ecosystem is being disturbed by pollution and fishing. • Causes: H.I.P.P.O. – H: habitat destruction – I: invasive species – P: Pollution – P: human overpopulation – O: overharvesting
  20. 20. Ecological Impact • Loss of biodiversity causes instability in ecosystems • The destruction of habitats and introduction of invasive species puts the native species at risk for extinction. – In Latimer Reef, a foreign species was introduced, and has grown exponentially. • Impact on Humans: – Medicines in rainforests are being destroyed • Ex: rosy periwinkle, used in anti-cancer medication. • Economic Impact: – Food supplies are shrinking – Number of fish species is shrinking March 1987 May 2006
  21. 21. What Can You Do? Keep pets indoors Choose tap over bottled water Adjust two degrees -To help out locally and globally you can also volunteer or donate to the American Museum of Natural History’s Center for Biodiversity and Conservation Humans now rely upon just 14 species of mammals and birds to supply 90% of all animal-derived foods Reliance upon modern varieties of rice has caused more than 1,500 local rice varieties in Indonesia to become extinct Choose green energy
  22. 22. AP Biology 2008-2009 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Next…
  23. 23. An average increase in the Earth's temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate resulting in
  24. 24. Locally – New York World Wide
  25. 25.  Don't let heat escape from your house over a long period.  Move your thermostat down 2° in winter and up 2° in summer.  Replace a regular incandescent light bulb with a compact fluorescent light bulb.  Drive less. Take bikes, walk or carpool whenever possible.  Consider investing in a hybrid or electric vehicle.  Decrease your air travel.  Buy recycled paper products and recycle as much of your waste as possible.  Bring your own reusable canvas grocery bags when grocery shopping.  Plant a tree.
  26. 26. WHO??WHO??Are You Serious About Preventing Global Warming?
  27. 27. AP Biology 2008-2009 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Next…
  28. 28.  A wetland is an area of land that is either saturated or flooded and supports vegetation.  With the loss of wetlands has come…  1) the loss of valuable habitat for native species.  2) flooding and decreased quality of water in lakes, rivers, and tributaries.  3) and the extinction or endangerment of many species.  A local example of this destruction is the Hudson River Valley.  The River Valley is home to abandon factories and industrial waste.
  29. 29.  Wetlands are essential to an ecosystem for…  promoting biodiversity,  flood control,  and Climate control.  These waterlogged areas contain an estimated 771 billion tonnes of greenhouse gases (CO2 and methane)  Wetlands also absorb excess water and clean the chemicals, sediments, and excess nutrients from the water.  Without wetlands none of these functions could occur.  The loss of wetlands has caused several floodings in the town of Bethlehem, NY.
  30. 30.  Of the original 215 million acres of wetlands existing 200 years ago in the United States  less than 100 million acres remain.  Agricultural development was responsible for about 87 percent of this loss.  To stop this wetland conservation programs need to be set up to help keep the areas safe and unaltered.  Individuals like us can join “adapt a wetland program” as offered by Concerned Friends of Fernandina.  This program is being offered like several others right here in Nassau county.
  31. 31. AP Biology 2008-2009 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Next…
  32. 32. Water Pollution A deadly killer By Patrick Blatt and Kailey McGarvey
  33. 33. Water Pollution is… • The contamination of water bodies such as likes, oceans, rivers and groundwater. • Caused by Human activities. • Harmful to organisms and plants which live in/near these water bodies. • Detrimental to the health and lives of humans as well.
  34. 34. Local Examples… • There are a multitude causes for water pollution. • Many factories leak wastes into rivers and/or oceans. • When water runoff occurs, the water may pick up pollutants from the body of water it flows into. • Vehicular traffic and the burning of fossil fuels are also major causes of water pollution. This picture shows raw sewage and industrial wastes flowing into the US from Mexico via the New River
  35. 35. Ecological Impact… • Aquatic Ecosystems are disturbed by water pollution. • Polluted water kills plants. • Ocean Acidification- There is an ongoing pH decrease of Earth’s Oceans. • Polluted water harms the health of humans and animals that drink it. • Economic Impact: Polluted water has a negative effect on crop yields, amount of healthy livestock and fish. All of which decrease the amount of profit of an industry.
  36. 36. Actions that need to be taken: • Remove the pollutants before the water returns to the environment. • Collect the water by a system of underground pipes-- sewers-- which carry it to one or more central treatment facilities. • Most of these are located near bodies of water into which the treated wastewater is discharged. • Smaller sized farms tend conserve water and apply and fertilizer to fields more responsibly, minimizing their impact on local water systems, rather than large industrial farms which do not pay close attention to their water supplies and use of fertilizer. •This picture shows a water pollution treatment facility in Sweden
  37. 37. AP Biology 2008-2009 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Next…
  38. 38. Biomagnification Erin Hogan Umar Qazi
  39. 39. What is Biomagnification? • Biomagnification is the increase in the concentration of a substance • Occurs throughout a food chain, not an organism • Chemical must be ▫ Long-lived ▫ Mobile ▫ Soluble in fats ▫ Biologically active
  40. 40. Impact • Some of the increasing levels include mercury and DDT, chemicals that harm organisms • Organisms higher on the food chain absorb more toxins since they eat more • Examples: bald eagle, polar bear • Humans who eat meat can also be affected by the chemicals
  41. 41. Solving the Problem • Unfortunately, scientists don’t know all of the chemicals that cause biomagnification • Chemicals discovered to be harmful are taken off the market, but it might be too late • The only way to eliminate the chemical completely from a food chain is to ban the product and wait.
  42. 42. AP Biology 2008-2009 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Next…
  43. 43. Over-ExploitationOver-Exploitation •Over-exploitation is the excessive hunting or fishing of specific species thatOver-exploitation is the excessive hunting or fishing of specific species that causes their populations to drastically decline.causes their populations to drastically decline.    Over-exploitation of species causes the lossOver-exploitation of species causes the loss of genetic diversity and the loss in the relativeof genetic diversity and the loss in the relative species abundance in an ecosystem.species abundance in an ecosystem.
  44. 44. ExamplesExamples  North Atlantic region commercial fishing has been aNorth Atlantic region commercial fishing has been a problem.problem.  In the 1980’s cod were over fished commerciallyIn the 1980’s cod were over fished commercially  by 1992 the population was less than 1% of its originalby 1992 the population was less than 1% of its original population.population. Other species suchOther species such as blue fin tuna haveas blue fin tuna have experienced a 90%experienced a 90% population decline aspopulation decline as well as the swordfish.well as the swordfish.
  45. 45. ImpactsImpacts  Decline of this speciesDecline of this species  disrupts food webdisrupts food web  affects other speciesaffects other species  alters ecosystemalters ecosystem  For Humans,For Humans,  there will not be enoughthere will not be enough organisms to make a living offorganisms to make a living off  creates job loss.creates job loss. North Atlantic region:North Atlantic region: threatened species of Cod is closethreatened species of Cod is close to disappearanceto disappearance Competition for remaining fishCompetition for remaining fish
  46. 46. SolutionsSolutions  Laws and quotas need to be created and enforcedLaws and quotas need to be created and enforced  Protect species in areas by creating reserves and off limit areas.Protect species in areas by creating reserves and off limit areas.  Individuals:Individuals:  need to be educated about their role in ecological destruction.need to be educated about their role in ecological destruction.  limit their amount of fishing and hunting to create an equilibrium and allow thelimit their amount of fishing and hunting to create an equilibrium and allow the species populations to catch upspecies populations to catch up
  47. 47. AP Biology 2008-2009 QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Next…