AP Biology
Community Ecology
population
ecosystem
community
biosphere
organism
AP Biology
Community Ecology
 Community
 all the organisms that live together in a
place
 interactions
 Community Ecol...
AP Biology
Fundamental
niches
Realized
niches
High tide
Low tide
Species 1
Species 2
Niche
 An organism’s niche is its ec...
AP Biology
Niche & competition
 Competitive Exclusion
 No two similar species can occupy the
same niche at the same time
AP Biology
Resource partitioning
Reduce competition through microhabitats
“the ghost of
competition past”
“the ghost of
co...
AP Biology
Interspecific interactions
 Symbiotic interactions
 competition (-/-)
 compete for limited resource
 compet...
AP Biology
commensalism
predation competition
Symbiosis
mutualism
…not very funny
for a clown fish
+/0
+/+
+/- -/-
AP Biology
What relationship is this?
AP Biology
Predation drives evolution
 Predators adaptations
 locate & subdue prey
 Prey adaptations
 elude & defend
s...
AP Biology
Anti-predator adaptations
 Hide from predators
 avoid detection
 camouflage
 Warn predators
 advertise how...
AP Biology
Defense mechanisms
 Camouflage
 cryptic coloration
whipporwill
lizard
toadlizard
frog
AP Biology
Mimicry
palatable or harmless species
mimics a harmful model
palatable or harmless species
mimics a harmful mod...
AP Biology
Batesian mimicry
Monarch male
poisonous
Convergent evolutionConvergent evolution
fly bee moth bee
Which is the ...
AP Biology
Mullerian mimicry
yellow jacket
cuckoo bee
two or more protected
species look like each other
two or more prote...
AP Biology
Common warning coloration
 Aposematic species come to resemble each other
black, red,
orange & yellow
means:
D...
AP Biology
What kind of mimicry?
Coral snake
is poisonous
King snake is not
Red on yellow, poison fellow;
red on black, sa...
AP Biology
Coevolution in Community
 Predator-prey relationships
 Parasite-host relationships
 Flowers & pollinators
Lo...
AP Biology
Characterizing a community
 Community structure
 species diversity
 how many different species
 composition...
AP Biology
Species diversity
greater diversity = greater stability
 Greater biodiversity
offers:
 more food
resources
 ...
AP Biology
suburban lawnagricultural
“monoculture”
The impact of reduced biodiversity
“old field”
compare these communitie...
AP Biology
 Influential ecological role
 exert important
regulating effect
on other species
in community
 keystone
spec...
AP Biology
Keystone species
Sea otter is a
keystone
predator in
North Pacific
Sea otter is a
keystone
predator in
North Pa...
AP Biology
Keystone species
Beaver is a
keystone species in
Northeast & West
Beaver is a
keystone species in
Northeast & W...
AP Biology
Ecological succession
 Sequence of community changes
 transition in species composition over time
 years or ...
AP Biology
Primary succession
 Begins with
virtually
lifeless area
without soil,
then…
 bacteria
 lichens &
mosses
 gr...
AP Biology
Secondary succession
 Existing community cleared,
but base soil is still intact
burning releases
nutrients for...
AP Biology
Succession of species
lichens & mosses grasses
treesbushes & small trees
pioneer species
climax forest
compete ...
AP Biology
What causes succession?
 Tolerance
 early species are weedy r-selected
 tolerant of harsh conditions
 Facil...
AP Biology
Climax forest
 Plant community dominated by trees
 Representing final stage of natural
succession for specifi...
AP Biology
Climax forest
 solar energy levels
 temperature
 rainfall
 fertility & depth of soil
The species mix of
cli...
AP Biology
Disturbances as natural cycle
 Disturbances are often necessary for
community development & survival
- release...
AP Biology
Fire climax species
Jack PineJack Pine
adaptations to survive
and reproduce in areas
than experience
frequent f...
AP Biology
When people don’t learn ecology!
Building homes in fire climax zones
preventing fires
makes next year’s
fire mu...
2007-2008AP Biology
Don’t blow
your top!
Ask
Questions!
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  • Resource partitioning among Dominican Republic lizards. Seven species of Anolis lizards live in close proximity, and all feed on insects and other small arthropods. However, competition for food is reduced because each lizard species has a different perch, thus occupying a distinct niche. Sympatric species often partition available resources, reducing competition between them.
  • clown fish & sea anemone ants & acacia impala & oxpeckers
  • Predation provides a strong selective pressure on prey populations. Ay feature that would decrease the probability of capture should be strongly favored.
  • In the early 1970's, a new corn genotype was released in the US; the "Texas male sterile" (TMS). Hybrids that contained this new characteristic had many desirable properties, and growers were excited about them, planting them over miles and miles of corn acreage in US. They were, of course, bred to be resistant to the most common corn diseases. However, they were not resistant to a previously unimportant strain of a fungal disease; the southern corn leaf blight (caused by the fungus Helminthosporium maydis ). Ninety percent of the corn sowed in the US in 1970 contained the TMS trait and also shared genetic susceptibility to this pathogen. The fungus encountered all this acreage of susceptible host and wiped out one fourth of the US corn crop in 1970, a loss of over one billion dollars in production! If the corn acreage hadn't been such a monoculture, the fungus wouldn't have been able to spread as rapidly, as it would have encountered barriers of genetically resistant plants.
  • Structure of a community may be controlled bottom-up by nutrients or top-down by predators
  • 17 ch54communityecology2008

    1. 1. AP Biology Community Ecology population ecosystem community biosphere organism
    2. 2. AP Biology Community Ecology  Community  all the organisms that live together in a place  interactions  Community Ecology  study of interactions among all populations in a common environment To answer: In what way do the populations interact? To answer: In what way do the populations interact?
    3. 3. AP Biology Fundamental niches Realized niches High tide Low tide Species 1 Species 2 Niche  An organism’s niche is its ecological role  habitat = address vs. niche = job Competitive Exclusion If Species 2 is removed, then Species 1 will occupy whole tidal zone. But at lower depths Species 2 out-competes Species 1, excluding it from its potential (fundamental) niche. Competitive Exclusion If Species 2 is removed, then Species 1 will occupy whole tidal zone. But at lower depths Species 2 out-competes Species 1, excluding it from its potential (fundamental) niche. Chthamalus sp. Semibalanus sp.
    4. 4. AP Biology Niche & competition  Competitive Exclusion  No two similar species can occupy the same niche at the same time
    5. 5. AP Biology Resource partitioning Reduce competition through microhabitats “the ghost of competition past” “the ghost of competition past”
    6. 6. AP Biology Interspecific interactions  Symbiotic interactions  competition (-/-)  compete for limited resource  competitive exclusion!  predation / parasitism (-/+)  mutualism (+/+)  lichens (algae & fungus)  commensalism (+/0)  barnacles attached to whale
    7. 7. AP Biology commensalism predation competition Symbiosis mutualism …not very funny for a clown fish +/0 +/+ +/- -/-
    8. 8. AP Biology What relationship is this?
    9. 9. AP Biology Predation drives evolution  Predators adaptations  locate & subdue prey  Prey adaptations  elude & defend spines, thorns, toxins horns, speed, coloration Predation provides a strong selection pressure on both prey & predator Predation provides a strong selection pressure on both prey & predator
    10. 10. AP Biology Anti-predator adaptations  Hide from predators  avoid detection  camouflage  Warn predators  advertise how undesirable you are as prey  aposematic coloration  apo = away & sematic = sign/meaning  Batesian mimicry  Mullerian mimicry
    11. 11. AP Biology Defense mechanisms  Camouflage  cryptic coloration whipporwill lizard toadlizard frog
    12. 12. AP Biology Mimicry palatable or harmless species mimics a harmful model palatable or harmless species mimics a harmful model Hawkmoth larva puffs up toHawkmoth larva puffs up to look like poisonous snakelook like poisonous snake Hawkmoth larva puffs up toHawkmoth larva puffs up to look like poisonous snakelook like poisonous snake Batesian mimicryBatesian mimicry hawkmoth larvae green parrot snake Convergent evolutionConvergent evolution
    13. 13. AP Biology Batesian mimicry Monarch male poisonous Convergent evolutionConvergent evolution fly bee moth bee Which is the fly vs. the bee?Which is the moth vs. the bee? Viceroy male edible
    14. 14. AP Biology Mullerian mimicry yellow jacket cuckoo bee two or more protected species look like each other two or more protected species look like each other - group defense?- group defense? - predators may evolve innate avoidance- predators may evolve innate avoidance - group defense?- group defense? - predators may evolve innate avoidance- predators may evolve innate avoidanceMullerian mimicry
    15. 15. AP Biology Common warning coloration  Aposematic species come to resemble each other black, red, orange & yellow means: DON’T EAT ME!
    16. 16. AP Biology What kind of mimicry? Coral snake is poisonous King snake is not Red on yellow, poison fellow; red on black, safe from attack
    17. 17. AP Biology Coevolution in Community  Predator-prey relationships  Parasite-host relationships  Flowers & pollinators Long term evolutionary adjustments between speciesLong term evolutionary adjustments between species
    18. 18. AP Biology Characterizing a community  Community structure  species diversity  how many different species  composition  dominant species  most abundant species or highest biomass (total weight)  keystone species  changes over time  succession
    19. 19. AP Biology Species diversity greater diversity = greater stability  Greater biodiversity offers:  more food resources  more habitats  more resilience in face of environmental change
    20. 20. AP Biology suburban lawnagricultural “monoculture” The impact of reduced biodiversity “old field” compare these communitiescompare these communities  Irish potato famine  1970 US corn crop failure  Irish potato famine  1970 US corn crop failure
    21. 21. AP Biology  Influential ecological role  exert important regulating effect on other species in community  keystone species increases diversity in habitat Keystone species Pisaster ochraceous Sea star diversity decreases mussels out-compete other species diversity increases Washington coast
    22. 22. AP Biology Keystone species Sea otter is a keystone predator in North Pacific Sea otter is a keystone predator in North Pacific What is theWhat is the impact of theimpact of the Orca whale?Orca whale? What is theWhat is the impact of theimpact of the Orca whale?Orca whale?
    23. 23. AP Biology Keystone species Beaver is a keystone species in Northeast & West Beaver is a keystone species in Northeast & West dams transform flowing streams into ponds creating new habitatdams transform flowing streams into ponds creating new habitatdams transform flowing streams into ponds creating new habitatdams transform flowing streams into ponds creating new habitat
    24. 24. AP Biology Ecological succession  Sequence of community changes  transition in species composition over time  years or decades  usually after a disturbance Mt. St. Helens
    25. 25. AP Biology Primary succession  Begins with virtually lifeless area without soil, then…  bacteria  lichens & mosses  grasses  shrubs  trees make soil {
    26. 26. AP Biology Secondary succession  Existing community cleared, but base soil is still intact burning releases nutrients formerly locked up in the tissues of tree burning releases nutrients formerly locked up in the tissues of tree the disturbance starts the process of succession over again the disturbance starts the process of succession over again
    27. 27. AP Biology Succession of species lichens & mosses grasses treesbushes & small trees pioneer species climax forest compete well in high sunlight more shade tolerant species shade tolerant species stable community
    28. 28. AP Biology What causes succession?  Tolerance  early species are weedy r-selected  tolerant of harsh conditions  Facilitation & Inhibition  early species facilitate habitat changes  change soil pH  change soil fertility  change light levels  allows other species to out-compete
    29. 29. AP Biology Climax forest  Plant community dominated by trees  Representing final stage of natural succession for specific location  stable plant community  remains essentially unchanged in species composition as long as site remains undisturbed  birch, beech, maple, hemlock  oak, hickory, pine
    30. 30. AP Biology Climax forest  solar energy levels  temperature  rainfall  fertility & depth of soil The species mix of climax forest is dependent on the abiotic factors of the region temperate deciduous forest birch, beech, maple, hemlock taiga
    31. 31. AP Biology Disturbances as natural cycle  Disturbances are often necessary for community development & survival - release nutrients - increases biodiversity - release nutrients - increases biodiversity - increases habitats - rejuvenates community - increases habitats - rejuvenates community fire climax forestsfire climax forests
    32. 32. AP Biology Fire climax species Jack PineJack Pine adaptations to survive and reproduce in areas than experience frequent fires adaptations to survive and reproduce in areas than experience frequent fires
    33. 33. AP Biology When people don’t learn ecology! Building homes in fire climax zones preventing fires makes next year’s fire much worse! preventing fires makes next year’s fire much worse!
    34. 34. 2007-2008AP Biology Don’t blow your top! Ask Questions!

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