Sports textile is one of the branches of technical textile. Now a day’s sophisticated technology are
used in technical textile to produce sportswear. Textile has done it successfully. Hi-tech textiles in
sport are nothing new. In recent years we have seen the design of fabrics that can take moisture
away from the body, patches on all black jerseys so players can dry their hands for better grip,
fabrics that can sense high impact stresses on players joints, and fabrics that can sense heart rate,
temperature and other physiological data.
Trade Name of Sportswear:
14. Sport wool
History use of synthetic yarn in sportswear:
The origins of sportswear were in the 19th century and come from the established practice of
dressing for a particular occasion or activity. This produced distinct modes of dress, such as the
riding habit for horse riding. During the mid-19th century, however, with rapid industrialization in
Europe and the United States, new forms of recreational activities were espoused by those who
could afford them. Recreation was a luxury for most people and dressing for sport signiﬁed a social
status and position that were reassuringly exclusive to the early patrons of sportswear. At first
polyester is used in sportswear.
The dramatic growth in sportswear market has significant implications for the textile
industry. Spending in the UK alone exceeded £4 billion in 2002 and is predicted to reach £5 billion
in 2007. The sector ranges from specialist apparel for specific sports to sportswear worn for its
fashion value. Different sports require garments to fulfill different functions. For example wind
proofing and high thermal insulation are required for skiwear, whereas efficient thermoregulation
and moisture management are required in football shirts.
Types of synthetic yarn used in sports wear:
Itis the single most popular and common fibre used in sportswear. In its
unfinished state polyester is hydrophobic, it has a very low absorption capacity and rate
compared with cotton. However its wicking rate is faster than that of cotton albeit still slow. It is
also cheap to manufacture and considered easy care. It possesses excellent washing and wearing
properties. Where polyester is used against the skin it is generally treated to improve its wicking
ability. This can be achieved by applying a hydrophilic coating to a polyester filament. With a
hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic surface moisture will migrate along the outer surface of the
filament without absorbing moisture. However these coatings are not durable to long term
laundering. An alternative method is to change the surface chemistry of the polyester filament by
molecular modification. This method is more expensive but it has the advantage of being
permanent. Any finish which increases hydrophilicity also increases the ability of the fabric to
release soil. Fabrics made from polyester are exceptionally durable to mechanical and chemical
degradation during repeated wash/wear cycles. Some special type and shape, as well as
modifications of polyester fibres are discussed separately in this review.
100% Polyester fabric
Nike Terrell Owens Tennessee ChattanoogaNike 2014 Ryder Cup Tech Blank Adjustable Performance
Hat - Light Blue
80 Greats and Glory Replica Football Jersey - Royal Blue
N Addidas pant used 100% polyester
Nike Florida Gators Replica Baseball Jersey - RoyalBlue
Nike Brazilian national football jersey
Nike Fb Barcelona football jersey
ELASTHANE/SPANDEX: Elastomeric fibres such as spandex are generally used in
small quantities in a garment to significantly increase stretch and to increase support.
Swimwear may contain 15 – 40% of elastomeric fibre with knitted sportswear containing 3 –
10%. Consumers commonly know spandex as Lycra®, manufactured by DuPont, and
Glospan® and Cleerspan® manufactured by Globe Manufacturing. Elastomeric fibres do not
add to the thermo physiological comfort of the garment in which they are incorporated.
Training & Jogging Wear
Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. Good resistance to
abrasionNonconductive, sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, high tenacity, low elongation at break
(~3.5%) . aramids used in Cycling, Motorcycling, Sailing, Boating ,Hiking, Skiing sports wear
Skiing sportswear which made by aramids
ACRYLIC:Acrylic fibres are generally only used in sportswear in the form of high pile fleece
fabrics. Acrylic fibres are crimped creating bulky fabrics with good thermal insulation. They have
low water absorbency but will wick liquid sweat. They are also lightweight however acrylic fabrics
are prone to static build up and have a tendency to pill during wear.
50% Merino wool/50% Acrylic
Nike 2013 PGA Championship
Ladies V-Neck Sweater - Charcoal
NYLON:Polyamide fibres such as Nylon 6 and Nylon 6,6have higher moisture absorption
capability than polyester, have better wicking ability but have a slower drying rate. Polyamide
fibres are exceptionally strong fibres with high abrasion resistance, and high flexibility and
elasticity. They are relatively more expensive than polyester and hence their use tends to be
restricted to swimwear or cycling wear or as a reinforcing fibre in blends in sports socks. When
polyamide fibres are used in a tightly woven fabric they have very low air permeability making
them an ideal light-weight material for windbreaker jackets and for the outer shell of ski garments.
Howeverthe low moisture vapor permeability of such fabrics mean they can be uncomfortable
when worn against the skin. There are also a number of variants available in polyamide fibres,
such as anti-microbial, high wicking, extra soft etc.
Nike Arkansas Razorbacks #8 Replica Football
Jersey – Cardinal
Polypropylene fibres are increasingly being used in the sportswear market although its
market share is still very small. The fibres have very low moisture absorbency but excellent
moisture vapor permeability and wicking capabilities. Insensible and liquid perspiration are
Transported away from the skin without being absorbed making it an ideal fibre for
sportswear. As polypropylene does not become wet its thermal insulation is retained during
and after strenuous activity. Polypropylene is also a very light weight fibre and, unlike
polyester, does not produce static.
Special synthetic yarn used in sportswear:
Synthetic fibres can be adapted during manufacture to improve their thermo physiological and
sensorial properties.Many different techniques exist; additional substances or block polymers can
be added to the base polymer before extrusion; fibres can be extruded with different cross
sections; and fibres can be coated.
One of the most common adaptations for improved comfort is the use of microfibers with linear
densities of much less than 1dtex per filament. Super fine fibres or microfibers enable very dense
fabrics to be created in which theand fibres can be coated fibre surface area is significantly
increased and the space between the fibres reduced. This acts to increase capillary action leading
to better thermoregulation.
Carbon Fiber in Sports:
Here are some of the sports applications in which carbon fiber is used:
Ice hockey sticks
Arrows in archery
Blended synthetic yarn:
By blending two or more fibres in one yarn it is possible to improve the thermo physiological
properties of the individual components. Knitted fabrics made from polyester/wool blends or
polypropylene/wool blends can improve wicking and insulation properties within a single
layer fabric structure.
One example are the yarns made by Optimer which are made from a blend of 85 – 90% of a low
moisture absorber such as polyester, and 10 – 15% of a hydrophilic staple fibre such as cotton.
The resultant fabrics have a soft handle, are wettable and wick but have low absorbency.
By blending synthetic and natural fibres other performance properties can be incorporated such
using anti-odor or anti-microbial additives in the synthetic component.
Given below some example used blended yarn in sportswear with suitable picture
91% Nylon/9% Spandex body 88% Nylon/12% Spandex mesh
Nike 12th Man Seattle
Seahawks Elite Jersey - Navy Blue
100% Recycled polyester body; 83% Recycled polyester/17% Rayon back panel; 99%
Recycled polyester; 1% other fiber back panel mesh pattern
Nike Kevin Durant USA Basketball 2012 Replica Jersey - Navy Blue
50% Polyester/25% Cotton/25% Rayon
Nike USA Women's Terminator Tri-Blend Premium T-Shirt – Ash
100% Recycled polyester body; 83% Recycled polyester/17% Rayon back panel; 99%
Recycled polyester; 1% Other fiber back panel mesh pattern
Nike Russell Westbrook USA Basketball 2012 Replica Jersey - White
91% Polyester/9% Elastane shell
100% Polyester lining
Affliction Training Spec 4-Way Stretch Board short
88% Polyester/12% Spandex
UFC 145 Jon Jones Walkout Lateral Sports Performance Training Top - Imperial Blue/Black