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  1. 1. Photographic Principles Photography for MultimediaB.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing Media Technologies
  2. 2. Agenda  Photography Evolution  Camera Types  Lens Principles  Exposure Control  LensesB.Sc. (Hons) Multimedia Computing Media Technologies
  3. 3. The first photograph (Niepce, 1816)
  4. 4. Early photograph (Daguerre, 1830’s)
  5. 5. 35mm:Nikon F2AS (Film)
  6. 6. 35mm : Nikon F6 (Film)
  7. 7. 35mm:Nikon DX2s Digital (12MP)
  8. 8. Medium Format: Film 6 x 6 cm
  9. 9. Medium Format: Digital 39MP
  10. 10. Large Format Film:5x4 & 10x8
  11. 11. Large Format Digital
  12. 12. Premise Even the World’s most sophisticated camera is in essence just a light-tight box
  13. 13. Fundamentals Expose the light sensitive material with a quantity of light for a given timeFilm, or… Digital – it’s the same concept
  14. 14. Camera Principles Light-tight enclosure light Light sensitive material
  15. 15. Camera Obscura
  16. 16. The Pinhole Camera
  17. 17. Camera PrinciplesScene Image Resulting image is mirrored and inverted Small aperture results in very long exposures Light Rays Pinhole Camera
  18. 18. Camera PrinciplesScene Image Increasing the pinhole size provides more light to shorten exposure times but introduces distortion of light rays resulting in poor Light Rays Pinhole image quality Camera
  19. 19. Lens PrinciplesScene Image Simple lens refracts light to reduce distortions Light Rays Simple Lens
  20. 20. Lens PrinciplesScene Image Compound lens designed to control variety of lens aberrations which Light Rays affect both image Compound Lens sharpness and colour
  21. 21. Camera Elements Lens Shutter Viewfinder system Focusing mechanism Transport Light Meter
  22. 22. Basic Elements of a Camera viewfindertransport shutter aperture lenslightsensitivemedium focusing mechanism
  23. 23. Camera Types Rangefinders Single Lens Reflex (SLR) Twin Lens Reflex (TLR) Monorail
  24. 24. Rangefinder
  25. 25. Single Lens Reflex
  26. 26. Twin Lens Reflex (Medium Format) Viewing Lens Taking Lens
  27. 27. Monorail: 5 x 4 & 10 x 8
  28. 28. 35mm v Medium Format
  29. 29. Exposure Control Aperture value controls amount of light Shutter speed controls duration exposure of time Combination of aperture and shutter speed gives correct exposure - for a particular light sensitivity Combination defined as an exposure value (EV) Standard light sensitivity is 100 ISO (ASA) Higher light sensitivity provide faster exposure times Lower light sensitivity provide slower exposure times Fast film has a more grainy structure than slow film
  30. 30. Exposure Control: Aperture Aperture controls amount of light via lens iris Iris adjusted by changing aperture value on lens Large f number = smaller iris size = less light Small f number = larger iris size = more light
  31. 31. Aperture Control
  32. 32. Exposure Control: Shutter Shutter controls time light exposed to medium Typical ranges 1 second - 1/2000th sec Shorter (faster) shutter speeds = less time Longer (slower) shutter speeds = more time Shutter positioned at the focal plane or between the lens (medium format) Focal plane shutters can be horizontal run or vertical run
  33. 33. Exposure Balancef stop shutter speed Sensitivity of filmf 5.6 1 / 500th 100 ISO
  34. 34. Exposure Balancef8 1 / 250thf 11 100 ISO 1 / 250thf8 200 ISO 1 / 500th 200 ISO
  35. 35. Exposure Balance: Three-Way Exposure balanced between medium sensitivity aperture value and shutter speed Double or half the sensitivity = one ‘stop’ Double or half the shutter speed = one stop Aperture values change by a factor of 1.4 = one stop
  36. 36. Exposure Modes Manual - you set aperture and shutter speed based on light reading Aperture Priority - you set aperture and camera calculates and sets the shutter speed based on light reading Shutter Priority - you set the shutter speed and camera calculates and selects aperture based on light reading Fully Programmed - Camera selects both aperture and shutter speed based on light reading
  37. 37. Lenses Lenses interchangeable on SLR cameras Lens bayonet - mounts to camera body Each manufacture’s lens mount is unique Lenses available from independent lens manufactures and for several different lens mount Lenses provided by independent manufactures are generally less expensive than camera’s own brand May not be as good optically or have same build quality as cameras own brand lenses
  38. 38. Standard Lenses (35mm)50mm f1.8 50mm f1.4 50mm f1.2
  39. 39. Wide Angle Lenses28mm F 2.8 20mm F 3.5 15mm F 3.5
  40. 40. Telephoto85 mm F 2 85 mm F 1.4 300 mm F4.5
  41. 41. Lens Features: Angle of View
  42. 42. Angle of View for 35mm 50mm provides natural perspectiveShorter focal length lenses have angle of view which gives for the 35mm formatsteeper perspectiveLonger focal length lenses have narrow angle of view whichgives flatter perspective
  43. 43. Advanced features Autofocus Image stabilisation Intelligent recognition of faces and scenes
  44. 44. Autofocus (1) – Blurred image
  45. 45. Autofocus (2) – sharp image
  46. 46. Autofocus (3) The microprocessor in the camera looks at the strip of pixels and looks at the difference in intensity among the adjacent pixels. If the scene is out of focus, adjacent pixels have very similar intensities. The microprocessor moves the lens, looks at the CCDs pixels again and sees if the difference in intensity between adjacent pixels improved or got worse. The microprocessor then searches for the point where there is maximum intensity difference between adjacent pixels -- thats the point of best focus. Look at the difference in the pixels in the two red boxes above: In the upper box, the difference in intensity between adjacent pixels is very slight, while in the bottom box it is much greater. That is what the microprocessor is looking for as it drives the lens back and forth.
  47. 47. Autofocus (4) Passive autofocus must have light and image contrast in order to do its job. The image needs to have some detail in it that provides contrast. If you try to take a picture of a blank wall or a large object of uniform color, the camera cannot compare adjacent pixels so it cannot focus. There is no distance-to-subject limitation with passive autofocus like there is with the infrared beam of an active autofocus system. Passive autofocus also works fine through a window, since the system "sees" the subject through the window just like you do. (Courtesy How Stuff Works)
  48. 48. Image stabilisation Canon’s newly developed Hybrid IS technology optimally compensates for angular camera shake (rotational) and shift camera shake (linear). Sudden changes in camera angle can cause significant blur in images taken during standard shooting, whereas blur caused by shift-based shaking, when a camera moves parallel to the subject, is more pronounced in macro and other close-up photography.
  49. 49. IS: How is it done? The new Hybrid IS technology incorporates an angular velocity sensor that detects the extent of angular camera shake which is found in all previous optical Image Stabilizer mechanisms, as well as a new acceleration sensor that determines the amount of shift-based camera shake. Hybrid IS also employs a newly developed algorithm that combines the output of the two sensors and moves the lens elements to compensate for both types of movement. Hybrid IS dramatically enhances the effects of Image Stabilizer especially during macro shooting, which is difficult for conventional image stabilisation technologies.
  50. 50. Intelligent recognition
  51. 51. Equipment Taking pictures  Cameras (bodies)  Lenses: fix focal and zoom lenses  Lightmeters  Flashguns  Motordrives  Gadgets (tripods, filters, bags, close-up equipment Developing pictures  Darkroom ( dry and wet equipment)  Developing tanks, spools  Enlargers ( lenses)
  52. 52. References  Digital Multimedia 3rd Edition Chapman N. Chapman J. Wiley. 2004      (Hons) Multimedia Computing Media Technologies