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Tuna processing - Precooking step

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  1. 1. T U N AProcessing<br />By: <br />Sayed Naim KHALID<br />
  2. 2. Table of contents:<br />Objective<br />Introduction<br />Statistics<br />Nutritional values<br />Methods of catching(fishing)<br />Processing diagram<br />Precooking<br />Laws and regulations<br />references<br />2<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />
  3. 3. Objective<br />We are going to explain the precooking process in the Tuna processing and production<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Introduction<br />Tuna is greatly produced in some countries like USA, Japan, Thailand<br />It has high nutritional values and the high demand in the market<br />It can be found as smoked, dried, brined and fresh<br />4<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />
  5. 5. Stats:<br />5<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />Source: (1)<br />
  6. 6. Stats:<br />6<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />Source: (1)<br />
  7. 7. CannedTuna Nutrition Facts<br />7<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />Source: (1)<br />
  8. 8. Methods of CatchingTuna<br />PurseSeining - جال<br />Longliningد اوږدو تارونو او چنګکونو په واسطه- <br />Pole and Line د کښتۍ په واسطه ـ <br />Soon after fishing:<br />Tuna are rapidly, unhooked, cooled in refrigerated seawater or chilled brine or stored in blast or spray bine freezer . They are then frozen.<br />8<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />Source: (1)<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />Sources: (1, 2)<br />
  10. 10. Precooking Definition<br />Precooking is a critical thermal processes before retorting.After the thawing and butchering processes, tuna are cooked using atmospheric steam (100–102 °C) in rectangular-shaped steel chambers, a process commonly known as precooking.<br />Precooking time is governed by fish size, initial temperature, an d desired endpoint or target temperature.<br />Heat transfer through tuna during the precooking and cooling process is considered a heat conduction process with convective boundary conditions.<br />10<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />Source: (2)<br />
  11. 11. The target temperature of the tuna at the thickest point of the fish,as measured along the backbone,rangesfrom 50 to 70 °C depending on a number of factors including raw material quality and tunaspecies.<br />The time to reach the target temperature ranges from 1 h for small fish to over 8 h for large fish.<br />11<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />Source: (2)<br />
  12. 12. Températures thatshouldbeconsidered in precooking:<br />12<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />Source: (2)<br />
  13. 13. When precooking is complete, the steam is turned off and the fish are removed from the cooker and cooled in ambient temperature air until they reach a core temperatureof 32–38 °C.<br />13<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />Source: (2)<br />
  14. 14. Disadvantages:<br />Oxidation<br />Discoloration of surface<br />Hardening of surface create problem for filling<br />Attack of MO and enzymes degradation<br />Advantages:<br />Yield<br />a. remove muscle water – (avoid can rejection =more water and low fill)<br />b. Reduce skinning labour<br />2. Quality<br />a. more and consistently better loins. <br />14<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />Sources: (1, 2)<br />
  15. 15. Laws and Regulations<br />CODEX STANDARD FOR CANNED TUNA AND BONITO - CODEX STAN 70-1981, REV.1-1995<br />US cannedtuna standard - INCH-POUND , A-A-20155A, November 16, 1992, SUPERSEDING, A-A-20155, April 28, 1989<br />HACCP - Code of Federal Regulations , Chapter 21 -- Part 123 (21 CFR 123), FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS "Mandatory Seafood HACCP Regulations" <br />Thailand'scannedtuna standard - ThaiIndustrial Standard, TIS 142-2530(1987) , Standard for Cannedtuna<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />15<br />Source: (1)<br />
  16. 16. Canned Tuna Product identity CFR 21 Part 161.190<br />Food Additives-Codex<br />16<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />Double click for file<br />Source: (1)<br />
  17. 17. Reference(consultation date:23.04.2011) -<br />Tuna Production<br />http://www.foodmarketexchange.com/datacenter/product/seafood/tuna/dc_pi_sf_tuna01.htm<br />2. Precooking and Cooling of Skipjack Tuna<br />http://www.dspace.espol.edu.ec/bitstream/123456789/14620/17/17%20APENDICE%20D1.pdf<br />3. Photo (fish) from Tuna CAL TM<br />http://www.jbtfoodtech.com/Solutions/Equipment/Sterilizers/Thermal-Process-Modeling/LOG-TEC/~/media/JBT%20FoodTech/Files/Brochures%20Canning/TunaCal/TunaCal%20Brochure%20English.ashx<br />17<br />Food Processing Diagram - SF2M<br />