PHISIOLOGY (SBF 3013) SEMESTER 2 2011/2012 MINI PROJECT : SEED GERMINATION DATE OF SUBMISSION : 18th May 2012 LECTURER’S NAME : DR NORJAN BINTI YUSOF GROUP : A GROUP MEMBERS : MARLISA BINTI SAU D20101037418 NUR HAYATI BINTI YUSOFF D20101037439NORFARRAHDILAH BINTI AMIR D20101037438SITI SALWA BINTI ABDULLAH D20101037439
Title :Seed germinationBackground of study : Seeds wait to germinate until three needs are met that are water, correct temperature, anda good location such as in soil. During its early stages of growth, the seedling relies upon thefood supplies stored with it in the seed until it is large enough for its own leaves to begin makingfood through photosynthesis. For that, we will come up with their own variables to test thehypothesis that made and then conduct the experiment. We will also examine the numerousabiotic and biotic factors that affect seed germination and plant survival. Generally, problemswith soil, water, or fertilizer often limit plant growth. It takes several weeks to germinate seedsand grow seedlings. Every other day, we need to spend a few minutes checking their seeds forgermination and recording data. So, we start the observation and research to find out what typesof nutrients that plants really need to promote a better grow. We apply the scientific method inthis research.Objective1. To study the effect of water, fertilizer and houguland solution in the growth of the plants.2. To determine which factor that effect plant’s growth.3. To be able to apply the scientific method while doing this experiment.HypothesisThe plants with houguland solution will growth healthy and fresh compare to plant with fertilizerand water.
Methodology1. DesignThe experiments used three different factors that effect the growth of the plant which are water,fertilizer and houguland solution.2. ApparatusSoil, seed of okra plant, organic fertilizer, polybag and houguland solution.3. ProcedureThis experiment starts with germination of the seed of okra plant. Nine polybag is used wherethree polybag is used for control, three polybag for fertilizer and the other three for hougulandsolution. The first week all the plants are supplied with water only. After a week, the threepolybag is supplied with organic fertilizer and the other three is supplied with hougulandsolution. The three remaining polybag is used as a control for this experiment. The organicfertilizer and the houguland solution are added to the plant once a week. The length and width ofleaves of the okra plant is measured and the number of leaves is calculated. The experiment isobserved for four week and all the result is tabulated in the table.
Discussion The ovule matures into a seed before it is dispersed from the parent plant. The seed is themature ovule and consists of a seed coat, endorsperm and embryo. In angiosperms it is enclosedwithin a fruit. The structure of seed contains seed coat and endosperm. The seed coat is known asthe testa that normally formed from one or both interguments whereas the endosperm is triploidcell which dividing immediately after fertilization and sometimes an acellular mass is forming.After the first transverse cell division, the upper cell forms the shoot, cotyledons and also theroot. The germination of the seeds is important stages in plant growth. Even though the embryo isformed and has its primary tissue well develops, the mature seed may be stored for varyingperiods of time and still retain its viability. Viability is the abilty of seed to germinate. Onlywhen the proper environmental conditions are provided, the seed revitalized and produced aseedling. The environmental requisites for seed germination include suitable oxygenconcentrations, temperatures, moisture, and in some cases light. When those requirements arefulfill, water penetrated the seed, the tissues of the endosperm consisting of stored foods likemacromolecules of starch, protein or lipids and cotyledons start the metabolic process called thedigestion. The breakdown of these macromolecules into their simpler components. We can see through naked eye, the imbition process produced a swollen seed, with a largeincrease in volumes and weight simply from the uptake of water. The growing point of the shootabove the point of cotyledon attachment is called the epicotyls, and the section of stem below thecotyledons is called the hypocotyls. At the base of the hypocotyls, the transition zone separatesthe shoot from the root. The growing tip of the epicotyls is usually reffered to as the plumule.
Picture 1 : Seed germination A majority of growing plants contains as much as 90 percent water. Water is one of themost essential factors required in growth of plants. Water plays a crucial role for efficientphotosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and transportation of minerals and other nutrientsthrough the plant. Water is also responsible for functioning of the stomata opening of leaves andalso the source of pressure for the directed growth of roots through the soil. If a plant’s soil hastoo much water, the roots can rot and the plant cannot get enough oxygen from the soil. If thereis not enough water for a plant, the nutrients it needs cannot travel through the plant. A plantcannot grow if it does not have healthy roots, so the proper balance of water is key whengrowing plants. Organic fertilizers are naturally occurring fertilizers for example compost, manure, ornaturally occurring mineral deposits. The naturally occurring organic fertilizer includes manure,slurry, worm castings, peat, seaweed, humic acid, and guano. Organic fertilizers will helpimprove the soil of plants. Healthy soil is the long term key to success of growth of plants.Without fertile soil, plants cannot thrive. We have to keep the soil healthy and replenished withrich, natural minerals and organic matter and everything else will grow healthy and strong.
Organic fertilizers do not contain nutrients in easily usable form. When they are mixedinto the soil, the microorganisms like bacteria that are in the soil, have to work on the fertilizer,break it up and release the nutrients. This is a slow process and so there is no danger that toomany nutrients are ever available to the plant. As such there is no chance for a ‘plant burn’ whenorganic fertilizers are used. Since organic fertilizers need these microbes to work on them torelease the nutrients, they end up stimulating the growth of these microorganisms, ensuring longterm fertility of the soil. Nutrition is just as important in plants. Cellular metabolism leading to the production ofthe organic molecules characteristic of all life requires only a few essential elements. In spite ofthis chemical and geological diversity, only sixteen elements are considered essential for allplants. Each element, whether a macroelement or microelement, does have a specific function inseed plant growth. All these nutrients we called it as houguland. Each of these nutrients has acritical function in plants and is required in varying amounts in plant tissue. Macronutrientsnutrients required in the largest amount in plants. It can be broken into two more groups whichthe primary nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. These major nutrients usually arelacking from the soil first because plants use large amounts for their growth and survival. Thesecondary nutrients are calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. There are usually enough of thesenutrients in the soil so fertilization is not always needed. Micronutrients like iron, copper, manganese, zinc, boron, molybdenum and chlorine arerequired in relatively smaller amounts. Additional mineral nutrient elements which are beneficialto plants but not necessarily essential include sodium, cobalt, vanadium, nickel, selenium,aluminum and silicon. The nutrient elements differ in the form they are absorbed by the plant, bytheir functions in the plant, by their mobility in the plant and by the plant deficiency or toxicitysymptoms characteristic of the nutrient. Plants require 13 mineral nutrient elements for growth. The elements that are required ornecessary for plants to complete their life cycle are called essential plant nutrients. Additionalmineral nutrient elements which are beneficial to plants but not necessarily essential includesodium, cobalt, vanadium, nickel, selenium, aluminum and silicon. Apart from the mineralnutrients, plants also required the non-minerals nutrients to promote their growth. These non-mineral nutrients are such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The nutrient elements differ in the
form they are absorbed by the plant, by their functions in the plant, by their mobility in the plantand by the plant deficiency or toxicity symptoms characteristic of the nutrient. When some of these nutrients are not being well diffuse into the plants, this situation canlead to plant nutrients deficiency or toxicity. Nutrient deficiency or toxicity symptoms oftendiffer among species and varieties of plants. A nutrient deficiency occurs when the nutrient is notin sufficient quantity to meet the needs of the growing plant. Nutrient toxicity occur when a plantnutrient is in excess and decreases plant growth or quality. One way to understand thedifferences in nutrient deficiency symptoms among the plants is by knowing the function and therelative mobility of the nutrient within the plant. Table 3 describes the general symptoms ofnutrient deficiency and excess often observed for those nutrients. Some nutrients, such asnitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, chlorine and zinc, can be easily remobilized withinthe plant from old plant parts to actively growing plant parts such as young leaves. Othernutrients, such as sulphur, iron, copper, manganese, boron and calcium, are not easilyremobilized within the plant. Therefore, the deficiency of the mobile elements usually initiallyoccurs with older leaves while that of the immobile nutrients occurs with the young leaves orstem tips. There are five types of deficiency or toxicity symptoms that usually can be observed onplants. The first one is chlorosis where some parts of the plants tissue become yellow tissue dueto limitations on chlorophyll synthesis. This yellowing can be generalized over the entire plant,localized over entire leaves or isolated between some leaf veins. Contrastly, necrosis is thedisease that the plant tissue dies sometimes in spots. Other than that, plants also easily turn to apurple or reddish colour due to the accumulation of the anthocyanine in their body structure andthe plants are lack of new growth. However, sometimes the new growth continues but it isstunted or reduced compared to normal plants. Sometimes, nutrient deficiencies are mistaken forinsects and disease problems, drought, heat stress, cold stress and salt stress but after someexperience, it becomes easier to spot specific deficiencies in some plants. We measured the height of plants, the width of leaves and the number of leaves everyday.In the second day, we can see all the okra plant only have cotyledons. Then, only the next fewdays the width of the leave can be measure. For the okra plant that is supplied with tap water, theheight of the plant, the width of leave and the number of leave is increase for the first week. Theresult is same for the okra plant that is supplied with houguland solution and organic fertilizer.
Among these three treatments, the okra plant that is served as a control in this experiment has thehighest height which is 5.5 cm. Then in the second week, we can see the change in length of theokra plant where it continues to increase in the length of the plant. The width of the leave alsoincrease but the number of the leave is only increase slightly in the 13th day. The increase in thelength of plant, the width of leave and the number of leave is probably because of the okra plantget enough nutrients that is needed for growth. After two week, we can see the growth of the plant is much growing and fresh. Overall,the result show the length of the okra plant is constantly increasing same as the increasing in thewidth of the okra plant. The number of the leave is not increase every day. The number of leaverise only in certain day. We can see the growth of plant better based on their length and the widthof the plant. At the end of the week 4, we can conclude that the plant that serves as the controlfor this experiment has the highest length compare to the plant that is supplied with the organicfertilizer and houguland solution which is 20 cm for control okra plant, 18.5 cm for okra plantwith the houguland solution and 17 cm is okra plant that supplied with organic fertilizer. Basedon the result obtain, we can calculate the average measurement of the okra plants. For the lengthof the okra plant, the average is around 11.8 cm for plant with tap water, 11.3 cm for the plantthat has houguland solution and 11.0 cm for the plant with the organic fertilizer. The average ofthe width of the plant is around 1.3 cm for plant with the organic fertilizer and 1.8 cm for bothplant that serve as the control for the experiment and the plant with the houguland solution. Besides that, the dry mass for the plant that serve as control is 0.180 g, 0.169 g for plantthat contain organic fertilizatioan and 0.396 g for plant that contain houguland solution. From thedata result, we can see the grow of the plant when treated with tap water shows a greater growthcompared the plant that treated with houguland and fertilizer. In the theory, it state that the plantwith houguland solution will grows fresh and healthy, but from our experiment we get the resultplant that supply with water more fresh and healthy. This may occured due to not get enoughsunlight and the plant is watered not constantly everyday. Other than that, the nutrient inhouguland is probably more than enough that is need for the growth of the plant. That is why thethe length of plant with houguland solution is shorter than the plant with tap water.
Conclusion From our observation and measurements, we found that the hypothesis is not accepted.After completed the experiment, it shows the plant that have been threated with tap water onlyhas the greatest rate of growth compared the houguland and fertilizer treatments. During thisproject, we have learned how to conduct the experiment with scientific methods. Otherwise, agroup cooperation and team work needed to complete this project.
ReferencesDavid R. Hershey (1995). Plant biology science projects. United States : John Wiley & Sons.Roles of the 16 essential nutrients in crop development. Get on May 17, 2012 at http://www.eldoradochemical.com/fertiliz1.htmW.F. Bennett (1993). Nutrient dificiencies & toxicities in crop plant. Get on May 16, 2012 at http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/BotanicalSciences/PlantHormones/Essenti alPlant/EssentialPlant.htmFive advantages for organic fertilizer get at http://edu.udym.com/five-advantages-of-organic- fertilizers/ on Mei 16th 2012.