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AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´
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ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းကိုဘယ္သူသတ္သလဲ
ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းကိုဘယ္သူသတ္သလဲ
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ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းကိုဘယ္သူသတ္သလဲ
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ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းကိုဘယ္သူသတ္သလဲ

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ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းကိုဘယ္သူသတ္သလဲ

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ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းကိုဘယ္သူသတ္သလဲ

  1. 1. AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,f o l o wf o vJ wwd , t}ud r f ðyjyifwnf;jzwfxwa0jcif; k f 1 1 2 2
  2. 2. AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f © rlyif= OD;cifatmif ALL RIGHTS RESERVED dk Ö rsufESmzHk; tjyiftqif cifOD;atmifESihf xGef;vSatmif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,f o l o wf o vJ pma&;ol OD;cifatmif f Ö uGeysLwm &efEkdifpkd; Ö jrefrmbmom (wwd,t}udrf) 2004 jynfhESpf/ atmufwkdbmv Ö xkwfa0ol a':cifrsKd;at;/ ‘acwfòydif’ *sme,f? The New Era Journal P.O Box (115) Raminthra P.O Bangkhen, Bangkok 10220 E-mail : newera@ksc.th.com jref r mbmomjyef o l a'guf w mwif h a 0 a'guf w mat;ausmf Printed in Thailand Ö pmwnf;jzwfol jr0wD&Jacgif Ô ISBN 974-87617-4-6 á *sme,fwurS xkwa0onf? kd f f 3 3 4 4
  3. 3. AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f 19/ 7/ 47 Ô jynfjrefrm a&$tdrfwGif;rSmjzihf rowDp&m ayGvdrfwJh tcif;&,fa-umifh (AdvcsKyfa&æ) k f a&wdrftwGif;rSmrS epf&onf? ? Ô a=omfætcif;ppfvkdufjyefawmh twGi;wESprm avsmuefwenf;awGe‹J f f S f hJ awmfvet+yD;rSm jrefjynfvw&efz‹kd Sf G f }uHpnfrc|wfoaemf tm;tifoHk;vdk‹&,f ykef;vsufppfcsDæ? ? Ô ±kdif;vdkufav rsKd;rppfwJh tcif;ayxifh *dk%f;rdkufawG qdk;npfwJh tcsif;&,feJ‹ rsKd;cspfwoif;udkawmh owfcJh+yDæ? wyfzŒJG ZmenfawGrmawmh S ajcmufewf&Gmodk‹ jref;ºuG+yDwum;æ? jrwfwhJ omuDawG[mrd‹k aemufxyfvmzdk‹ wrf;wonftrsm;æ? ? Ô jzpfa=umif;i,f!¸ef ESpa[mif;uG,veayr,fh f f Gf q,fu;˜cGe˜av;cGe-ESpuawmh h kd f f f kd zefcgcg jyefumppfygv#ijf zifh t+rJwdkif oJqdkifepfvdk‹&,f arhypfroGm;æ? ? jr0wD&Jacgif (vGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0if yxrqifh) 1959=ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv 5 5 6 6
  4. 4. AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 7 Zmwfvrf;0ifyk*~dKvfrsm; vlowform;rsm;ESifhOya'qkdif&myk*~dKvfrsm; tcef; (1) AdkvfcsKyfvkyf}uHcH&jcif; tcef; (2) t"duacgif;aqmifrsm; tcef; (3) w&m;qkdifjcif; tcef; (4) v#KdŒ0Sufqef;-u,fjcif; tcef; (5) tajzr&ao;aomar;cGef;rsm; tcef; (6) t-urf;zufr+tarG tcef; (7) &v'f pmwGJ (vkyf}uHr+ESihf ywfoufaom a-u;eef;pmtcsKdŒ) ○ 7 rSwfcsufrsm; ○ aumvm[vaygif;ac|;cH tjrifxufykdxl; okcZmwfa-umif;jyef pyfpHxGef;.om; OD;b0if;.om; a-u;rHkOD;aomif;xkwfazmfajymqdk_yD wuUokdvfae0if; pufqkyfzG,fvlrsKd;a&;vlowfr+avm vkyf}uHr+ESihf ±Hk;wifw&m;pGJqdkr+wdk‹ESifhywfoufaom a-u;eef;pmtcsKdŒ &nf!¸ef;csufrsm; jrefrmpmtkyfpmwrf;rsm; t*Fvdyfpmtkyfpmwrf;rsm; t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh tpdk;&xkwfjyefjcif; ○ tcef; (1) AkvcsKyfvy}f uHc&jcif; d f k H tcef; (2) t"duacgif;aqmifrsm; tcef; (3) w&m;qdijf cif; k tcef; (4) v#KdŒ0Suqef;-u,fjcif; f tcef; (5) tajzr&ao;aom ar;cGe;f rsm; + tcef; (6) t-urf;zufrtarG tcef; (7) &v'f pmwGJ ○ tmZmenfrsm; vlowform;rsm; Oya'qkdif&myk*~dKvfrsm; EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm; ukdvdkeDtm%mydkifrsm; olwdk‹b,folawGvJ jrefrmtrnfrsm;ESihf ywfoufaom rSwfcsuf 11 17 21 25 25 26 28 30 34 36 37 41 63 107 131 153 181 205 206 214 222 227 229 234 240 246 ○ Oa,smZOf pma&;ol.ed'gef; bmomjyefo. trSm l Zmwfvrf;0ify*Kd~ vfrsm; k tu,fI ,cktcsdeftxd OD;atmifqef;omtoufraobJ&SifaecJhaomf ed*kH;csKyf ○ rmwdum 255 263 273 273 303 303 304 306 307 307 307 307 311 322 325 332 337 351 358 8 8
  5. 5. AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f &efukefòrd›awmf= 1947 -opa-w;vsjynf/ uifbm&mòrd›/ trsKd;om;wuUodkvf/ ajryHkqGJynm okawoe,lepf/ ypdzdwf=tm&S avhvmr+qdkif&mXmerS a&;qGJay;onf? 9 9 10 10 10
  6. 6. AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f Oa,smZOf 1951 ckESpftwGif;wGif yxrOD;qHk; -opa-w;vsoHwref udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒ ±Hk;zGifhvSpfay;&ef u|efawmf &efukefòrdodk‹ qdkufa&mufcJhygonf? xdktcsdefonf wdkif; › jynfudk *syefvufatmufrS jyefvnfu,fwifcJh_yD; _Adwdo#wdxHrS udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf k‹ a&; &,laqmif&uay;Ediconfh acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm; vky}f uHc&_yD;p wwdi;jynf G f k f hJ H kf vH; wxdwwvefEihf ,lóuH;r&cHpm;ae&onfh tcsevnf;jzpfayonf? 1947 ckEp/f k f ‹ S d f S Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹ tpdk;&tzGJŒ tpnf;ta0;wGif OD;atmifqef;ESifhtwl ol. vkyfazmfudkifzuf tukefeD;yg;r# pufaoewfajymif;0wGif toufpaw;cHcJh&onf? þod‹k jzifh &Jabmfo;usdyppfacgif;aqmifEihf jynforsm;tay: qGaqmifr+ xufjrufvS kH f S l J onfh EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif}uD;wOD; qHk;±+H;cJh&onf? xdtjyif _Adwdo# udkvdkeD u|ef k‹ oayguf vufatmufcHb0rS vGwfvyfaom EdkifiHawmfb0odk‹ ul;ajymif;aeonfh pyful;rwful;umvwGif a&S›wef;tcef;u¾rS yg0ifacgif;aqmifr+ ay;Edkifonfh tjcm;^m%fynm t&Sdeft0g xufjrufvSonfh acgif;aqmifajcmufOD;yg qHk;±+H;cJh& ayonf? OD;apmESifh taygif;tyg ig;OD;wdk‹tm; acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm; vkyf}uHr+twGuf aemufydkif;wGif w&m;pD&ifonfhtcg tjypfxif&Sm;awGŒ&Sdr+a-umifh tjypf'%fcsrSwf ay;tyfcjhJ im;vnf; tqdygvky}f uHr}+ uD;onf v#KdŒ0uqef;-u,frtwdjzifh ¹yGr;wD; k S f + f vsuf &Saeygao;onf? OD;cifatmif. pmtkyonf vky}f uHrZmwfvrf;tjynftpHk d f + h udk azmfxway;&ef ESpaygif;rsm;pGm pdw&n&njf zifh óud;yrf;cJjh cif;jzpfI rsm;pGm pdwf k f f f S f S 0ifpm;zG,f&m aumif;vSygonf? _Adwdo#tpdk;&. tkyfcsKyfa&; aemufqHk;ae‹rsm; ta-umif; OD;cifatmifrS xifxif&Sm;&Sm; rD;armif;xdk;jyonfhtvm; r_idrfrouf &Sd vSonfh tqdkygae‹&ufrsm;twGif; v+yf&Sm;cJh-uaom t"duZmwfaumifrsm;. yif udk,fp±dkufESifh pdwf&if;&nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk twGif;usus *Ce% azmfxkwfwifjy xm;onf? tu,fIom OD;atmifqef;ESihf a&mif;&if;ajcmufO;wd‹k rusq;cJygv#if aemuf D kH h ydi;jzpfay:vmrnfh jrefrmhordi;onf rsm;pGm jcm;em;uGjJ ym;oGm;ayvdrrnf? ppf_yD; kf kf hf 11 11 p tcsdeuqdygv#if vGwvyfonfEiiawmf ay:aygufvm&ef taetxm;rsm;pGm f k f h kd f H aumif;rGeconf? xdtcsdeu tjcm;tm&SEiirsm;ESihf Edi;,SO-f unfygu jrefrmEdif f hJ k f kd f H +f h k iH. vlaer+tqiftwef;rSm jrifrm;vSonf? {&m0wDjrpfa-umif;wav#muf jrpf0 h h u|e;ay:w0S r; qefa&pyg; oD;ESrsm; wd;wufpnfyif0ajymvSonf? xdrwyg; ayg f f H k k S rsm;onfrqdkEdkifaomfjim;vnf; a&eHESifh ajratmufo,HZmwwdrSmvnf; tawmf k‹ toif&yg.? jrefrmjynfow. ynma&;tqiftwef;onfvnf; usef tm&Swuf h dS l ‹kd h kd 0ef;usifwcdkwGif pmaywwfu|rf;r+E+ef;xm; tjrifhrm;qHk;pHcsdefrsm;wGif yg0ifyg.? 'kw,urBmppfwif ‚if;.tusKd;quftjzpf vlom;taygif; 'kuouQ awmf d G Q k awmfcpm;cJ-h u&onftavsmuf jrefrmjynfonfvnf; _Adwo#/ w±kwEihf *syefppf H h d f S wyfrsm; ppfwvif;cif;usif;&mwGif ajrpmyifjzpfc&onf? udvee,fcsJacwfrS tp hJ k kd D › ysKd;cJaom aoG;cGtycsKyfa&;pepfa-umifh 'kw,urBmppf}uD;t_yD; vGwvyfa&;&p h J k f d f tcsdef jynfwGif;ppfjzpfvmum rD;[kef;[kef;awmufygavawmhonf?þodk‹ jzpf&onf rSm tjcm;tjcm;aom t&if;&Sie,fcsJpepfrsm;uJoyif _Adwo#wdonfvnf; aoG;cJG f › h ‹kd d ‹k tkyfcsKyfa&; rl0g'udk usifhoHk;cJhjcif;a-umifh jzpfonf? vufeufudkifppfwyfrsm;wGif Armr[kwaom wki;&if;om;tkyprsm;udom t"duxm; ppfoifwef;ay;_yD; yg0if f df f k k apcJ±ru ‚if;ppfom;rsm;jzifh wki;jynfukd xde;xm;cJonf? Armrsm;u rausreyf h kH df f h jzpfonfrmvnf; rqef;-u,fvyg? jrefrmjynfrS _Awo#wyfw‹kd qkwcmcgeD;pJpwif S S d d fG J G ArmESifh &S rf;/ u&if/ ucsifwdk‹ oabmuGJvGJr+ jyif;xefvmygawmhonf? topfjyefvnfwnfaqmufonfh jrefrmEdiitaejzifh trsK;om;acgif;aqmif kfH d }uD;rsm;udk qHk;±+H;cJh&aomfvnf; 1950 ckESpfwGif 'Drdkua&pDjzifh a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf aom tpdk;&tm; wnfaxmifEdkifcJhygonf? rajyrvnf&SdcJhonfh vlrsKd;pkrsm;twGif; wGivnf; twwfEiq; jyefvnfaygif;pnf;a&;udk tm;xkwEicygonf? &Sr;vlrsK; f dk f kH f kd f hJ f d pkrsm;ESihf txl;ojzifh yl;aygif;Edic_hJ yD; &S r;ud,pm;vS,f awmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSmvnf; kf f k f jynfaxmifptpd;&twGi; ta&;ygaom tcef;u¾wGif yg0ifc-hJ uonf? wki;jynf k k f df pD;yGm;a&;udk jyefvnfjr‡ifhwifum tbufbufrS jyefvnfxlaxmifI tm&Swdkuf w0S r; pHcsdetjrifrm;qH; qefpyg;udk a&mif;csjzef‹ jzL;Ediconf? wdi;jynfuvnf; f f h k k f hJ kf kd urBmvSnfhc&D;onfrsm;twGuf jyefvnfvrf;zGifhay;cJhonf? omarmzG,f&m awm vufaus;&Gma'orsm;/ jrefrmh,Ofaus;r+ tcsutcsmXmersm;/ yk*òH rda[mif;&Sd ordi; f › kf 12 12
  7. 7. Oa,smZOf 0ifxif&Sm;onfh bk&m;ykxdk; taqmufttHkæponfrsm;tm; urBmvSnfhc&D;onf rsm; avhvmEdkif&ef tpDtpOfrsm;udkvnf; aqmif&GufEdkifcJhygonf? odaomf 1962 ckEpwif AdvcsKyf}uD;ae0if;onf jynfow‹kd a&G;cs,wifajrmuf ‹k Sf G k f l f ‡ cJonfh 'Drua&pDtpd;&udk ðzwfcs_yD; Ediiawmftm; ppftm%m&Sipepfjzifh jyefvnf h kd k kfH f wnfaqmufvdkufonfhtcgwGifrl tqdkygpGrf;aqmifcsufwdrSm &p&mr&Sdatmif t k‹ bufbufY ysujf y,fc&onf? xda-umifh 1947 ckEpf vky}f uHrtwGi; Ediia&;acgif; hJ ‹k S + f kfH aqmif}uD;rsm; usqH;cJ&jcif;onf tem*wfumvY ppfwyf. t"rR t-urf;zufr+ k h atmifjrifa&;twGuf vrf;cif;ay;ouJhodk‹ ta&;ygaom tcsufwcsuf jzpfvm onfrSm ,HkrSm;oHo,jzpf&ef rvdkawmhacs? tjcm;tcsufwcsufrSmrl jynfwGif;ppf udk trSDo[JðyI jrefrmEdkifiHY ppftm%m&Sif vlwef;pm;w&yf aygufzGm;vmcJhjcif; jzpfygonf? ppfAvcsKyf}uD;wd‹k tm%m,pfr;rd_yDqv#if xktm%mudk tvG,wul kd f l kd d f vufv$wfay;±dk; xHk;pHr&Sdyg? ppfAdkvfcsKyfrsm;onf tcsdef-umjrifhvmonfESifhtr# tcGifhxl;cHvlwef;pm;rsm; jzpfoGm;vsuf rdrdwdk‹ udk,fudkvnf; txufwef;v$m vl wef;pm;w&yftjzpf ,HkrSwfvm-uaomfvnf; ppfAdkvfcsKyf awmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSmrl ynmt&nftcsif;tm;jzifh !Hzsif;olrsm; jzpfjcif;a-umihf acwfopfurBm}uD;wGif 0if h qHhEdkifonfh tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfr+qdkif&m ±+yfaxG;eufeJ cufcJr+rsm;. twdrfteufudk óudwifodjrif qifjcifem;vnfEdkifpGrf;&Sdolrsm; r[kwfacs/ odk‹ESifhyif ppfAdkvfcsKyfwdk‹ onf vG,&mvrf;udk vdu-f uawmhonf? ‚if;rSm wki;jynfukd jyifyurBmESihf tquf f k df toG,jf zwfawmufvujf cif;yif jzpfygonf? ‚if;tjyif jynfow. 'Drua&pDpepf kd l ‹kd kd wnfaqmufa&;qENwudkvnf; acszsufvdkufavawmhonf? kd‹ odaomfjim;vnf; jrefrmjynfow. arG;&myg &ydicirsm;jzpfaom vltcGihf ‹k l ‹kd k f G hf ‹ ta&;wdonf xm0& jiif;y,fc&rnfum; r[kwygacs? OD;atmifqef;.orD; a': ‹k H f atmifqef;pk-unfonf jynfwGif;'Drdkua&pDawmif;qdka&; v+yf&Sm;r+}uD;udk acgif; aqmifr+ay;aeygonf?þpma&;aecsdefwGif olronf ppftm%m&Sifwkd‹. tdrfwGif; tcsKyf ðyvkyfjcif;udk cHae&jim;vnf; pdwf"mwfrus/ vlxkw&yfvHk; awmifhwae onfh taESmiftzGrS vGwfajrmufa&; ar#mfrSef;csufudk wdkufyGJ0ifum &yfwnfvsuf J‹ yif &Sdygonf? jynfya&muf jrefrmrsKd;cspfrsm;tjyif urBmw0S rf;vHk;&Sd ppftm%m &Sipepfukd pufqyI vltcGita&; csKd;azmufonfh rormr+rsm;udk &Gre;aom Edif f k f ‹ hf H k f k iHwumrS vlrsK;pHy*Kd~ vfrsm;uyg a':atmifqef;pk-unftm; axmufctm;ay;vsuf d k k H &Sygonf?þpmtkya&;ol OD;cifatmifonf jrefrmjynfow. vlrtcGita&;twGuf d f l ‹kd + hf -opa-w;vsjynfwGif;rS wufwufºuGºuG wdkufyGJ0ifaeolrsm;wGif twufºuGqHk; yk*~dKvfwOD;jzpfygonf? ‚if;onf jrefrmEdkifiH 'Drdkua&pDjyefvnfwnfaqmufa&; aumfrwD/ -opa-w;vstzGJŒwGif 1988 rS 1992 ckESpftxd OuU@wm0efESifh EdkifiH wumqdi&m aumfrwD. 'k=OuU@wm0efukd xrf;aqmifcygonf? 1991 ckEpwif kf hJ S f G vnf; jynfya&muf jrefrmtpdk;&tzGJŒ jzpfaom trsKd;om;!Gefaygif;tpdk;&. -op ‹ a-w;vsEdkifiHqdkif&m udk,fpm;vS,fvnf; jzpfcJhygonf? OD;cifatmifEihf ZeD; yufx&pf&mwdonf jrefrmhordi;wGif xif&m;cJonfh rsKd; S S ‹k kf S h ±dk;pOfqufrS aygufzGm;vm-uolrsm;jzpf-uI OD;cifatmif.zcifrSm uG,fvGefol &J AdvcsKyf OD;xGe;vSatmifjzpfvsuf olZeD;. zcifrm vGwvyfa&;&_yD;acwf/ w&m; k f f ‹ S f ±H;csKyf w&m;ol}uD;vnf;jzpfum tdE,òrdj› ytkycsKyfa&; yËdnmOfc0efxrf; ICS t k Nd f H zGŒJ 0ifwOD;vnf; jzpfconfh OD;aomif;pdejf zpfygonf? OD;cifatmifonf Armhvwvyf hJ G f a&;wyfrawmfEihf Armha&wyfrawmfwwif wm0efxrf;aqmifc_hJ yD; ppf_yD;acwfwif S ‹kd G G yifv,fu;oabFmukr%wckY xl;c|efatmifjrifpm tr+xrf;cJonf? olEihf olZeD; l ` D G h S ‹ wdk‹onf tar&duefEdkifiHwGif (12) ESpf-um aexdkifcJh-u_yD; -opa-w;vsEdkifiH/ uif bm&mòrdY 1983 ckEprpI tajccs aexdivmcJ-h uolrsm; jzpfygonf? › S f S kf pma&;olOD;cifatmifrSm OD;atmifqef;vkyf}uHr+}uD;wGif yg0ifcJholtcsKdŒESifh ywfoufIvnf;aumif;/ xdktcsdefu tjzpftysuf tajctaet&yf&yfwESifh ywf dk‹ oufIvnf;aumif; udk,fwdkif tawGtóuH&SdcJh±Hkru a&S;a[mif;ordkif; taxmuf ‹ txm; pmtkypmwrf;rsm;udvnf; _Adwo#armfue;wdurS ud,wif okawoeðy f k d G f k f k f kd cJhojzifh þacwfopfjrefrmhordkif;Y ta&;ygvSaom jzpfysufr+tpOfudk jyefajymif; ajym&ef toifhawmfqHk;yk*~dKvfwOD; jzpfcJhygonf? od&mwGif vlrodao;bJ usef&pf k‹ aeonfh tcsKŒdtcsKŒdaom v#KŒd0uqef;-u,fr+ uGi;qufrsm;um; use&aumif; usef S f f f dS &SaeygOD;rnf? Oyrm þTr#-urf;ñuwfvaom vlowfr}+ uD;udk OD;apmusL;vGe&mY d S f rnfonfhta-umif;tcsufwu v+aqmftm;ay;wkdufwGef;cJh-uoenf; qdkonfudk dk‹ H‹ ,ckwdkif em;vnf&efcufcJvSonfhtajc &SdaeqJyif jzpfygonf? odk‹&mwGif Tpm tkyfonf ppf_yD;acwfaemufydkif; jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;udk twGif;usus avhvmvdkuf 13 13 AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f 14 14
  8. 8. Oa,smZOf AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f pm;vdkol okawoDynm&Sifwdk‹twGuf wefzdk;rjzwfEdkifatmif taxmuftulðyyg vdrrnf? hf *syefacwf t"dywd a'gufwmbarmfa&;om;_y; ppf_y;acwfwif xkwa0onfh D D G f ‘jrefrmjynfwi;atmifjrifr}+ uD;’ trnf&pmtkywif pma&;olu jrefrmjynfEiywf Gf dS f G S hf oufaom ordkif;qdkif&mtrSefw&m;rsm;onf jrefrmvlrsKd;wdk‹ udk,fwdkif jyefrajym jyor# umvywfvHk; rnfonhftcgr# ±kyfvHk;yDjyifpGm ay:vGifvmrnfr[kwfacs[k a&;om;cJhygonf? ‚if;uyif qufvufI 'kwd,urBmppfESifh ppfóudacwf jrefrmh ordkif;udk xdkacwfwGifyg0ifaom jrefrmwdudk,fwdkif ra&;om;&ao;a-umif; 0efcH k‹ cJh_yD; ta-umif;t&m cdkifcdkifvHkvHkudk twGif;ususodxm;aom yk*d~Kvfwdk‹u ra&; om;ao;or# jrefrmjynfwijf zpfym;cJaom ta-umif;&if;rsm;. trSew&m;udk od G G h f &Sem;vnfEirnfr[kwacs[k a&;om;cJygonf? acwfwacwf. ta&;ygvSonfh d kd f f h tjzpftysufrsm;udk euf±+dif;pGm od&Sdem;vnfap&ef a'gufwmbarmf a&;om;azmf jyouJhodk‹ OD;cifatmif. pmtkyfrSmvnf; tzdk;rjzwfEdkifaom taxmuftulwck jzpfayawmhonf? (35) ESpfwkdifwkdif xrf;aqmifcJh_yD; t_idrf;pm;,lcJh&m (ruG,fvGefrD) tESpf (20) umvtwGif; “uifbm&mwkdif;pf” owif;pmwGif tywfpOf -oZmanmif;aom aqmif;yg;rsm; a&;cJhonfhtjyif “aemufqkH;uufzJcsyf” ac: pmtkyfvnf; a&;om; cJhonf? rmvfuGefESifh a&mufZmemwktm; EkdifiHjcm;a&muf jrefrmrdwfaqGrsm;pGmwkd‹ d‹ u t_rcspcifpm owd&-uvsu&rnf? txl;tm;jzihf 'Drua&pD jyefvnfxaxmif J f G f dS dk l &ef ¯ud;yrf;vsu&orsm;onf olwEpO; ckirmpGm tqufrjywf axmufctm;ay;cJh f dS l ‹ dk S f D d f H -ujcif;ukd aus;Zl;wifowd&-urnfjzpfygonf? Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô rmvfuGef bGwfum; · uif b m&mòrŒawmf / =opa=w;vs Ed k 0 if b mv/ 1992 ck E S p f ? · rpPwmþrmvfueþf bGwum; (Mr. Malcolm Booker) onf 1998 ckEp/f Zlvif G f S dk v (15) &ufae‹/ touf (82) ESpfwGif rdrdaetdrf uifbm&m-rdY uG,fvGefcJhonf? › ol‹ZeD; a&mufZmem (Roxana) rSmvnf; xkdae‹wGifyif aq;±kHY a&m*ga0'em -um &SnpmcHpm;&_yD; em&Dom apmIaoqk;oGm;&Smonf? f G H olwEpO;pvk;rSm oHwref0efxrf;rsm;jzpf-uonf? rmvfuef bGwum;onf ‹dk S f D H G f 1951 ckrS 1953 cktxd jrefrmjynfqi&m oHtrwftjzpf ceftyfjcif;cH&I yxrOD;qk; dk f ‹ H -opa-w;vsoH±;ukd (88) urf;em;vrf; (Strand Hotel Annex) wGif zGivpcaom Hk hf S f hJ a-umifh xkdtaqmufttkHY ,ae‹wkdif wnf&Sdvsuf&Sdonf? xkdaemuf tDwvD/ ,l*pvm;AD;,m;/ ±kar;eD;,m;ESihf blva*;&D;,m;jynfrsm;wGif oHtrwf}uD;wm0ef dk d f aqmif&uconf? 1976 ckEpwif uifbm&m-rdo‹dk jyefvm-u_y; EkiijH cm;a&;oHwref G f hJ Sf G › D df 15 15 16 16
  9. 9. AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f u|efawmfhZeD;. uG,fvGefav_yD;aomzcif}uD; w&m;ol}uD;a[mif; OD; aomif;pdefonf ‚if;aexdkif&m rJvfbkef;òrdrS uGsefawmfwrdom;pk. uifbm&mtdrf › dk‹ odk‹ 1989 ck/ Zlvdkifv oluG,fvGefcsdeftxd wESpfwacgufcef‹ vma&mufvnfywf avh&ygonf? touf&pq,fausm_f yD qdaomfjim;vnf; zswvwf-unfvif trSwf dS S f k f onmaumif;onfh OD;aomif;pdeonf olb0oufwrf;wav#muf tr+xrf;cJonfh f ‹ h tawGŒtóuH taxGaxGukd jyefajymif; pm;òrHj› yefwwfonf? xdtxJY acwfopf jref k rmhordkif;wGif ta&;ygonfh tjzpftysufrsm;udk a&mifjyef[yfaponfh ta-umif; t&mrsm;pGmwdk‹vnf; ygwwfonf? OD;aomif;pdefonf ,cifwcsdefu vlwef;pm; tv$mwckjzpfaom tdENd, òr›djytkyfcsKyfa&; yËdnmOfcH0efxrf;tzGJŒ0if (I.C.S) wOD; jzpfonftjyif w&m;a&;Xme twGi;0eftjzpfvnf;aumif;/ tusOf;axmifrsm; OD; h f pD;csKyf (axmifrif;}uD;) tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ 1947 ckESpfwGif wòydifwnf; wm0ef xrf;aqmifcJh&ygonf? _Adwdo#wdk‹xHrS 1948 ckESpf jrefrmEdkifiH vGwfvyfa&;&_yD; csdewif w&m;±H;csKyf w&m;ol}uD;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ aemufyi;wGif Ediiyif odr; f G k kd f k f H kd f ydkufa&;aumfr&SifESifh a&G;aumufyGJ t,lcHaumfr&SiftzGJŒwdk‹. OuU@tjzpfvnf; aumif; EdkifiHawmftpdk;&tzGJŒu txl;a&G;cs,fI wm0efay;tyfjcif; cHcJh&onf? OD;aomif;pde. trSww&tawGŒtóuHrsm;xJrS ol ESpEpòf cduòf cduf ajymjyavh f f f S &Sdaom tjzpftysufwckrSmrl uG,fvGefol u|efawmhfzcif AdkvfcsKyf (&Jwyf) OD;xGef; vSatmifEihf wdu±uywfoufaeygonf? xdtcseu u|eawmhzcifrm &mZ0wfr+ S k f kd f k d f f f S h d f pHprf;ppfaq;a&;Xme t}uD;tuJ ( Dy. Inspector General ) jzpfonftjyif t&Set k 0g}uD;vSonfh t*Fvef bk&ifh&Jwyfrawmf}uD;. tzGJŒ0ifwOD;tjzpfvnf; 1940 ck aESmif;ydkif;wGif wm0efxrf;cJh&oljzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ‚if;.0ef}uD; tzGJŒ0ifrsm;tm; 1947 ck/ Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹wGif vkyf}uHowfjzwfcJhr+a-umifh OD;apmtm; tif;pdetusO;axmifwif xde;odr;xm;cseY 'k=&JcsKyf OD;xGe;vSatmif f f G f f d f f ESifh w&m;ol}uD; OD;aomif;pdefwdk‹tm; OD;apm. vHkòcHa&;twGuf yl;wGJwm0ef ay;cJhygonf? xdka-umifhvnf; ‚if;wdk‹ESpfOD;onf ae‹pOfvdkvdk &efukefrS tif;pdef axmifodk‹ um;jzifh twloGm;avh&Sd-u&m c&D;wav#mufwGifvnf; ,m,D ‘jynfol‹ ppfwyf’ yHkpHjzifh zGJŒpnf;xm;aom jynfol‹&JabmftzGJŒ0iftcsKd‹wdk‹ apmifh-uyfaeonfh ppfaq;a&;pcef;rsm;pGmwdk‹udk jzwfoef;&avh&Sdonf? xdktcsdefu jynfol‹&Jabmf tzGŒJrmvnf; OD;atmifqef;r&Sonfaemuf (tjzL/ t0g) ESpzŒJGuae_y; rnfonftzGŒJ S d h f JG D h u rnfol‹vufatmufY opPmcHxm;onfudk twdtusrod&ao;acs? odk‹ESifhyif 1947 ckESpfaemufydkif;/ wnaewGif ‚if;wdum;udk &yfwefap&ef ppfaq;a&;pcef; k‹ ‹ wckrS cyfxefxef trdeay;wm;qD;vduum a&mifpajymufusm;ppf0wfpkH 0wfqif ‹f k f kH xm;onfh &JabmftcsKŒd/ ±diz,faoewfajymif;rsm;jzifh csexm;vsuf olwxajy;vm kf d f ‹kd H -uonf? xdtcg u|eawmfzcif OD;xGe;vSatmifonf um;armif;ae&mrS &yfI qif; k f h f oufvdkuf_yD; ‚if;wdrnfolrnf0gjzpfa-umif; ajymjyvsuf ,if;aoewfudkifvlwpk k‹ . acgif;aqmifvufxJrS aoewfudk ykwfcsvdkufonf? ‚if;aemuf olwdk‹ a-umif trf;trf;-unfaeqJrmyif um;ay:jyefwufI armif;xGuvmcJonf? h S f h tqdkygtjzpftysufrsm;ta-umif; jyefajymif;ajymqdkor#udk u|efawmf-um; od&_yD;aemuf xdtcsursm;. v+aqmfra-umifh xdtcseu tuif;raoao;aom k f ‹H + k d f jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;Zmwfvrf;tzHkzHkudk u|efawmf pwif pdwf0ifpm;rdawmhonf? wEdkifiH vHk; vdkufemusifhoHk;-u&rnfh _Adwdo#bk&ifhOya'ESifh acwfay:vufeufudkif a'o cHrsm;. Oya'rJhjzpfaer+rsm; a&maxG;,Sufwif v+yf&Sm;aer+udk u|efawmf txl; owdðy avhvmrSwom;&awmhonf? xdtcgu tajctaet& jynfwi;Ediia&; f k Gf kfH orm;rsm;. ud,yippfwyfrsm;twGi; tm%mudta-umif;ðyI xGuay:vmaom k f kd f f k f tusKd;pD;yGm; yÉdyuQrsm; r-umc%ay:aygufvmavh&Sdonf? tqdkyg ta-umif; t&mrsm;xJwif *VKefwyftjzpf (0g;&if;wkwuAef;jyvsuf) v#KdŒ0uvufeufuif G f kd S f kd wyfzGJŒxm;aom emrnfqdk;jzifhausmf-um;vSonfh *VKefOD;apmudkrl u|efawmf pdwf t0ifpm;qH; jzpf&ygonf? k u|eawmfEitwl u|eawmf. om;i,fEpO;jzpfaom cifO;atmifEihf xGe;vS f S hf f SfD D S f atmifav; (*sLeD,m) wduvnf; tbd;jzpfotm; tqdygZmwfvrf;rsm; jyefajymif; ‹k k l k qufvufajymqdk&ef r-umc% wdkufwGef;-uavh&Sdonf? trsKd;om; acgif;aqmif }uD;rsm; vky}f uHc&r+Eihf ywfoufI OD;apmESihf ‚if;.taygif;ygwdtwGi; pum;0Suf H S ‹k f ESihf a&;aompmrsm;udk ae&mowfrwI v#KŒd0upm vJv,cjhJ cif;rsm;ta-umif; ajym S f S fG S f jyonftcg u|efawmfwtm;vH; rde;armawGa0oGm;rdawmhonf? xdta-umif;t h ‹kd k f k &mrsm;udk wpGef;wp azmfjy&aomf ‘ajcqGHŒaeonfh raumif;qdk;0g;}uD;’/ ‘iSufaysm oD;pdrf;jzifh {nfhcH’/ ‘oHyk&m&nfudkóudufw,f’/ ‘a&uefxJrSm ig;r&Sd’/ ‘t&yfjrifhjrihf 17 18 pma&;ol. ed'gef; 17 18
  10. 10. ed'gef; vl}uD;’æponfæponfjzifæ? (t&yfjrihjf rihvonf rnfoenf;qdonfrm ya[Vd) h f l l k S odEihf OD;atmifqef;wdtm; vky}f uHr}+ uD;onf OD;apmESihf ‚if;. taygif;ygrsm; vuf ‹k S ‹k csufomru w&m;Oya'a&SŒarSmufodk‹ rnfonfhtcgur# ra&mufvdkuf&bJ vGwf ajrmufqJ/ vGwfajrmufoGm;-uaom tjcm;tr+tcif;rsm;qdkif&m tcsKdŒ yk*~dKvfrsm; vnf; &Sdaumif;&SdavOD;rnf[k u|efawmf oHo,ruif; jzpfvmrdawmhonf? xdk‹ a-umifh u|efawmfha,muQr}uD;. ajymjycsufrsm;udk aemifvmaemufom;rsm;t wGuf pmjzifhrSwfwrf;wifxm;oifhonf[k u|efawmfcHpm;rdcJhonf? odk‹ jzpfonfht avsmuf u|eawmf. pmwdpmprSwwrf;rsm;udk pkpnf;I t-urf;tm;jzifh pmwapmif f k f wzGŒJ tjzpf a&;om;vduaomtcg OD;aomif;pdeu aocsmpGmzwf-unh_f yD; oabm k f f wlconf? þTwGif u|eawmfwEpO;. jyefajymif;owd&r+rsm;udk u|eawmf. xyf hJ f ‹kd S f D f qif&mazG avhvmrSwom;r+rsm;ESihf aygif;pyfI jznf;jznf;csi; wd;csŒJa&;om;cJonf? h S f f k h u|efawmfu,wivnf; xdo‹kd tke;tke;u|ufu|uf ±ke;&if;qefcwf jzpfym;aecsdef kd f kd f k f f f G tcgu xdkvkyf}uHr+}uD; jzpfyGm;cJh&m twGif;0ef±Hk;ESifh rsufESmcsif;qdkif wbufjcrf; &Sd a&wyf (urf;em;XmecsKyf) ðyvkyxm;aom pdeaygvfausmif;0if;twGi;Y vli,f f ‹f f a&wyft&m&SwOD;tjzpf wm0efusaeqJjzpfonf? d xd‹k jyif u|efawmhtm; þta-umif;t&mrsm;udk a&;om;&ef v+aqmfay;cJonfh f ‹H h tjcm;ta-umif;w&yfrSmrl u|efawmf. OD;av;awmfol OD;a&$abmfjzpfonf? ‚if; rSm tdENd,òrdj› ytkyfcsKyfa&; yËdnmOfcH0efxrf; tzGJŒ0if (I.C.S) wOD;jzpfvsuf vGwf vyfa&;r&ao;rD ,m,Dtpd;&tzGŒJ . twGi;0efwOD;jzpf_yD; vky}f uHrj+ zpfym;pOfu k f G OD;atmifqef;. vuf0bufwif uyfvsufxiaecJ&mrS th-H ozG,aumif;avmuf J G kd f h f atmif usnfqefu a&Smifxuom;jcif;a-umifh ab;roD&efrcbJ vGwajrmufc& G f G f hJ olwOD;jzpfygonf? OD;a&$abmfudk,fwdkif xdka-uuGJbG,f&m tjzpftysuf/ ol‹ rsuf jrifu,awGŒZmwfa-umif;udk u|efawmftm; jyefvnfajymjycJygonf? kd f h h xda-umifh Tpmtkyonf vky}f uHr}+ uD;ESiywfoufI tajzwpHw&may;&ef ‹k f hf k xuf OD;apmaemufrm b,foawG&ygvdr[aom tawG;ESitwl odavmodavm S l dS hf l hf ‹k ‹k ar;cGef;rsm;om xyfrH ay:aygufaumif; ay:aygufvmapygvdrfhrnf? u|efawmf. &nf&G,fcsufrSmrl OD;atmifqef;vkyf}uHr+ESifhywfoufI v#KdŒ0Sufr+tcsKdŒudk óud;pm; ajz&Sif;vsuf u|efawmfwdk‹EdkifiH. uH-urRmudk 0rf;enf;zG,f&m ajymif;vJoGm;apcJh onfh þjzpf&yfqdk;}uD;udk topfwzefjyefvnfI tao;pdwfavhvm&efjzpfygonf? u|efawmfESifhtwl jrefrmjynfoltrsm;pktaejzifh ,cktcsdefom OD;atmifqef; touf&iaecJygv#if u|efawmfw‹kd ,ckcpm;ae-u&onfh uH-urRmqd;wdukd a&Smif Sf h H k ‹k &Sm;Edkifayvdrfhrnf[k cdkif_rJpGm,Hk-unf-uyg.? Tta-umif;w&yfwnf;ESifhyif t qdyg vky}f uHrZmwfa-umif;udk cGjJ crf;pdwjf zm avhvmoifayawmhonf? xdtwl vGef k + h ‹k cJaom (45) ESpwmumvu EkiiAoum}uD; usqH;oGm;_yD;aemufyi;/ xdwacwf h f d f hH d k k kd f k . tarGtESptjzpf usef&pfconfh Ekiia&; a&pD;a-umif;wav#muf }uD;pk;cJonfh f hJ dfH d h avmb/ a'gowdk‹ jzifh ¹yGef;wD;aom t-urf;zufr+rsm;. tajccH t&if;tjrpfwdk‹ udvnf; avhvmoifvayonf? k h S ,if;tarGukd tomw-unfvufc&ef jiif;y,fwe;vSecaom yk*Kd~ vfrsm;ESihf H G f f hJ r_yD;qHk;ao;aom jrefrmEkdifiH. vGwfvyfa&;/ 'Drkdua&pDta&;ESifh o[Zmwjzpf a&;wdtwGuf owW&pm wduy0ifaeolrsm;twGuf Tpmtkyukd &nf&,a&;om; ‹k d dS G k f JG f G f &jcif;jzpfygonf? 19 19 AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f 20 armif c if a tmif uif b m&mòrŒawmf / =opa=w;vs Ek d 0 if b mv/ 1992 ck E S p f ? Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô 20
  11. 11. AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f "Who Killed Aung San ?" (atmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ) pmtkyfa&; om;ðypkol OD;cifatmiftm; vGefcJhaom (13) ESpf/ 1986 ck/ pufwifbmvwGif rdwaqGwOD;u rdwzŒJGay;pOf uifbm&mòrdawmf/ jrefrmtdrwckY yxrOD;qH;t}udrf f f › f k awGŒqHkcGihf&cJhygonf? aqmif;tukef/ aEGtul;rdk‹ &moDomarmonfh TvwGif ‘uifbm&m’ Y yef;yGawmf usi;y_rjJ zpfojzihf t&yf&yfrS vma&mufvnfywf-uaom J f {nfonfrsm;jzihf pnfum;avh&onf? u|efawmfrwaqGu OD;cifatmiftm; jrefrm h dS h d f ppftm%m&Sif Akvae0if;tpd;&udk ESpaygif;rsm;pGm awmfveaeolwOD;tjzpfvnf; d f k f S f df D aumif;/ ‘The Canberra Times’ (uifbm&mwki;pfowif;pm}uD;) . t,f'wmxH ay;pmrsm; tcef;u¾wGif jrefrmppftpkd;&. vSnfhuGufjy±kyfrsm;udk azmfxkwf_yD; ppftm%m&Sifpepfqdk;}uD;udk uavmifjzifh rSefrSefxdk;ESufwHk‹ jyefaeolwOD;tjzpf vnf;aumif; rdwqufay;cJygonf? OD;cifatmif. t*Fvypmay Edieif;u|r;usif f h d f kf f r+/ [mo^m%fºuG,0r+/ tm0Z…e;&$irwonf ol. xufjrufaom ^m%fynmudk f f f + ‹kd a&mifjyef[yfaeonf[k u|efawmfrwcsufcsrdonf? aemufaemif olEifh &if;ES;vm S f S D aomtcg AkdvfcsKyfae0if; wdkif;jynf. tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk twif;t"rR odrf; yducaom 1962=ckEpO;umvtcsderpI ,ae‹xufwif worwfwnf; ppftm k f hJ S f D f S kd %m&Sipepfukd awmfveaeol rsKd;cspfwOD;tjzpf ydI av;pm;vmcJygonf? f S f k h xdaemuf 1988=ckESpf/ jrefrmjynfwGif; vlxktHkºuGr+}uD;ay:aygufvmaom k‹ tcg ppftpk;&. &ufpufpm ESyuyowfjzwfra-umifh jrefrmjynfol toufaygif; d G d f G f + axmifEicsDI qH;±+;cJ&onf? S fh k H h jrefrmhvwvyfa&; Adoum}uD; AdvcsKyfatmifqef;. orD; a':atmifqef; G f k k f pk-unf. wnf-unfajzmifhrwfaom acgif;aqmifr+atmufwGif jynfolwdk‹ wnD w!Gwfwnf; pkpnf;I jrefrmjynf. 'kwd,vGwfvyfa&;udk awmif;qdkcJh-uonf? ppftpkd;&onf a':atmifqef;pk-unftm; (6) ESpfwdkifwdkif tdrfwGif;tusOf;csxm; cJh_yD;/ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJŒcsKyf tzGJŒ0ifrsm;ESihf ppftpkd;&udk qefusifolrsm;tm; ‹ pepfwus acsr+ef;cJhygonf? TonfhumvwGif jynfya&muf jrefrmrsKd;cspfrsm;u vnf; EkdifiHt&yf&yfwGif ppftpkd;&qef‹usifa&; qENjyyGJrsm; usif;ycJh-uonf? 'Drkd ua&pDusihfoHk;aom tpdk;&toD;oD;tm; csOf;uyfvsuf jrefrmppftpkd;&udk,fwdkif OD;pD;usif;yay;cJhaom 1990=ck/ taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJwGif tEkdif&&SdcJhonfh trsKd;om;'Drua&pDtzGŒJ csKyftm; olwuwdtwki; tm%mv$ajymif;ay;&ef zdtm; dk ‹kd df J ay;a&;twGuf óud;yrf;cJ-h uonfrm ordi;rSwwiwck jzpfvmonf? -opa-w;vs S k f f kd f &Sd jynfwGif;v+yf&Sm;cJh-uonfh jrefrmrsKd;cspfrsm;twGif; OD;cifatmifrSm a&SŒwef;rS yg0ifcygonf? hJ OD;cifatmif. ‘atmifqef;udk b,foowfovJ’ t*Fvybmomjzifh pmtkyf l d f ðypkaecsdefwGif -opa-w;vsjynfwGif twlwuG EkdifiHa&;v+yf&Sm;ae-uonfjzpfI u|eawmfEifh r-umc% pmtkyyg ta-umif;t&mrsm;udk aqG;aEG;wdiyifc-hJ uonf? f S f kf AkvcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh acgif;aqmifrsm; usq;onftcseu OD;cifatmif. zcifrm d f kH h d f S jrefrmjynf. 'k=&JcsKyfjzpfaeIvnf;aumif;/ OD;cifatmifZeD;. zcifrmvnf; w&m; S a&;Xme. twGif;0efwOD;taejzifh vnf;aumif;/ axmifrsm;udk }uD;-uyftkyfcsKyf &onfh OD;pD;csKyftaejzifvnf;aumif; aqmif&uae-u&aoma-umihf OD;cifatmif h G f onf xdy*Kd~ vf}uD;ESpO;xHrS OD;apmESifh taygif;tygrsm;ESifh ywfoufaom ta-umif; kk fD t&mrsm;tm; twGif;usus owif;tcsuftvufrsm; wkduf±dkufod&SdcGifh&cJhonf? xkd‹a-umihf OD;cifatmif. xdktcsdefu udk,fawGŒrsufjriftjzpftysufrsm;udk ESpf aygif;rsm;pGm pepfwus okawoeðypkxm;onfrsm;ESifh aygif;pyfvuaomtcg ckif kd f d vHkaom orkdif;taxmuftxm;wcktaejzihf ydkrdkwdusjywfom;vmygawmhonf? Tae&mwGif OD;cifatmifonf ta-umif;jcif;&m trSeuom wifjy_yD;/ ta-umif; f kd tusKd; qufEG,fr+rsm;udk pmzwfy&dowfrsm;uom qufvufI pl;prf; qifjcif awG;ac:Ekdif&ef csefvSyfxm;cJhonf? ta-umif;jcif;&m trSeftuef wifjyr+Y OD;cifatmifonf twGif;pnf;rS teD;uyfavhvmcJholjzpfI ol. tcsuftvuf rsm;onf w&m;Oya'tjrifwGif yDjyifwdusvSygonf? orkdif;okawoDrsm; quf vufavhvm&ef tajccHtwjf rpfcsay;cJonfEivnf; wlygonf? k h S fh OD;cifatmif. pmtkyft*Fvdyfrl&if;onf tqifhtwef;jrihfvSonf? odaomf k‹ jrefrmjynfotrsm;twGuf &nfp;I jrefrmbmomjyef&ef vH;yef;aomtcg tcuf l l k tcJrsm;awGŒ I aESmifaES;cJ&onf? u|eawmfonfvnf; jrefrmpmayESifh uif;a0;ae h h f onfrSm ESpftwef-umcJh_yDjzpfonfhtjyif ,cifu bmomjyefqdkonfh tawGŒtóuH vnf; r&SdcJhygacs? OD;cifatmifudk (pDtm'DbD) jrefrmjynf'Drdkua&pD jyefvnfwnf aqmufa&; OD;pD;aumfrwD (tjynfjynfqkdif&mESifh -opa-w;vs) . em,u}uD; tjzpf av;pm;vsuf/ ol. ta&;ygvSaom Tpmtkyfudk jrefjrefqefqef jrefrm 21 22 bmomjyefo. trSm l 21 22
  12. 12. trSm AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f bmomjzifh xkwa0vdaoma-umihf bmomjyeftjzpf wm0ef,rygonf? uHaumif; f k l d onfrSm jr0wDOD;&Jacgif -opa-w;vsodk‹ a&muf&Sdvmojzifh pmwnf;jzwfay;&ef OD;&JacgifrS wm0ef,_l y;/ tcef;vduf txl;óud;pm;wnf;jzwfay;jcif;twGuf aus;Zl; D k wifz,&mjzpfygonf? G f txl;ojzifh rar#mvifbJ u|eawmf. vkyief;qki&mtyki;wGif wm0efyvm f h f f df df d onfhtcgrsm;Yvnf; u|efawmfhnD a'gufwmat;ausmf (atmifoef‹ausmf) tm; tultnDawmif;_yD; olESihftwl tcsKdŒtcef;rsm;udk bmomjyefygonf? tcsKdŒtcef; rsm;rSm a'gufwm at;ausmfbmomjyefqkd_yD;/ u|efawmfu wcsKdŒae&mY jyifqif jznfpuvsuf OD;&JacgifrS xyfrwnf;jzwfygonf? h G f H bmomjyefq&mYvnf; t*FvypmrS wdu±ubmomjyefqrukd ta&;xm; kd d f k f dk f kd + I trsm;qk; tok;ðyaomfvnf; tcsKdtcsuftvufrsm;wGif jrefrmpmzwfy&dowf H H ‹ ESifh ydkrdkqDavsmfap&ef jr0wDOD;&Jacgif. t}uHðycsuft& pma&;ol OD;cifatmif. oabmwlnrj+ zifh tenf;tusOf; ðyjyifa&;om;cJonfrsm; &Sconf? D h d hJ odk‹ jzpfI yl;wGJbmomjyefol a'gufwmat;ausmfESifh u|rf;usifpGm pmwnf; jzwfol jr0wDO;&Jacgifwtm; txl;aus;Zl;wif&ygonf? bmomjyefq&mY trSm; D ‹kd dS kd t,Gi;&Scygv#if u|efawmfwiom wm0ef&ygonf? f d hJ h Gf dS a'guf w mwif h a 0 qpf ' eD ò rŒ/ =opa=w;vs (9/ 9/ 99) yl ; wG J b momjyef o l a'guf w mat;ausmf qpf ' eD ò rŒ/ =opa=w;vs 23 23 24 24
  13. 13. AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f 1 Zmwfvrf;0if yk*Kd~ vfrsm; pyfpxe;f (40) ESp/f &S r;jynfe,frS rdi;yGeapmfbm;}uD;/ e,fjcm;a'oqdi&m twdif H G f kf f G kf k yifcH0ef}uD;/ OD;acgif;wGif '%f&m (2) csuf&&Sd_yD; (20) &ufae‹ rGef;wnfhcsdefwGif &efue°f rd/› jynfoaq;±H}k uD;Y aoqH;oGm;onf? k ‹l k tmZmenf r sm; OD;tke;f armif (34) ESpf/ o,f,lyaqmifa&;ESifh vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;Xme/ 'kwd, dk‹ H Gf twGi;0ef (I.C.S)/ tpD&ifcpmwckukd vma&mufwifoi;aepOf vlowform;rsm;. f usnfqefrsm; xdreom;jcif;cH&onf? ae&mwGiyif yGcsif;_yD;aoqH;onf? S f G f J k AdvcsKyfatmifqef; (c) AdvawZ (32) ESp/f jrefrmhtrsKd;om;a&;v+y&m;r+. acgif; k f k f f S aqmif}uD;/ bk&ifcHtr+aqmifaumifpD. 'k=OuU@ (odk‹ ) wu,fhvufawGŒtm;jzihf vGwfvyfa&;r&rD 0ef}uD;tzGJŒ. 0ef}uD;csKyf/ ‚if;tjyif xdktpdk;&tzGJŒ. umuG,f a&;ESifh EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;/ usnfqef (13) csufoifhaom '%f&mjzifh ae&mwGif yif yGcsif;_yD;aoqH;cJ&onf? J k h udaxG; (18) ESpf/ OD;&mZwf.oufawmfapmifh/ rEœav;teD;&Sd awmifjyif ody`H&yfrS k rlqvifvi,fwOD;jzpfonf? tpnf;ta0;cef;rwGi;rS aoewforsm;-um;&ojzifh l f H teD;&Sd±Hk;cef;rS ajy;xGufvmpOf qkwfcGmajy;oGm;aeaom vlowform;rsm;. ypfcwfjcif;udkcH&onf? '%f&m (4) csuf&&Sd_yD; aq;±HkwGif aoqHk;onf? 'D;'kwO;D bcsKd (54) ESp/f pma&;q&m/ owif;pmq&mESihf 'D;'kw*sme,f. t,f'wm/ f f D jyef-um;a&;0ef}uD;/ oltouft&G,fESifh OD;aESmufxJ0ifoGm;aom usnfqef tyg ‹ t0if usnqef (5) csu&&Sonfwif ae‹v,fyi;txd &efuejf ynfoaq;±H}k uD;wGif f f d h kd kd f k ‹l touf&ivsuf &Saeao;onf? Sf d vl o wf o rm;rsm; ocifjr (49) ESp/f vli,facgif;aqmifrsm;-um;wGif touft&G,}f uD;&ifaom EdiiH h kf acgif;aqmif/ b¾ma&;0ef}uD;/ tqkwfudk xGif;azmufoGm;aom aoewf'%f &mjzifh ae&mwGif yGcsif;_yD;aoqH;onf? J k OD;tAŠ'&mZwf (49) ESpf/ rEœav;°rd› rlqvifacgif;aqmif/ ynma&;ESifh trsKd;om; l pDrHudef;0ef}uD;/ '%f&m (6) csuf&&Sd_yD; ae&mwGifyif yGJcsif;_yD;aoqHk;onf? OD;b0if; (46) ESpf/ OD;atmifqef;.tudk/ ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;ESifh axmufyHha&; 0ef}uD;/ usnfqef'%f&m (8) csuf&&Sd_yD; ae&mwGifyif yGJcsif;_yD;aoqHk;onf? OD;apm/ 1900=jynfEpwif om,m0wD°rdY arG;zGm;onf? vlowform;rsm;. acgif; h S f G › aqmif[k tpGyfpGJcH&ol/ orBm&ifh vufsmEdkifiHa&;orm;jzpf_yD; OD;atmifqef;. t"du°ydifbufjzpfonf? ol&d,owif;pmudk pwifxlaxmifolESifh rsKd;cspfygwD acgif;aqmifjzpfonf? 1940=ckESpf/ pufwifbmvrS 1942=ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dvtxd eef;&if;0ef/ 1942=rS 1946=txd ,l*E<mjynfwif txde;odr;cHc&onf? 1947=ck G f f hJ ESp/f Zefe0g&DvwGicsKyfqaom atmifqef;=tufwvD pmcsKyfukd todtrSw«f y&ef f kd jiif;qefcojl zpfI OD;atmifqef;ESihf oltr+aqmifaumifpD vkyazmfuizufrsm;tm; hJ ‹ f kd f owfjzwfr+jzifh 1947=ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (19) &ufwGif tzrf;cH&vsuf/ pGJqdkxm;onfh twdkif; tjypfay;cH&_yD;/ 1948=ckESpf/ arv (8) &ufae‹wGif tif;pdefaxmifY ¯ud;ay;cH&onf? ref;bcdif (43) ESpf/ [oFmwrS u&ifvlrsKd;wOD;jzpf_yD; *syefodrf;ydkufxm;pOfu k jyefvnfccawmfve&mY yg0ifconf? pufrvufrXmeESihf tvkyorm;Xme0ef}uD;/ kH S f hJ + + f usnfqef (15) csufxreconf? ae&mwGiyif yGcsif;_yD;aoqH;onf? d S f hJ f J k 25 25 armifp;/ aoewform;/ rif;vS-rd›rS *VKefwyfzGJŒ0ifwOD;jzpf_yD; OD;apm. teD;uyf dk aemufvkdufjzpfI ol‹ _cHtwGif;Y apmpD;pGmuyif aexkdifcJholjzpfonf? ao'%fay; cH&onf? 1948 ckESpf/ arv (8) &ufae‹wGifyif tif;pdefaxmifY ao'%ftpD &ifc&onf? H 26 26
  14. 14. Zmwfvrf;0ify*Kd~ vfrsm; k AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f oufESif;/ aoewform;/ usKdufvwf-rd›rS *VKefwyfzGJŒ0ifa[mif;jzpf_yD; ,if;-rd› rsKd;cspfygwD. twGif;a&;rª;jzpfonf? OD;apmukd txl;-unfndK_yD; vkH;0OkH,kH -unfukd;pm;oljzpfonf? ao'%fay;cH&onf? 1948 ckESpf arv (8) &ufae‹wGif yif tif;pdeaxmifY ao'%ftpD&ifc&onf? f H xGuftajy;wGif vGwfajrmufEkdif&ef tultnDay;a&;twGuf ajcmufvkH;jyL;ao ewfwvufjzifh twGif;0efrsm;±kH; txGuf*dwfaygufrS apmifhaecJh&onf? ao'%f tay;cH&aomfvnf; tvkyf-urf;ESifhaxmif'%f tESpf (20) okd‹ av#mhcsjcif;cH&_yD; ,if;owif;ukd okcESiw-ydieufwnf; today;cHc&onf? hf f hJ armifpe/f aoewform;/ ¯udŒyifaumuf-rdrjS zpfI ppftwGi;u AkvcsKyfatmifqef;. d › f d f Armhwyfrawmfom;jzpfc_hJ y;aemuf jynfo&abmftzGŒJo‹dk 0ifa&mufconf? olrbrsm; D ‹l J hJ ‹d rSm rsKd;cspfygwDukd vkdvm;ESpfoufolrsm;jzpfI olukd OD;apm. aemufvkdufjzpf&ef ‹ odr;oGi;qGaqmifc-hJ uonf? ao'%fay;cH&onf? 1948 ckEp/f arv (8) &ufae‹ f f J S wGif &efuetusOf;axmifY ao'%ftpD&ifc&onf? k f H r_e}f u;D / }uH&mygwOD;jzpfI a&SŒajy;tzGŒJ Eihf vkuygoGm;cJonf? tkwz-dk rdteD;rS aus; S d f h f › &Gmom;jzpf_yD; tvkyf-urf;orm;wOD;jzpfonf? OD;apmu ol‹ukd tapcHwOD;uJhokd‹ ckdif;cJhonf? 0ef}uD;tzGJŒpnf;a0;aea-umif; vlowform;rsm;ukd olu tcsufjycJh &onf? ao'%fay;cH&onf? 1948 ckESpf/ arv (8) &ufae‹wGif tif;pdefaxmifY ao'%ftpD&ifc&onf? H &ef}u;D atmif/ touf (18) ESpom&S.? toufti,fq; aoewform;jzpfonf? f d Hk OD;apm w0rf;uGn.om;jzpfonf? pwkwajrmufaoewform;? vktyfvmonfh J D ˆ d aemufqkH;tcsdefusrS ol‹ukd a&G;cs,fcJhjcif;jzpfonf? ol. waZmufuef;tusifh a-umifh aoewform;tjzpf tH0ifciusjzpfconf? ao'%fay;cH&onf? 1948 ckEp/f Gf hJ S arv (8) &ufae‹wGif &efukeftusOf;axmifY ao'%ftpD&ifcH&onf? b!Ge‹f / }uH&mygwOD;jzpfI a&SŒajy;tzGŒJ wif yg0ifonf? OD;apm.vl,awmf t"du G Hk aemufvuacgif;aqmifjzpf_yD; olwOD;om OD;apm.tdrtwGi; aexkici&onf? dk f f f d f G hf tod^m%f&SdI tkd;onfukef;w&m;±kH;wGif pma&;jzpfcJhonf? ocifEktm;owf&ef wm0eftay;cH&onf? bk&ifhoufao (azmfaumif) tjzpf bufajymif;xGufqkd&ef oabmwlcojl zpfonf? xka-umifh tajctaet& oltm; tjypfrcivwr+ tay; hJ ‹d ‹ S G hf $ f cH&vsuf tvkyf-urf;ESifh jyif;xefaomaxmif'%f (10) ESpfESifh (6) v csrSwfcH cJ&onf? h okc/ vlowform;rsm;tm; twGif;0ef±kH;okd‹ *spfum;jzifh armif;ykday;cJholjzpfonf? ‹ &efukef-rd›&Sd tpkd;&txufwef;ausmif;rS (9) wef;atmifjrifcJhonf? ppf_yD;aemuf usKdufvwf-rd› zqyvtzGJŒ. aiGxdef;jzpf_yD; ukefonfwOD;jzpfonf? oufESif;u ol‹ukd OD;apmESifh rdwfqufay;cJhonfhtjyif rsKd;cspfygwDwGJzuftwGif;a&;rª;tjzpf pm&if;wifay;cJhonf? OD;apm. _cH0if;okd‹ vkyf}uHr+rwkdifrD aemufqkH;a&muf&Sdvm oljzpfonf? ao'%fay;cH&aomfvnf; ¯ud;ay;rnfhae‹ rwkdifrDae‹ naeykdif;wGifrS tvkyf-urf;ESifhaxmif'%f tESpf (20) okd‹ av#mhcsjcif;cH&onf? cifarmif&if/ }uH&mygwOD;jzpfI a&SŒajy;tzGJŒpD;aom zkd'fqefx&yfum;ukd armif;ol ‹ jzpfonf? OD;apmZeD;onf. wlawmfonf? 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ tpnf;ta0;xkiaea-umif; df v#Kd‹0SufoauFwjzifh owif;ay;_yD; vlowform;rsm; xGufcGmvm&ef tcsufjycJh onf? ao'%ftay;cH&aomfvnf; aemufykdif;wGif tvkyf-urf;ESifhaxmif'%f tESpf (20) okd‹ av#mhcsjcif;cH&onf? Oya'qd k i f & myk * ~ d K vf r sm; w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;ausmjf rif/h 1898 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf? 0wfvkHawmf&rif;ESifh w&m;v$wfawmf w&m;ol}uD;rif; (1946 ckESpfrSpI)? OD;apmukd ppfaq;pD&ifcsuf csaom txl;ckH±kH;awmf.OuU@/ vGwfvyfa&;&_yD;aemuf w&m;v$wfawmfcsKyf. w&m;ol}uD;rif;jzpfvmonf? xif&Sm;ausmf-um;aom nDtukdav;OD;jzpfonfh Adkvfr;csKyfwifxGÉf (t}uD;qkH;)/ w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;jrifhodef;/ a'gufwmxifatmif ª wkwif 'kw,ajrmufjzpfonf? 1988 ckEpf arvwGif uG,veconf? ‹d G d S f G f hJ armife/D }uH&mygwOD;jzpfI a&SŒajy;tzGJŒESifh vkdufygoGm;cJhonf? vlowform;rsm; 27 27 OD;atmifomausm/f tqifhjrifh puf&Sifw&m;ol}uD;rif;/ OD;apmudk ppfaq;aom txl;cHk±Hk;awmf. tzGJŒ0ifwOD;jzpfI/ vGwfvyfa&;&_yD;aemuf w&m;v$wfawmf 28 28
  15. 15. Zmwfvrf;0ify*Kd~ vfrsm; k AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f w&m;ol}uD;rif;jzpfvsuf/ xdk‹aemuf w&m;v$wfawmfcsKyf w&m;ol}uD;rif; jzpf vmonf? Amwefe (pf)˜ bif*srif&maz;&,f (Vertannes,Benjamin Raphael)/ ,cifu ppfwyfrS Adkvf}uD;wOD;jzpfI/ xdkaemuf &efukef°rd&Sd w&m;v$wfawmfwGif a&SŒaejzpf vm_yD;/ ‹ › OD;apmtwGuf ckcHumuG,fay;cJhonfh ti,fwef; Oya't}uHay;jzpfcJhonf? rlvZmwdtm;jzifh jrefrmEdiirjS zpfaomfvnf; vGwvyfa&;&_yD;onftcg t_idr;pm; kfH f h f ,lI _AdweEiio‹kd a&$Œajymif;oGm;cJonf? d f kd f H h bwfpf (cf) / rduu,f tD; (Busk, Michael E.)/ 'kwd,urBmppfwGif ‘csif;'pf’ (exk f S f kd f k › Chindit) rS ppfjyefwOD;jzpfI/ 1940=ckEprsm;. aemufyi;wGif &efue°f rd&dS &JwyfzŒJG wGif vufaxmufaumfr&Sifemrif;}uD; jzpfvmum/ vufeufudkifykvdyfwyfzGJŒ (Armed Police) twGuf jrpf}uD;em;wGif ucsifwi;&if;om;rsm;jzifh wyf&if;w&if; kd f zGJŒcJhonf? uy`wdef a';ApfADAD,ef; (Capt, David Vivian) ukd olu zrf;cJhonf? (atmufwGif±+)? OD;pDb;l / tqifhjrifh puf&Sifw&m;ol}uD;rif;jzpfI/ OD;apmudk ppfaq;aom txl;cHk±Hk; awmf. tzGJŒ0ifwOD;jzpfI/ vGwfvyfa&;&_yD;aemuf w&m;v$wfawmf. w&m;ol }uD;rif;wOD; jzpfvmonf? w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;aomif;pde/f 1906=ckESpfwGif oHvsifY arG;zGm;onf? tdENd, f S yËdnmOfc0efxrf; (ICS)/ w&m;a&;0ef}uD;Xme. twGi;0efEihf tusOf;axmifrsm; H OD;pD;csKyf wm0efrsm;udk 1947=ckEpwif w°ydiwnf; xrf;aqmifc&onf? 1948=ck S f G f hJ ESpf vGwfvyfa&;&&SdcsdefrS 1962=ckESpfwGif tem;,lcsdeftxd w&m;v$wfawmf. w&m;ol}uD;rif;wOD;jzpfI/ 1975=ckEpwif -opa-w;vsEdiio‹kd ul;ajymif;aexdif S f G kfH k S f f G f G h cJonf? rJvbe;°rd› (Melbourne) wGif 1989=ckEpY uG,veom;cJonf? h f k f AdvcsKyfxe;vSatmif/ 1902=ckESpfwGif &efukef°rd›YarG;zGm;cJhonf? t*Fvdyftpdk;& k f G f vufxuf bk&ifh&JwyfzGJŒ0ifESifh r+cif;pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;Xme. 'k=&JcsKyf/ OD;apmESifh ol‹vlrsm;udk vsifjrefpGm zrf;qD;EdkifcJhonfhftwGuf EdkifiHawmf. av;pm;r+udk cHcJh& onf? w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;aomif;pdeEihf twlwI OD;apm. vk°H cHa&;wm0efukd ,lchJ f S JG &onf? vGwvyfa&;&_yD;aemuf &JcsKyfjzpfvmcJ_h yD;/ 1948=ckEpf vGwvyfa&;&_yD; f S f aemuf -o*kwvwGif AdvcsKyf&mxl;jzifh 'k=OD;pD;csKyftqifo‹kd wd;jrijhf cif;cHc&onf? f k f h k ‡ hJ 1960=ckEpwif &efue°f rdY uG,veom;cJonf? S f G k › f G f G h umwpf/ bifepf˜ qm z&uf'&pf [ife&D ('J&uf) aupD (Curtis- Bennett, Sir Frederick Sf G h h d~ Henry (Derek) KC./ 1904 ckEpwif arG;zGm;cJonf? bk&ifOya't}uHay;yk*KvfjzpfI &mZ0wfr+cif;rsm;wGif atmifjrifausmf-um;aom _AdwdefEkdifiHom; a&SŒaewOD;jzpf onf? txl;ckH±kH;awmfwGif w&m;-ydif&mY ol‹ukdumuG,fckcH&ef t}uD;wef;t}uH ay;tjzpf OD;apmu iSm;&rf;cef‹tyfcJhonf? 1956 ckESpf Zlvkdifv (23) &ufae‹wGif olaexkdif&m vef'efwkdufcef;xJwGif aoqkH;vsuf&Sdonfukd awGŒ&onf? &ifcGJppf aq;olq&m0efu vGefcJhonfh (4=5) &ufuyif oltaejzifh aoqkH;_yD;jzpfonf[k ‹ xifjrifcsuay;onf? ok‹djzpfv#if olaoqk;&ufonf emrnfq;jzifh ausm-f um;vsuf f H dk ao'%fuscHcJh&aom ol.tr+onf usL;vGefcJhaom Zlvkdifv (19) &uf tr+ (9) ESpjf ynfajrmufonfh ae‹&ufcefwif jzpfaeayawmhonf? h ‹ G 29 29 S f G h S f wGwc˜f aumvif; ( Tooke, Colin)/ 1913=ckEpwif arG;zGm;cJonf? 1933= ckEprS f pI jrefrmhyvywyfzŒJGwif wm0efxrf;aqmifconf? 1945–46=ckEpw‹kdY om,m k d f G hJ S f 0wDc±dkif &J0efaxmufjzpfI/ OD;apmtr+udk v#Kd‹0SufpHkprf;axmufvS rf;aecJhol[k ,H-k unf&_y;/ OD;apmESiywfoufaom olziwrsm; tcd;cHc&onf? 1948=ckEpwif D hf ‹ kd f JG k hJ S f G ±kww&uf aoqH;oGm;cJonf? f k h cef;˜ tdyf (cs) (Khan,H)/ pD;yGm;a&;orm;wjzpfvJ t_idrf;pm;-unf;wyfAkdvf}uD;? f &efuef at'Dvrf;&Sd OD;apmaetdrEihf rsufEmcsif;qkiwif aexkio/l r+cif;pkprf;ppf k f S S df G df H aq;a&;Xme 'k=&JcsKyf. arwWm&yfccsuft& OD;apm. _cH0if;tm; rsufjcnfrjywf H apmif-h unfunconf? w&m;vkjd youfaotrSwf (39)? h l D hJ Ed k i f i H a &;orm;rsm; Advatmif}u;D / aygif;wnf°rdY 1919=ckEpwiarG;zGm;onf? 1945=ckEpwif *syef k f › S f Gf S f G qef‹usifa&;v+yf&Sm;r+Y jrpf0u|ef;ay:ESifh zsmyHkc±dkiftwGif; Adkvfae0if;. vuf±Hk; t&m&SwOD;tjzpf yg0ifvyuivmcJonf? d k f kd f h xdk‹aemuf vGwfvyfa&;&tHhqJqJ wyfrawmfudk jyefvnfzGJŒpnf;vdkufaom 30 30
  16. 16. Zmwfvrf;0ify*Kd~ vfrsm; k AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f tcg trSwf(4) Armhaoewfudkifwyf&if;wGif Adkvfae0if;vufatmufY tr+xrf; cJonf? qd&,vpfvrf;pOfygwD. pnf;±H;a&;rª;wOD;jzpfonf? 1962=ckEpY Advf h k S f k S f k csKyfae0if; tm%modr;onftcg awmfvea&;aumifp0ifwOD;jzpfvmonf? 1963 f h S f D =ckESpfwGif xkwfy,fcH&_yD; 1988=ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkwGif EdkifiHa&;avm uod‹k jyef0ifvmcJonf? h a'guwmbarmf/ c&pf,mefrom;pkrþS 1897=ckEpwiþf arG;zGm;cJonf?þtmareD,efaoG; f d Sf G h wpdwwydi;ygonf[qonf? ude;b&pfwuUovwif ynmoif-um;cJ_h y;/ abmf f kf k kd f kd f G D kd f d f f h 'l;cfþ( Bordeaux) wuUovrS yDtycs'D (Ph.D) bGŒJ&cJonf? a&S;OD;tp ausmif;q&m b0ESifh xdk‹aemuf 0wfvHkawmf&jzpfvmonf? qif;&Jom; 0HomEkygwDudk zGJŒpnf;cJh onf? 1936=ckEprS 1939=ckEptxd eef;&if;0efjzpfonf? xdaemuf 'kw,urBmppf Sf Sf ‹k d twGi;þ*syefppfwyfuþzGŒJay;aomþtpd;&tzGŒJ.þt"dywdjzpfc_hJ y;/þ1947=ckEpþf vGwvyf f k D S f a&;r&rDtcsewiþf txde;odr;cH&onf?þ1977=ckEpþf arvwGiþf uG,veom;cJonf? df G f f S f Gf G h wOD;jzpfI/ xdaemuf *syefawmfvea&;t_y;/ vGwvyfa&;r&rD qd&,vpfygwDukd ‹k S f D f k S f pwifxlaxmifcJhol tzGJŒ0ifwOD;jzpfum/ 1950=ckESpfrsm;wGif OD;Ek. tpdk;&tzGJŒ twGif; wm0eftrsm;tjym;,lcJhonf? xdk‹a-umifh 1962=ckESpf AdkvfcsKyfae0if; tm%modr;onftcg tzrf;cH&vsuf/ 1966=ckEpwif jyefvwvmonf/ 1985= f h S f G G f ckEp/f pufwifbmvwGif uG,veonf? S f G f OD;ausm+f ir;f / ysO;rem;°rdY 1915=ckEpwiþf arG;zGm;onf?þ&efuewuUovwiþf ynm d f › S f G k f kd f G oif-um;cJh_yD;/þ1930=ckESpfrsm;wGifþausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfcJhI/þ1946=ck ESpfwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; ruG,fvGefao;rD (zqyv) tzGJŒcsKyf. taxGaxG twGif;a&;rª;csKyftjzpfrS xkwfy,fjcif;cHvdkuf&onfh uGefjrLepfygwDrS ocifoef; xGe;. ae&mudk qufcc&onf? xdaemuf OD;Ek 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfcsdewif jynfxa&; f H hJ ‹k f G J ESifh w&m;a&;Xme 0ef}uD;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ qdk&S,fvpfygwD. 'kwd,t}uD;qHk; acgif;aqmiftjzpfvnf;aumif; aqmif&GufcJh&I/ 1962=ckESpf AdkvfcsKyfae0if; tm %modr;onftcgYþtzrf;cHc&_yD;þ1966=ckEpwif jyefvwvmonf? 1986=ckEp/f f h hJ S f G G f S ZGevwGif &efue°f rdY uG,veom;cJonf? f k › f G f G h ocifApde/f 1910=ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf? &efukefwuUodkvfwGif ynmoif-um;cJh onf? ocifAaomif;wdEitwl uGejf rLepf0g'udk OD;pGm avhvmcJaom ausmif;om; ‹k S hf h acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfonf/ xdkaemuf 1930=ckESpf wdkArmtpnf;t±Hk;udk a&S;OD;xl ‹ ‹ axmifcJholrsm;xJwGif wOD;tygt0ifjzpfonf? 'kwd,urBmppftwGif; 0if±dk;wef; tiftm;pkrsm;tay: vdvm;cJojl zpfonf? xda-umifh *syefacwfY oltm; refcsL;ud; k h ‹k ‹ k odk‹ jrefrmEdkifiH. oHtrwf}uD;tjzpf ceftyfjcif;udk cH&onf? 1947=ckESpfwGif vef ‹ 'efo‹kd OD;atmifqef;ESitwl vduygoGm;cJonf? vufsmEdiia&;orm;jzpfonf? hf k f h kfH OD;AaqG/ xm;0,f°rdY 1915=ckEpwiarG;zGm;onf? &efuewuUovwif ynmoif › S f Gf k f kd f G -um;cJonf? 1930=ckEprsm;wGif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifjzpfconf? 1945=ckEpf h S f hJ S wGif qd&,vpfygwD. OuU@tjzpf wifajr‡mufjcif;cH&aomfvnf; ocifjrudk OD;pm; k S f ay;onftaejzifh Ekwxuconf? xda-umifh ocifjr vky}f uHc&_y;aemufrS qd&,f h f G f hJ ‹k H D k S vpfacgif;aqmif jzpfvmjyefonf? (1956–57) ckESpfwGif c%wm 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpf cJao;onf? od&mwGif 1962=ckEpf Advae0if; tm%modr;vduonftcg tzrf;cH h ‹k S k f f k f h &_y;/ 1966=ckEpwif jyefvwvmonf? 1987=ckEp/f 'DZifbmvwGif uG,veonf? D Sf G G f S f Gf OD;Ek (c) ocifE/k 0g;c,fr°rd›Y 1907=ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf/ 1930=ckESpfrsm;wGif wdArmtpnf;t±H;udk pwifxaxmifcorsm;xJwif wOD;tygt0ifjzpfonf? 1947= ‹k k l hJ l G ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf trsm;oabmwl wifajr‡mufjcif;cH&vsuf jref rmEdii. 'Drua&pDumvrsm;twGi; qlyaomif;use;r+rsm; jzpfym;aeonf-h um;rS kfH kd f l f G zGŒJpnf;cJaom tpd;&tzGŒJrsm;wGif olomv#if 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf t-umqk;aqmif&uchJ h k H G f &oljzpfonf? odaomf 1962=ckEpwif AdvcsKyfae0if;u oltm; &mxl;rSz,f&m;cJ_h y; ‹k Sf G k f ‹ S D zrf;qD;axmifcsconf? 1966=ckEpwif jyefvnfvwvm_yD; AdvcsKyfae0if; ppft hJ S f G G f k f pd;&udk qefusiawmfvea&;twGuf pnf;±H;&ef jynfyodxucmcJonf? 1980=ckEpf k ‹ f Sf k ‹k G f G h S vGw_f ir;csr;omcGiay;&mwGif jrefrmEdiio‹kd jyefa&mufvm_y; ol 0ef}uD;csKyfb0u d f f hf kfH D vkyvufp ydËuwf bmomjyefvyief;udk jyefvyaeqJwif 1988=ckEpf 'Drua&pD f k f k f G S kd ta&;awmfywif yg0ifum pufwifbmv (9) &ufae‹wif olu,wif 0ef}uD;csKyf kH G G kd f kd tjzpfESifh -um;jzwftpdk;&tzGJŒudk a-unmcJhonf? xdk‹a-umifh tpdk;&u ol‹tm; 1989=ckEpf 'DZifbmvrS 1992=ckEpf {_yDvtxd tdrwi; tus,fcsKyfcsxm;jcif; S S f Gf cHc&onf? xdaemuf 1995=ckEpf azazmf0g&DvwGif &efue°f rdY uG,veom;onf? hJ ‹k S k › f G f G Advcifarmifuav;/ awmifil°rdY 1912=ckESpfwGifþarG;zGm;onf/þ&efukefwuUodkvfY k f › ynmoif-um;cJhonf? a&S;OD;tp ausmif;q&mvkyfcJh_yD;/ wyfrawmfwGif t&m&Sd 31 31 ocif±_armif/ (c) Adkvfae0if;/ jynf°rd›teD;&Sd aygif;wvnf°rd›Y 1910=ckESpfwGif 32 32
  17. 17. Zmwfvrf;0ify*Kd~ vfrsm; k AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f arG;zGm;onf? &efue°f rd/› *syqifaumvdyY ynmoif-um;cJaomfvnf; 1931=ckEpf k f f h S wGif bGJŒr&bJ ausmif;rSxGufcGmcJh&onf? pmwdkufpma&;rS &JabmfoHk;usdyf0if jzpfvm_yD;aemuf 1943=ckESpfrS 1945=ckESpftxd jrefrmhtrsKd;om;wyfrawmf. ppfOD;pD;rª;jzpfonf? wzef 1949=ckESpfrS 1972=ckESpftxd wyfrawmf. umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyftjzpf aqmif&Gufum/ 1962=ckESpfwGif ppfwyfjzifh EdkifiH awmftm%mudk odrf;,lcJhonf? xdk‹a-umifh 1962=ckESpfrS 1974=ckESpftxd awmfvea&;aumifp. OuU@tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ 1974=ckEprS 1981=ckEptxd S f D S f S f qdk&S,fvpfEdkifiHþorRwtjzpfvnf;aumif;/ 1962=ckESpfrS 1988=ckESpftxd jrefrmhq&,vpfvrf;pOfygwD. OuU@tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ °ydi0or&Sd aqmif&ucI/ kd S f f hH l G f hJ ,cktcsdefwGif (rqv) ygwDudk zsufodrf;vdkufaomfjim;vnf;/ ,ae‹txd ol. -oZmESifhtm%mrSm ppfwyfxJwGif euf±+dif;pGm pl;0ifaeqJ[k ,lqaecJhaomfvnf; ol.wefckd;tm%m !SdK;rSdefvmonf? 2002 ckESpf/ rwfvwGif ajr; (3) a,mufESifh orufwkd‹ EkdifiHawmfopPmazmufr+jzifh zrf;qD;jcif;cH-u&_yD;aemuf olukd,fwkdifyif tus,fcsKyfcHae&pOf 'DZifbmv (5) &ufae‹wGif &efukef-rd› aetdrfY uG,fvGef oGm;onf? wGif EdiijH cm;a&;0ef}uD;wm0efþxrf;aqmifconf? 1948=ckEpf -o*kwvwGif Advf kf hJ S f k rª;csKyf&mxl;jzifh t&efwyfzŒJGrsm; OD;pD;&ef 0ef}uD;tzGŒJrEwxu_f yD; ol tkycsKyfwnf; S k f G f k f G jzwfvsu&aom (The New Burma Times) owif;pmwdua&SŒwif pufwifbmv f dS twGi; vky}f uHowfjzwfjcif;cH&onf? ol.tpfurm w&m;v$wawmfcsKyf/ w&m; f kd S f 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;ausmfjrifjh zpfonf? ocifxe;tky/f 1907=ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf/ &efukefESifh udkvHbdk°rd›wdk‹wGif ynm G f oif-um;cJhI wdkArmtpnf;t±Hk;. tjcm;ppftkyfpk. acgif;aqmif (ocif ApdefESifh ‹ twl/ Adkvfae0if;vnf; xdktkyfpkwGifyg0ifonf) olonf [pfwvm (Hitler’s) . ‘rdkifuef‹’ (Mein Kampf) vrf;a-umif;twdkif; a&;om;xm;aom u|Ekfyfwdk‹ pGef‹ pm;cef;’ (Our Exploits) udk a&;om;oljzpf_yD;/ 1940=ckESpfwGif *syefodk‹ vdkufyg oGm;cJonf? h 1940=ckESpfrsm;ESifh 1950=ckESpfrsm;wGif twdkuftcH vufsmEdkifiHa&;orm; b0Y &yfwnf&if; 1970=ckEpf Zefe0g&DvwGif uG,veom;cJonf? S f G f G h ocifoef;xGe;/ ysOf;rem;°rd›Y 1915=ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;cJhonf? ausmif;q&mtjzpf f vkyfudkifcJhI *syefacwf a'gufwmbarmf tpdk;&tzGJŒ Y 0ef}uD;&mxl;vufcHcJh_yD;/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. ZeD;a':cif-unf. tpfrjzpfol a':cifcif}uD;udk vufxyf ,lcJhonf? 1949=ckESpftxd (zqyv)tzGJŒcsKyf. taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;tjzpf vnf;aumif;/ uGefjrLepfygwD ESpfjcrf; uGJoGm;_yD;aemuf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD (BCP) . acgif;aqmif jzpfvmygonf? ,if;ygwDonf 1948=ckESpf rwfv wGif ajratmufygwDtjzpfjzifh A[dktpdk;&udk v+yf&Sm;wufºuGpGm ykefuefcJhonf? aemufq; 1968 ckEpwif yJc;±d;rawmxJY olv,awmf &JabmfjroD;. vky}f uHjcif; kH Sf G l k ‹ l kH cHc&onf? hJ udkvdkeDtm%mydkifrsm; tufwvD/ tm;vfuvDrif/h tm/ (Atlee, Earl Clement R.) 1883 ckEpwif arG;zGm;cJonf? 1945=55 ckEpwif avbmygwD. 0ef}uD;csKyf/ Sf G h Sf G AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒukd vef'efokd‹zdwfac:I 1947 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv (13) &ufae‹rpI awGŒqaqG;aEG;cJonf? Zefe0g&Dv (27) &ufae‹wif S Hk h G atmifqef;=tufwvDpmcsKyf csKyfqkdtqkH;owfEkdifcJhonf? OD;apmtay: _Adwdo# 0ef}uD;csKyf. tptOD;tjrifrsm;rSm *k%,z,r&Syg? jrefrmhvwvyfa&;ESihf ,if;ESihf f lG f d G f qufE,aeaom udp&yfrsm;ESiywfoufI aemufyi;wGif Ek=tufwvDpmcsKyfudk G f P hf dk f vef'efwGif 1947 ckESpf atmufwkdbmvwGif vufrSwfa&;xkd;csKyfqkdEkdifcJhonf? tufwvDonf 1967 ckEpwif uG,veconf? S f G f G f hJ OD;wifxÉ/f 1895=ckEpwif arG;zGm;onf? 'g;vf0pfcsf aumvdyf (Dulwich College) G S f G ESifh udef;b&pfwuUodkvf ( Cambridge University) wdwGif ynmoif-um;cJhonf? k‹ D k f kd f tdE,yËdnmOfc0efxrf; (ICS) wOD;jzpf_y;/ &efuewuUov. 'k=t"dywd (VicedN H hJ kf S Chancellor) jzpfconf? 'ditmcDacwfEihf (91) Xmeacwfrsm;Y 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ tawmf rsm;rsm;wGif twGi;0efcsKyftjzpf aqmif&uc&_yD;/ 1948=ckEpf vGwvyfa&;&csdef f G f hJ S f 33 33 a':refprpf/ qm–&D*sie,f [sL; ( Dorman-Smith, Sir Reginald Hugh) f 1899=ckEpwif arG;zGm;cJ_h y; (1935–41) ckEprsm;wGif uGeqmaA;wpf (ConSf G D Sf f hJ d servative MP) trwfjzpfcI/ _Adwo#0ef}uD;tzGŒJ tawmfrsm;rsm;wGif 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ 0if 34 34
  18. 18. Zmwfvrf;0ify*Kd~ vfrsm; k AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ (1941–46) ckEprsm;twGi; jrefrmEdii. bk&ifcwOD;jzpfum S f f kfH H OD;apmESivnf; rsm;pGm tu|r;0ifowOD;jzpfonf? xdaemuf _Awo# trsK;om;a&; hf f l k d d d jynfo0efxrf;od‹k jyefr0ifaomfvnf; [ef±i;,m;e,f wm0ef,&aom tqifjh rif&r; ‹l ‹ d+ f l h Jª (High Sheriff of Hampshire) ESifh ajy_idrf;a&; wm0efcH (JP) tvkyfrsm; vkyfudkif ygonf? 1977=ckEpwif uG,veom;cJonf? S f G f G f G h vdw0w/f qm*|e*;D vfbwf/ ( Laithwaite, Sir John Gilbert) fd f 1894=ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf? 1919=ckESpfwGif tdENd,EdkifiHqdkif&m EdkifiHjcm; a&;Xmeodk‹ 0ifa&muftr+xrf;cJhI (1939–43) wGif bk&ifcH. udk,fa&;twGif; 0eftjzpf tr+xrf;aqmifcJhonf? (1945–48) ckESpfrsm;wGif EdkifiHjcm;a&;XmeY jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m vufaxmuftwGif;0ef ( Deputy Under Secretary of State) tjzpf wm0ef,conf? l hJ &ef‹/ AdvcsKyf qm/ [sL;bwf (Rance, Major-General Sir Hubert) k f 1898=ckEpwif arG;zGm;onf? (1943=45) ESprsm;wGif ,lau taemufyi; S f G f kd f ppfOD;pD;XmeY wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh_yD; (1945=46) ESpfrsm;wGif jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m òrdj› ya&;&mþ!¸e-f um;a&;rª;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ wzef 1946=ck/þ-o*kwvrSþ1948=ck/ f Zefe0g&Dvtxd jrefrmEdii. aemufq; bk&ifctjzpfvnf;aumif;/ jrefrmEdii. kfH Hk H kfH txl;xl;taxGaxG vlrsKd;a&;a&m 0g'a&;yg uJGjym;ae-uonfh EdkifiHa&;tkyfpkrsm; t-um;wGif bufrvdkufbJ ajzmifhrwfpGm wm0efxrf;aqmifcJholwOD;jzpfonf? (1950=54) wGif x&ifheif'ufESifh wdkbmudk;EdkifiH. bk&ifcHESifh ppfaoemywdcsKyf wm0efxrf;aqmifconf? 1974=ckEpwif uG,veom;cJonf? hJ S f G f G f G h vpfw0v/f (5) qufajrmuf tm;vfatmhzf (0Dv,H z&ef‹ppf[,m;) kd J D J th ( Listowel, the 5 . Earl of (William Francis Hare) 1907=ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf/ 1947=ckESpf {_yDvrSpI EdkifiHjcm;a&;XmeY tdENd,EdkifiHESifh jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m twGif;0eftjzpfvnf;aumif;/ (1947=ck/ -o*kwf vrS 1948=ck/ Zefe0g&Dvtxd) jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m twGif;0eftjzpfvnf;aumif; aqmif&uconf? 1997=ckEpwif uG,veom;cJonf? G f hJ S f G f G f G h armifbufwef/ Apfaumifh armifbufwef atmhzf bm;rm; h h (a&wyfAvcsKyf avmh-vl0pf-z&efppf-tJvbwf-Apfwm-eDuvufp) kd f J kd f (Mountbatten, Viscount Mountbatten of Burma (Rear-Admiral Lord Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas) 1900=jynfEpwif arG;zGm;onf? (1943=46) ESprsm;wGif tm&S. r[mrdwf h S f G f wyfaygif;pk ppfaoemywdcsKyftjzpf wm0ef,lcJh&oljzpfonf? xdk‹aemuf (1947/ rwfvrS -o*kwfvtxd) tdENd,EdkifiH. bk&ifhtkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mykdif (Viceroy) tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ bk&ifcHcsKyf (Governor-General) tjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0ef xrf;aqmifcJhjyefonf? txl;ojzifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tm; av;pm;vsuf vGwf vyfaom jrefrmjynf.acgif;aqmiftjzpf rsm;pGm ta&;ay;cJojl zpfonf? 1979=ck/ h -o*kwvwGif owfjzwfjcif;cH&onf? f 35 35 olwdk‹b,folawGvJ bif*av/ *|epwsL;0yf ( Bingley, John Stewart ) f 1899=ckEpwif arG;zGm;cJonf? (1946=47) ckEprsm;twGi; jrefrmEkiiwif S f G h S f f dfH G _Adwdo#aumifpD ( British Council) . udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf &efukef-rd›Y aexkdifcJh onf? OD;apmu tif;pdefaxmifxJrS pmtcsKd‹ olxHa&;om;_yD; aiGawmif;cHcJhonf? ‹ axmufvSr;a&;vkyief;rsm;wGif ol yg0ifywfoufaeonf[k ocifE/k OD;ausm_f ir;ESihf f f df tcsKdyk*~dKvfrsm;u t}uD;tus,foHo,jzpf-uonf? 1947=ckESpf/ pufwifbmv ‹ (4) &ufae‹wif jrefrmEdiirS tavmok;q,f xGucmoGm;cJonf? 1979=ckEpwif G kfH H f G h S f G _AdwdefEdkifiH/ qa&; (Surrey) e,fwGif uG,fvGefoGm;onf? 'de;/ Advr; yDwmtm;euf vef‹pfavmh ( Daine, Major Peter Ernest Lancelot) f k f ª 1923=ckEpwif arG;zGm;cJonf? tdE, tcsujf yqufo,a&;wyfY 1944=rS S f G h dN G f pwifI t&m&Sdtqifhudk &&SdcJhonf? 1947=ckESpfwGif ArmhppfOD;pD;XmecsKyf axmuf vS rf;a&;wyfY wm0efxrf;aqmifvsuf/ r*Fvm'kH ajrmufbuf&Sd yifr cJ,rf;rD; ausmufwdkuf. wyfr;vnf;jzpfonf? OD;apmwynfhrsm; xkwf,loGm;aom vuf ª eufrsm;ESifh ywfoufI oltm; zrf;qD;jcif;r&Sd? ‹ rd;/ Advr; a*s/ at (Moore, Major J.A) k k f ª 1908=ckEpwif arG;zGm;onf? tdE,wyfrawmf. vufeuf}uD;wyfrS t&m S f G dN &SwOD;jzpf_y;/ Advwaxmif&dS yifrcJ,rf;rD;ausmufwu. wyfr;jzpfygvsuf OD;apm d D k f kd f ª 36 36
  19. 19. Zmwfvrf;0ify*Kd~ vfrsm; k AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f wynfrsm; xkw,om;onfh vufeufrsm;ESiywfoufI olukd zrf;qD;cJaomfvnf; h f l G hf ‹ h jypf'%fusc&jcif;r&S? H d (Twentieth Century Impressions of Burma) ‚if;. “orki;/ jynfo/ ukeo,r/ df l f G f + OD;aratmif u|efawmhfbcifbufrS tzkd; OD;aratmif a&;om;cJhonhf “enf;[efESifh "avhxkH;pH” (Manners & Customs) aqmif;yg;rS aumufEkwfcsufrsm;ukd atmuf ygtwki; azmfjyygrnf? Taqmif;yg;onf v+u*&dwwm _Awepmtkyf xkwa0a&; df d f f d df f ukr%vrwufrS 1910 ckEpwif xkwa0cJonfh “jrefrmEkii. 20 &mpktjrifrsm;” ` D d d S f G f h dfH pufrvufrvyief;rsm;ESihf o,HZmwt&if;tjrpfrsm;” *sme,fwif xnfoi;xm; + + k f G h Gf jcif;jzpfonf? (pmrsufEm=77 ESihf 88)? S “arG;zGm;jcif;ESifhuav;b0? tjcm;wkdif;jynfrsm;rS uav;i,frsm;uJhokdyif ‹ jrefrmuav;i,frsm;rSm vlavmutwGif;okd‹ aysmf&$ifjrL;wl;jcif;rsm;pGmjzifh aºuG; ‹ a-umf0ifa&mufvmcJonf?æ h uav;arG;zGm;_yD; (7) &ufajrmufonfhwkdif vma&mufowif;ar;jref;ol {nfhonfrsm;tm; wae‹ywfvnfvkH; {nfhcHavh&Sdonf?ææt"duajymqkdonfh ta-umif;t&mrSm uav;i,fta-umif;jzpfonf? olarG;zGm;vmonfh &ufESifh vwkd‹ESifh ywfoufI aqG;aEG;-uonf? ol‹tem*wfESifhywfoufI aysmf&$ifzG,f aumif;aom edrdwfzwfr+rsm;ukd «yvkyf-uonf? 0gqkdv (ZGef/ Zlvkdif) wGifarG;aom a,musfm;av;ESifh jymokdv (Zefe0g&D/ azazmf0g&D) wGifarG;aom rdef;uav;wkrSm d‹ vlavmu. aumif;cs;axmyemt00ukd cHpm;&rSmuse;aoonf? Ak'[;om;onf ‹ D d f < l csrf;omrnf/ aom-umom; pum;rsm;rnf ponfponfwtjyif tjcm;ta-umif; kd‹ t&mrsKd;pkHukd uav;i,fwa,muf arG;zGm;csdefwGif rvGJraoGajym-uqkd-uonf? ykÀm;uJoaom q&mwyg;yg; (ausmif;q&m okr[kwf ynm&SwOD;OD;)þukþd yifzw_f y; h ‹ dk ‹d d hd D uav;arG;zGm;vmonfh euQwtcsdeudk rSwom;apum uav;i,f. trnfemr f f f a&G;cs,&mY uln!ejf yaponf? jrefrmvlrsK;wkwif (&ckivrsK;wkrvI)þrdbrsK;±k; f D ¸ d ‹d G d f l d ‹ d S JG d d emrnftpOfudk ,l±;r&Sacs? rnfonft&yfwumwGirqkþd emrnfwrmþwykpwnf; dk d h f ‹dk S H H jzpf_yD;þrdbrsKd;±k;pOfqufudk jyo±k;r&Sacs? trsm;pkrm emrnf (2) rsKd;&S_d yD; wrsKd;rSm d d d S euQwtvkt& ZmwmwGif xnfoi;aomtrnfemrjzpfI tjcm;wrsK;rSm oifovkd f d h Gf d h a&G;vkujf cif;aomfvnf;aumif;/ rdbrsm; pdwu;rdovkvnf;aumif;/ ajymifavSmif d f l d ac:&if;rS rGr;rHjyifqifIaomfvnf;aumif; rSnac:vkuonfh trnfemrjzpfonf? f hf d f yxremrnfrsK;rSm a&S;±k;pOfvmtok;«yvmonfh emrnfrsm;jzpfI ,if;uk-d unfjh cif; d d H jzifh uav;i,farG;zGm;vmonfh &ufowWywftwGif;rS ae‹&ufukd rSefuefpGmajym qkEionf? jrefrmtuQ&mrsm;rS pum;vk;rsm;ukd &ufowWywf (7) &ufrS (1) &uf d dk f H pDtm; tcsKd;csay;xm;onf? u/ c/ */ C/ i wkonf wevFmae‹twGu? p/ q/ Z/ ‹d f ps/ n wkd‹onf t*Fgae‹twGuf/ y/ z/ A/ b/ r wkd‹onf -umoyaw;ae‹twGuf pojzif? ok‹djzpfI t*Fgae‹om;onf armifpef (okr[kw) armifaZmf/ -umoyaw;ae‹ h d ‹d f orD;onf rjzL (okd‹r[kwf) rjr pojzifh jzpfvmonf? armifESifhr pum;vkH;wkd‹rSm (Master or Mister and Miss) wkd‹ESifh wlnD_yD; a,musfm;/ rdef;rvdifukd !¸efjyonfh 37 38 ADA,ef;/ uy`wef a';Apf (Vivian, Captain David) D d 1932 ckESpfwGif pwif t&m&Sdjzpfvmonf? tdENd,wyfrawmfrS jrefrmvuf eufuiyvywyfzŒJGo‹kd vufeuft}uHay;yk*Kd~ vftjzpf aqmif&u&ef v$ajymif;jcif; kd f k d f G f J cH&vsuf/ Zlvdkifv (20) &ufwGif tzrf;cH&_yD; vufeufrsm; a&mif;csr+jzifh pJGcsuf wifc&onf? axmif'%f (5) ESpEihf ±ly;ig;axmif aiG'%f (2) ck yl;wGJ tjypfay;cH& H f S D onf? odaomf 1949=ckEpf tif;pdeukd u&ifvufeufuioyewyfrsm; odr;ydu&m ‹k S f kd f l k f f k f wGif vGwajrmufcojzifh u&ifawmfvea&;orm;rsm;ESihf yl;aygif;cJonf? xdaemuf f hJ h S f h ‹k tv,f±;rrSwqifh ta&S±;rawmwGi; vufeufuif u&ifpcef;rsm;od‹k a&mufom; dk › dk f kd G &mrS 1950=ckESpf/ -o*kwfvwGif xdkif;e,fpyfteD;&Sd aumhu&dwfe,fajrtwGif; v,fwJwckY u&ifhawmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmif apmbOD;}uD;ESifhtwl acwWpcef;cs aecduf ArmhwyfrawmfEihf wduyjGJ zpfum towfc&onf[k jrefrmtm%mydirsm;u k S k f H kf ,lqcJaomfjim;vnf; trSepifppf xdae‹u xkae&mwGif olr&Scyg? 1950=ESpv,f h f k d d hJ f cef‹Y xdi;Ediirwqifh _AweEiio‹kd jyefom;onftcsetxd olonf ESpaygif;rsm;pGm kf kfHS d d f kd f H G h df f u&ifawmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;ESifh vGwfajrmufe,fajrrsm;twGif; aexdkifcJhonf? xdaemuf (1980) ckESpftwGif; a0ve,f/ qGrfpD;òrdwGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf? k‹ › &ef;/ Advr; pD[ife&D ( Young, Major C. Henry) k f ª tdE,wyfrawmf v#yppfEihf pufrtif*sie,m tvky±wyfc. wyfr;wOD; dN f S + f D f Hk GJ ª jzpfI OD;apmudk vufeufay;urf;cJhr+jzifh 1947=ck/ -o*kwfv (24) &ufae‹wGif tzrf;cH&_yD; axmif'%f (2) ESpf tjypfay;cH&aomfvnf; toem;cHpmwifojzifh v$way;cJonf? jrefrmEdiirS csufcsif; xGucmoGm;cJygonf? f h kfH f G h jrefrmtrnfrsm;ESifh ywfoufaom rSwfcsuf 37 38
  20. 20. Zmwfvrf;0ify*Kd~ vfrsm; k ,Ofaus;odrarGŒpm tok;«yaom emrnfa&Spnf;rsm;jzpf-uonf? emrnfa&Spnf;ukd f G H › › xnfrwGuv#if ESpv;kH wGtrnfrsm;jzpfonfh armifomcif/ armifz;kd wuf/ armifb&Si/f h f f J rpef;ar/ raiGbi/hf rzGm;jrpfwrm tok;rsm;_yD; ok;vk;wG/J av;vk;wGJ emrnfrsm;rSm G ‹dk S H H H H &ckivrsKd;wkrvI tok;enf;onf? jrefrmpmrSm Asnf;wvk;pDtoHxu_f yD; emrnf df l ‹d S JG H H G . pum;vkH;wkdif;wGif t"dy`m,f&Sdonf? okaomfvnf; emrnfqkdonfrSm t"dy`m,f d‹ oufa&mufapcsifovkd a,bk,s okr[kwf vktyfovkd &nf!e;rSnac:xm;jcif; ‹d d ¸ f hf jzpfonf[k tcsKdpma&;olrsm; a&;ouJo‹dk ,lqrnfqv#ifvnf; rSm;,Gi;ygonf? ‹ h dk f okaomfvnf; tcsKdae&mrsm;wGif xkuo‹dk rSnac:avh&-dS ujyefonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh ‹d ‹ d hJ hf armifbcspf (zcif.tcspf) okd‹r[kwf rzGm;ouf (tzGm;.touf) pojzifh/ ,ckacwfwGifrl uav;i,fwOD;.emrnfukd oihfovkd ¯uHovkdvnf;aumif; okd‹r[kwf vlwOD;wa,muf pdwful;rdovkdvnf;aumif; okd‹r[kwf xif&Sm;ausmf -um;aom yk*Kd~ vfwOD;OD;. trnfemrukd ,ljcif;jzifaomfvnf;aumif; rSnac: -u h hf onf? vlwOD;wa,muf. b0aemufykdif;wGif armif (okd‹r[kwf) r [lonfh emrnfa&SŒpnf;onf ajymif;oGm;onfudk Tae&mwGif azmfjy&efvayonf? t-urf; dk zsif;tm;jzifh touf (20) ESifh (35) ESpft-um; a,musfm;wOD;ukd emrnfa&SŒpnf; “ukd” (tukd) [k okH;E+ef;_yD; touf (30) ESpftxuf vlwOD;ukd “OD;” (OD;av;/ OD;}uD;) Oyrmtm;jzifh ukdbckdif/ OD;omvl pojzifh ac:a0:ayvdrfhrnf? tvm;wlyif vlvwfykdif;trsKd; orD;wOD;ukd “a':” (ta': ) wyfac:ayvdrfhrnf? Oyrmtm;jzifh a':apm? ,if;wkrm ,Ofaus;odrarGŒ pGmok;aom emrnfa&SŒpnf;rsm;jzpf_yD; touf ‹d S f H t&G,f}uD;rm;olESifh vlaer+tqifhjrifhrm;olrsm;. trnfemrukd &nf!¸ef;&mY ok;pG&ef vk;0Okvtyfygonf? tvm;wl a&SŒpnf;rsm;jzpfonfh zk; (tzk;) ESihf zGm; H J H H dk d d (tzGm;) wkurl ,cktcg jrif&cJygonf? jrefrmtrsKd;orD;wOD;onf vufxyfxr; ‹d dk d f jrm;_yD;aemuf olremrnfukd ajymif;vJjcif;r&SdbJ b0wav#mufvkH; ukd,fykdifem rnftjzpf xdef;odrf;xm;jcif;ESifh t*FvdyftokH;jzpfonfh rpPpf (Mrs) ESifh tvm;wl jrefrmpum;vk;r&Sjd cif;onf xl;jcm;csufw&yfjzpfonf?” H jrefrmemrnfa&SŒpnf;rsm;tok;ukd ykrjkd ynfpap&ef atmufygwkudk xyfrjH znfh H d h Hk ‹d pGuygonf? f _Adwdo#ukdvkdeDe,fcsJŒtkyfcsKyfolrsm; okH;pGJonfhtac:ykHpH (Master, Mistress) (ppftwGif; jrefrmEkdifiHukd 0ifa&mufodrf;ykdufxm;pOfu *syefrsm;yifv#if rmpwm Master [k olwudk ac:a0:apcJonf) ukd tefwonftaejzifh wkArmtpnf;t±k;0if ‹dk h k h ‹d H trsKd;om; trsKd;orD;rsm;taejzifh ocifESifh ocifr (Master and Mistress) [lI 1930 ckESpfrsm;twGif; ukd,fhukd,fukd ac:a0:okH;pGJvm-uonf? tpnf;t±kH;. em,u}uD;jzpfol ocifukd,fawmfr+dif;u ociftjyif ukd,fawmf[lonfhtokH;ukd rª;rwf (a lord) jzpfonfhtaejzifh xyfwkd;um txl;«yokH;pGJcJhonf? Akdvf[lonfhtokH;ukd ppfwyft&m&Sdrsm;rSmuJhokd‹yif ArmhvGwfvyfa&; wyfrawmf pwifzŒJGpnf;pOfupI t&m&Sceftyfc&olrsm; okr[kwf ceftyfc&onf[k d ‹ H ‹d ‹ H ,lqolrsm;u ‚if;wk. emrnfa&SŒpnf;tjzpf xifxifay:ay: okH;pGJvmcJh-uonf? d‹ 'k=Akdvf/ Adkvf}uD;/ Adkvfr;ESifh AdkvfcsKyf &mxl;tpOftwkdif;wkdrSm t_rJwrf; vufeuf ª ‹ ukdifwyfzGJŒ OD;pD;Xme (2nd Lieutenant rS General) txd tpOfvkduf tac:ta0: jzpfonf? b&Da*h',m (Brigadier) rSm tu,fpifppftm;jzifh wyfrif;}uD; (wyfrrª;) D ukd owfrSwfxm;jcif;jzpfonf? okd‹aomfvnf; AdkvfcsKyf}uD;rsm; (Generals) tjzpf tac:cHvkdaom ppfwyft&m&Sd tqifhqifhf taejzifh _Adwdo#pepfrS tar&duefpepf h H l ok‹d ajymif;vJ_yD; Advr;csKyf (Brigadier General) &mxl;tqifuþdk ajymif;vJc,c-hJ u k f ª jcif;jzpfonf? vlxk. -unfndKav;pm;cH&aom OD;atmifqef;twGufom AdkvfcsKyf}uD; (Great Supremo) qkonfh trnfacgif;pOfonf wcseaomtcgu oD;jcm;jzpfconf? d df hJ okaomfvnf; ol.orD;jzpfol 'Drua&pDcsey,tm; qefusi&mY rnfor# xdcuf ‹d dk f D H ‹ f ‹dk dk I r&onfh OD;atmifqef;ESifh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;[lonfh trnfemrwkd‹tm; AdkvfcsKyf}uD; rsm; trsm;tjym;ukd ckefysHausmfv$m;zefwD;vkduf_yD; omreftrnfemrw&yftjzpf e0w u txiftjrifa&mufapcJhonf? ukd,fhvlrsKd;ukdomowfjzwf_yD; rnfonfh ppfyGJrS rqifE$Jzl;onfh qkwHqdyf zJ¯ud;rsm; &iftjynfhxkd;vsuf ppfAdkvftm%m&Sif rsm;taejzifh xl;jcm;_yD; tjrifhqkH;jzpfonfh AdkvfcsKyfrª;}uD; (Senior General) &mxl;}uD;ukd zefwD;vkduf-ujyefonf? &S rf;rif;om; tEG,ft0ifrsm;url olwkd‹ trnfa&SŒwGif ‘pyf’ (Oyrmtm;jzifh pyfa&$ou) [k ok;pG-J uvsuf yk;u&ifrsm;u ref; (Oyrm=ref;0if;armif) [ko;pGum dk f H d Hk J paumu&ifrsm;u apm (Oyrm=apm[efwmomar$;) [k okH;E+ef;-uygonf? (*VKefOD;apmuJhoaom jrefrmemrnf apmESifh rvGJrSm;&ef vkdygonf?) ucsift}uD; kd‹ tuJrsm;url 'l;0g;[laom acgif;pnf;ukd ok; -uonf? (Oyrmtm;jzifh qrm;a'o&Sd H ucsift}uD;tuJ qrm;'l;0g; qif0g;aemif)? 39 39 AdvcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ k f 40 Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô 40
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