It has been a sincere desire of every individual to get an opportunity to express her/his views
,skill ,attitude and talents in which she/he is proficient so as to give an satisfaction and
confidence in her ability to do or produce something useful to mankind project is one such
avenue through which a management student gives vent to his feelings and expressions .
We take this opportunity to express our gratitude towards my guide Prof. Shubdha Joshi for
her constant encouragement, support and guidance in our endeavor, without which we would
have found it difficult to maintain our tempo and enthusiasm.
Sr. No TOPICS Pg No.
1. Objective of the Project 8
2. Introduction of Banking Sector 9
3. Introduction of Co-operative in India 10
4. Man Behind the Success of New India Co-operative Bank 11
5. Company Profile 12
6. Vision & Mission Statement 13
7. History of New India Co-operative Bank 14
8. Introduction of New India Co-operative Bank 15
9. Executive Summary 16
10. Board of Directors 17
11. Clearing Services offered by the Bank 18-19
12. Retail Banking 20-29
13. Corporate Banking 30-32
14. C.B.S. Services offered by the Bank 33-37
15. Loans provided by Bank 38-51
16. Loans Against Securities 52
HISTORY OF LEASING
Over the centuries, leases have served many purposes and the nature of legal
regulation has varied according to those purposes and the social and economic
conditions of the times. Leases, for example, were mainly used for agricultural
purposes until the late 18th century and early 19th century when the growth of
cities in industrialized countries had made leases an important form of
landholding in urban areas.
The modern law of landlord and tenant in common law jurisdictions retains the
influence of the common law and, particularly, the laissez-faire philosophy that
dominated the law of contract and property law in the 19th century. With the
growth of consumerism, consumer protection legislation recognized that common
law principles, which assume equal bargaining power between the contracting
parties, create hardships when that assumption is inaccurate. Consequently
reformers have emphasized the need to assess residential tenancy laws in terms of
protection they provide to tenants. Legislation to protect tenants is now common.
Lease financing denotes procurement of assets through lease. Leasing has grown
as a big industry in the USA and UK and spread to other countries during the
present century. In India, the concept was pioneered in 1973 when the First
Leasing Company was set up in Madras and the eighties have seen a rapid growth
of this business. Lease as a concept involves a contract whereby the ownership,
financing and risk taking of any equipment or asset are separated and shared by
two or more parties. Thus, the Lessor may finance and lessee may accept the risk
through the use of it while a third party may own it. Alternatively the lessor may
finance and own it while the Lessee enjoys the use of it and bears the risk. There
are various combinations in which the above characteristics are shared by the
lessor and lessee.
A lease transaction is a commercial arrangement whereby an equipment owner or
manufacturer conveys to the equipment user the right to use the equipment in
return for a rental.
In other words, lease is a contract between the owner of an asset (the lessor) and
its user (the lessee) for the right to use the asset during a specified period in return
for a mutually agreed periodic payment (the lease rentals).
The important feature of a lease contract is separation of the ownership of the
asset from its usage.
Lease financing is based on the observation made by Donald B. Grant: “Why own
a cow when the milk is so cheap? All you really need is milk and not the cow.”
Leasing industry plays an important role in the economic development of a
country by providing money incentives to lessee.
The lessee does not have to pay the cost of asset at the time of signing the contract
Leasing contracts are more flexible so Lessees can structure the leasing contracts
according to their needs for finance.
The Lessee can also pass on the risk of obsolescence to the lessor by acquiring
those 229 Appliances, which have high technological obsolescence. Today, most
of us are familiar with leases of houses, apartments, offices, etc
TYPES OF LEASE AGREEMENTS
Lease agreements are basically of types. They are
(a) Financial lease
(b) Operating lease
(c) Sale and lease back
(d) Leveraged leasing
(e) Direct leasing
(f) Sub lease
(g) Wet lease & Dry lease
(A) FINANCIAL LEASE
• Long-term, non-cancellable lease contracts are known as Financial
• The essential point of financial lease agreement is that it contains a
condition whereby the Lessor agrees to transfer the title for the asset at the
end of the lease period at a nominal cost.
• An option is given to the lessee to purchase the asset he has used at the
expiry of the lease.
• Under this lease, the Lessor recovers 90% of the fair value of the asset as
lease rentals and the lease period is 75% of the economic life of the asset.
• The lease agreement is irrevocable.
• Practically all the risks incidental to the asset ownership and all the benefits
arising there from are transferred to the Lessee who bears the cost of
maintenance, insurance and repairs.
• Only title deeds remain with the Lessor.
• Financial lease is also known as ‘Capital Lease’.
• In India, financial Leases are very popular with high-cost and high
(B) OPERATING LEASE
• An Operating Lease stands in contrast to the Financial Lease in almost all
• This Lease agreement gives to the lessee only a limited right to use the
• The Lessor is responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of the asset.
• The lessee is not given any uplift to purchase the asset at the end of the
• Normally the lease is for a short period and even otherwise is revocable at a
• Mines, Computers hardware, trucks and automobiles are found suitable for
Operating Lease because the rate of obsolescence is very high in this kind
(C) SALE AND LEASE BACK
• It is a sub-part of Finance Lease.
• Under this, the owner of an asset sells the asset to a party (the buyer), who
in turn leases back the same asset to the owner in consideration of lease
• However, under this arrangement, the assets are not physically exchanged
but it all happens in records only. This is nothing but a paper transaction.
• Sale and lease back transaction is suitable for those assets, which are not
subjected depreciation but appreciation, say land.
• The advantage of this method is that the lessee can satisfy himself
completely regarding the quality of the asset and after possession of the
asset convert the sale into a lease arrangement.
• The sale and lease back transaction can be expressed with the help of the
Structure of a Sale and Leaseback Deal
• Under this transaction, the seller assumes the role of a lessee and the buyer
assumes the role of a Lessor.
• The seller gets the agreed selling price and the buyer gets the lease rentals.
• It is possible to structure the sale at agreed value (below or above the fair
market price) and to adjust difference in the lease rentals. Thus the effect of
profit /loss on sale of assets can be deferred.
(D) LEVERAGED LEASING
• Under leveraged leasing arrangement, a third party is involved beside lessor
• The Lessor borrows a part of the purchase cost (say 80%) of the asset from
the third party i.e., lender and the asset so purchased is held as security
against the loan.
• The lender is paid off from the lease rentals directly by the lessee and the
surplus after meeting the claims of the lender goes to the lessor.
• The Lessor, the owner of the asset is entitled to depreciation allowance
associated with the asset.
• The lease back transaction can be expressed with the help of the following
Sells Asset Leases Asset
Manufacturer Lessor Lessee
Structure of a Leveraged Lease
(E) DIRECT LEASING
• Under direct leasing, a firm acquires the right to use an asset from the
• The ownership of the asset leased out remains with the manufacturer itself.
• The major types of direct Lessor include manufacturers, finance companies,
independent lease companies, special purpose leasing companies etc.
• A transaction in which leased property is released by the original lessee to a
third party, and the lease agreement between the two original parties
remains in effect.
(G) WET LEASE AND DRY LEASE:
• A wet lease is any leasing arrangement whereby a company agrees to
provide an aircraft and at least one pilot to another company.
• ‘Dry lease’ on the other hand, refers to leasing only the aircraft.
ADVANTAGES OF LEASING
There are several advantages of acquiring capital assets on lease:
SAVING OF CAPITAL
Leasing covers the full cost of the equipment used in the business by providing
100% finance. The lessee does not has to provide or pay any margin to
manufacturer. Lessor and there is no down payment. In this way the saving in
capital or financial resources can be used for other productive purposes e.g.
purchase of inventories.
FLEXIBILITY AND CONVENIENCE
The lease agreement can be tailor- made in respect of lease period and lease
rentals according to the convenience and requirements of all lessees.
PLANNING CASH FLOWS
Leasing enables the lessee to plan its cash flows properly. The rentals can be paid
out of the cash coming into the business from the use of the same assets.
IMPROVEMENT IN LIQUIDITY
Leasing enables the lessee to improve their liquidity position by adopting the sale
and lease back technique.
100 % FINANCING
In most cases, leasing allows you to finance 100% of the equipment cost –
including installation and setup. With equipment leasing, there is no down
payment. The term of the lease can be matched with the useful life of the
Leasing provides fixed periodic payments for the equipment acquisitions.
Payments are usually made on a monthly basis but can be structured as quarterly,
semi-annual or annual depending on your needs. A fixed payment amount
enhances the ability to forecast cash flow requirements. If any business
experiences seasonal fluctuations in revenues, leasing can be structured to allow
for lower payments during the off-peak season.
Under certain lease structures, business can lower its taxable income while
enjoying a lower payment than that required under traditional financing methods.
By converting a depreciable asset expense to a rent expense, the full payment can
be expensed for tax purposes.
BALANCE SHEET CONSIDERATIONS
Leasing offers companies the ability to better manage their balance sheets and
improve financial ratios by conserving operating capital and freeing up working
capital and bank credit lines for inventory, expansion and emergencies. Each type
of lease offers benefits unique to the company's financial conditions and
DISAVDVANTAGES OF LEASING
The terms for early termination of most leases can be very unpleasant for the
consumer, particularly if the termination is forced, i.e., the car is totaled in an
accident or stolen. In such cases, insurance pay-outs often fall far short of the
balance due on the lease.
Leasing companies tend to require higher amounts of insurance coverage than one
may normally carry. This could impact the insurance cost considerably.
HIGHER CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Therefore, the credit worthiness standards tend to be higher for leases than
conventional loans. In other words, If you have a troubled credit history you may
have problems getting approved for a lease. For example, if the expensive car you
will be driving for the next 2-6 years belongs to someone else (the leasing
company), the owners want to be assured that you will make the payments on time
and will not trash their car.
The main disadvantage of leasing is that you never own the product. It remains the
property of the leasing company during and after the lease. For example,when you
lease a car, you are renting it. The leasing company retains ownership of the car
and you pay for the privilege of driving (and maintaining) it.
The only exception being if you arrange for it to be sold to another company or
person, in which case the leasing company would receive the money and a
percentage would be passed back to you (depending on the amount, product type,
age, and which leasing company you use).
As you do not own the product, you are unable to sell it in the event it is no
longer needed, and you cannot upgrade to a newer or better product without
either paying off the remaining contract, or paying a large fee to cancel the
contract. You also need to carry on paying a smaller lease cost, even after the
cost of the equipment has been fully covered.
LONG TERM EXPENSE
Although leasing allows you to avoid paying a large lump sum, over a long
period of time it often works out considerably more expensive. Over the course
of a standard lease, you pay the cost of the equipment as well as the leasing
After the lease finishes you need to carry on paying rental to use the product
(although after the initial lease the cost of rental goes down significantly). This
means that over a number of years, you will pay considerably more than the
actual cost of the equipment without ever actually owning it.
Although you do not own the equipment that you lease, you are still responsible
for its maintenance and repair. Unless you have specifically trained employees to
fix the equipment, then this could prove very costly in the event of a serious fault.
Some leasing companies will allow you to cover the maintenance and repair
costs for an extra sum (which is added to the monthly leasing cost). This will
increase your monthly payments, but may save your money in the long run;
particularly with manual or highly technical products that may go wrong
frequently, and may cause severe disruption if out of action. Cover is normally
through the leasing company itself, or through a separate insurance policy.
EXPENSIVE TO GET OUT OF A LEASE
Consider that your monthly payment is made up of two parts: depreciation and
interest. The depreciation part of the payment is calculated by taking the
difference between the capital cost and the residual (the total depreciation over the
lease) and dividing it by the number of months. In effect, you are paying off the
depreciation with equal payments each month. Graphically, the depreciation is
being paid "in a straight line" (see figure).
But we all know that a car depreciates much more rapidly in the earlier years with
the biggest hit occurring the day you drive the car off the lot. So when you
terminate the lease before you have paid all of the depreciation, you will likely be
required to pay the difference between what the car is worth and how much you
have paid on the depreciation. This difference is often referred to as the "gap".
Leasing has grown by leaps and bounds in the eighties but it is estimated
that hardly1% of the industrial investment in India is covered by the lease
finance, as against 40% in USA and 30% in UK and 10% in Japan.
The prospects of leasing in India are good due to growing investment needs
and scarcity of funds with public financial institutions.
This type of lease finances is particularly suitable in India where a large
number of small companies have emerged more recently.
Leasing in the sphere ofland and building has been in existence in India for
a long time, while equipment leasing has become very common in the
Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Limited (IL&FS) is one of India's
leading infrastructure development and finance companies.
IL&FS was promoted by the Central Bank of India (CBI), Housing Development
Finance Corporation Limited (HDFC) and Unit Trust of India (UTI). Over the
years, IL&FS has broad-based its shareholding and inducted Institutional
shareholders including State Bank of India, Life Insurance Corporation of India,
ORIX Corporation - Japan and Abu Dhabi Investment Authority
INTRODUCTION TO HIRE PURCHASE
Hire purchase (frequently abbreviated to HP) is the legal term for a contract
developed in the United Kingdom, and now found in India, Australia and New
Zealand. In the Republic of Ireland, HP most commonly refers to employment,
with the comparable system being called closed-end leasing.
In cases where a buyer cannot afford to pay the asked price for an item of property
as a lump sum but can afford to pay a percentage as a deposit, a hire-purchase
contract allows the buyer to hire the goods for a monthly rent. When a sum equal
to the original full price plus interest has been paid in equal installments, the buyer
may then exercise an option to buy the goods at a predetermined price (usually a
nominal sum) or return the goods to the owner. In Canada and the United States, a
hire purchase is termed an installment plan; other analogous practices are
described as closed-end leasing or rent to own.
Hire purchase differs from a mortgage and similar forms of lien-secured credit in
that the so-called buyer who has the use of the goods is not the legal owner during
the term of the hire-purchase contract. If the buyer defaults in paying the
installments, the owner may repossess the goods, a vendor protection not available
with unsecured-consumer-credit systems.
HP is frequently advantageous to consumers because it spreads the cost of
expensive items over an extended time period.
Business consumers may find the different balance sheet and taxation treatment of
hire-purchase goods beneficial to their taxable income.
Hire purchase is a type of installment credit under which the hire purchaser, called
the hirer, agrees to take the goods on hire at a stated rental, which is inclusive of
the repayment of principal as well as interest, with an option to purchase. Under
this transaction, the hire purchaser acquires the property (goods) immediately on
signing the hire purchase agreement but the ownership or title of the same is
transferred only when the last installment is paid.
The hire purchase system is regulated by the Hire Purchase Act 1972. This Act
defines a hire purchase as “an agreement under which goods are let on hire and
under which the hirer has an option to purchase them in accordance with the terms
of the agreement and includes an agreement under which:
• The owner delivers possession of goods thereof to a person on condition
such person pays the agreed amount in periodic installments.
• The property in the goods is to pass to such person on the payment of the
last of such installments, and
• Such person has a right to terminate the agreement at any time before the
property so passes”.
Hire purchase should be distinguished from installment sale wherein property
passes to the purchaser with the payment of the first installment. But in case of
Hire purchase (ownership remains with the seller until the last installment is paid)
buyer gets ownership after paying the last installment. Hire purchase also differs
FEATURES OF HIRE PURCHASE AGREEMENT
Under hire purchase system, the buyer takes possession of goods
immediately and agrees to pay the total hire purchase price in installments.
Each installment is treated as hire charges.
The ownership of the goods passes from the seller to the buyer on the
payment of the last installment.
In case the buyer makes any default in the payment of any installment the
seller has right to repossess the goods from the buyer and forfeit the amount
already received treating it as hire charges.
The hirer has the right to terminate the agreement any time before the
property passes. That is, he has the option to return the goods in which case
he need not pay installments falling due thereafter. However, he cannot
recover the sums already paid as such sums legally represent hire charges
on the goods in question.
ADVANTAGES OF HIRE PURCHASE
Spread the cost of finance: Whilst choosing to pay in cash is preferable, this
might not be possible for consumer on a tight budget. A hire purchase agreement
allows a consumer to make monthly repayments over a pre-specified period of
Interest-free credit: Some merchants offer customers the opportunity to pay for
goods and services on interest-free credit. This is particularly common when
making a new car purchase or on white goods during an economic downturn.
Higher acceptance rates: The rate of acceptance on hire purchase agreements is
higher than other forms of unsecured borrowing because the lenders have
Sales: A hire purchase agreement allows a consumer to purchase sale items when
they aren't in a position to pay in cash. The discounts secured will save many
Debt solutions: Consumers that buy on credit can pursue a debt solution, such as a
debt management plan, should they experience money problems further down the
DISADVANTAGES OF HIRE PURCHASE
Personal debt: A hire purchase agreement is yet another form of personal debt. It
is monthly repayment commitment that needs to be paid each month.
Final payment: A consumer doesn't have legitimate title to the goods until the
final monthly repayment has been made.
Bad credit:All hire purchase agreements will involve a credit check. Consumers
that have a bad credit rating will either be turned down or will be asked to pay a
high interest rate.
Creditor harassment:Opting to buy on credit can create money problems should
a family experience a change of personal circumstances.
Repossession right:A seller is entitled to 'snatch back' any goods when less than a
third of the amount has been paid back. Should more than a third of the amount
have been paid back, the seller will need a court order or for the buyer to return the
To be valid, HP agreements must be in writing and signed by both parties. They
must clearly set out the following information in a print that all can read without
1. a clear description of the goods
2. the cash price for the goods
3. the HP price, i.e., the total sum that must be paid to hire and then purchase
4. the deposit
5. the monthly installments (most states require that the applicable interest rate
is disclosed and regulate the rates and charges that can be applied in HP
6. a reasonably comprehensive statement of the parties' rights (sometimes
including the right to cancel the agreement during a "cooling-off" period).
7. the right of the hirer to terminate the contract when he feels like doing so
with a valid reason.
IMPLIED WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS TO
PROTECT THE HIRER
The extent to which buyers are protected varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction,
but the following are usually present:
1. The hirer will be allowed to enjoy quiet possession of the goods, i.e. no-one
will interfere with the hirer's possession during the term of this contract
2. The owner will be able to pass title to, or ownership of, the goods when the
contract requires it
3. That the goods are of merchantable quality and fit for their purpose, save
that exclusion clauses may, to a greater or lesser extent, limit the Finance
4. Where the goods are let by reference to a description or to a sample, what is
actually supplied must correspond with the description and the sample.
THE HIRER'S RIGHTS
The hirer usually has the following rights:
1. To buy the goods at any time by giving notice to the owner and paying the
balance of the HP price less a rebate (each jurisdiction has a different
formula for calculating the amount of this rebate)
2. To return the goods to the owner — this is subject to the payment of a
penalty to reflect the owner's loss of profit but subject to a maximum
specified in each jurisdiction's law to strike a balance between the need for
the buyer to minimize liability and the fact that the owner now has
possession of an obsolescent asset of reduced value
3. With the consent of the owner, to assign both the benefit and the burden of
the contract to a third person. The owner cannot unreasonably refuse
consent where the nominated third party has good credit rating
4. Where the owner wrongfully repossesses the goods, either to recover the
goods plus damages for loss of quiet possession or to damages representing
the value of the goods lost
THE HIRER'S OBLIGATIONS
The hirer usually has the following obligations:
1. To pay the hire installments
2. To take reasonable care of the goods (if the hirer damages the goods by
using them in a non-standard way, he or she must continue to pay the
installments and, if appropriate, compensate the owner for any loss in asset
3. To inform the owner where the goods will be kept.
THE OWNER'S RIGHTS
The owner usually has the right to terminate the agreement where the hirer
defaults in paying the installments or breaches any of the other terms in the
agreement. This entitles the owner:
1. To forfeit the deposit
2. To retain the installments already paid and recover the balance due
3. To repossess the goods (which may have to be by application to a Court
depending on the nature of the goods and the percentage of the total price
4. To claim damages for any loss suffered.
FUNCTIONS OF HIRE PURCHASE
1. Hire purchases are used to acquire houses, automobiles, furniture, and other
large items that generally cannot be paid in a lump sum. Hire purchases
function as legal documents for which the lender can legally hold the title until
the item is paid in full.
2. A hire purchase can be an installment or deferred payment plan. In the
former, a set monthly payment is paid on a certain day each month for a
specified length of time. After the last payment, the item becomes the
purchaser's property. In the latter, the property immediately belongs to the
purchaser while payments are regularly made.
3. A hire purchase can be for a few months up to many years. The interest rate
can vary from low to high, depending on the institution granting the
agreement. Usually, a more expensive item will be set up for 10, 15, or more
years. Typically, a mortgage covers a span of 30 years.
4. To be valid, a hire purchase must be signed by both parties. It should
contain a description of the item, the price paid, the deposit (if any), monthly
amounts due, statement of each party's rights, and requirements, if any, for
5. A hire purchase allows a person to buy an item, such as a house, over a long
period of time. With such an agreement, the buyer can enjoy his property while
making payments. The buyer also has the right to sell the property and allow
the new purchaser possession of his house.
6. If the purchaser fails to make the installments in a timely manner, the lender
has the right to repossess the property or item. In severe cases, the purchaser
may file for foreclosure or bankruptcy, at which time the item's ownership will
be returned to the lender.
7. Generally, a person must be at least 18 years of age to enter into a valid hire
purchase. There is no upper age limit to incurring such a purchase agreement.
Each person should carefully consider his financial position before incurring
any type of hire purchase.
NSIC AND HIRE PURCHASE
Small scale firms can acquire industrial machinery, office equipment, vehicles,
without making full payment through hire purchase. With the help of assets
acquired through hire purchase they can produce and sell. From the earning
payments can easily be made in installments. Ultimately the ownership of assets
can be acquired. Now several agencies like National Small Industries Corporation
(NSIC) provide machinery and equipment to small scale units on hire purchase
basis and on lease basis. NSIC follows the following Hire Purchase procedure and
Hire Purchase Scheme for financing plant and machinery to small scale un
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LEASE FINANCING AND
LEASING HIRE PURCHASE
BASIS A lease transaction is a
whereby an equipment
owner or manufacturer
conveys to the equipment
user the right to use the
equipment in return for a
Hire purchase is a type of
installment credit under
which the hire purchaser
agrees to take the goods on
hire at a stated rental,
which is inclusive of the
repayment of principal as
well as interest, with an
option to purchase.
Option No option is provided to
the lessee (user) to
purchase the goods.
Option is provided to the
Nature of expenditure Lease rentals paid
by the lessee are entirely revenue
Expenditure of the lessee.
Components Lease rentals comprise of
(1) finance charge
(2) capital recovery
Only interest element
included in the HP
installments is revenue
expenditure by nature.
HP installments comprise
of 3 elements
(1) normal trading profit
(2) finance charge and
(3) recovery of cost of goods/assets.