TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1) HISTORICAL ROOTS OF EMOTIONAL
1.2) EMOTIONAL NORMS [TABLE]
NEED AND IMPORTANCE
2.1) WHAT IS EQ AND IQ?
2.2)ROLE OF EMOTION
2.3) EMOTIONAL PROCESSING
2.4) TYPES OF EMOTIONS
2.5)EI VERSUS IQ WORKPLACE
2.6) EI LEADERSHIP, CLIMATE, AND
2.7) PROFILE OF INDIAN EXECUTIVES [E
CURRENT STATUS AND
3.1)FRAMEWORK OF EMOTIONAL
3.2) EMOTIONAL COMPETENCIES
MEASURING E I
4.1) MEANING OF E I
4.2) BUILDING E I OF GROUPS
4.3) BAR-ON MODEL OF E I
4.4) SIGNS OF HIGH AND LOW EQ
4.5) MINI EMOTIONAL TEST
4.6) HOW TO RAISE E I
METHODOLOGY 5.1) DATA COLLECTION SAMPLE 39-40
EI AT THE WORKPLACE 6.1)TYPES OF LEARNING
6.2) INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR CURVE
[ KUBLER – ROSS CHANGE CURVE]
6.3) GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE
SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL LEARNING
USES 7.1) EQ – USEFULNESS IN MODERN HR
CASE STUDY 10.1) INTERVIEW
10.2) BUSSINESS CASE FOR EI
SUPPLEMENTARY 12.1) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 57
13 CONCLUSION 58
14 BIBLIOGRAPHY 59
The world has been moving from a manufacturing economy to a value-added, service-
oriented economy. And at the heart of service are relationships: interpersonal relationships, inter-
group relationships, and interdepartmental relationships. The ascendance of work teams in large
organizations put a new premium on relationship team skills.
There is a growing importance of finding, hiring, training, and retaining leaders with high
emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a person’s self-awareness, self-
confidence, self-control, commitment and integrity, and a person’s ability to communicate,
influence, initiate change and accept change. Studies have shown that emotional intelligence
impacts a leader’s ability to be effective. Three of the most important aspects of emotional
intelligence for a leader’s ability to make effective decisions are self-awareness, communication
and influence, and commitment and integrity. Managers who do not develop their emotional
intelligence have difficulty in building good relationships with peers, subordinates, superiors and
The above two paragraphs show the significance of emotional intelligence and initiate a need
to implement it into every organization. But enough ‘Organizational Support’ has to be secured
to see some Emotional intelligence efforts, which forms a crucial part in the entire functioning.
Finally, Emotional intelligence contributes to the bottom line in any work organization and
hence needs paramount attention.
1 ] INTRODUCTION
Ever since the publication of Daniel Goleman’s first book on the topic in 1995, emotional
intelligence has become one of the hottest buzzwords in the corporate world. For instance, when
the Harvard Business Review published an article on the topic two years ago, it attracted a
higher percentage of readers than any other article published in that periodical in the last 40
years. When the CEO of Johnson & Johnson read that article, he was so impressed that he had
copies sent out to the 400 top executives in the company worldwide.
Given that emotional intelligence is so popular in the corporate world, it is important to
understand what it really means. Thus briefly laying out the history of the concept as an area of
research and describing how it has come to be defined and measured. So let’s begin with some
Education is the ability to meet life’s situation. It is a character-building process.
Enhancing one’s personality and making him/her rational, capable, responsive and intelligently
independent, it generates the will to refashion one’s heart, head and life. But does education
make a person emotionally independent? Today’s curriculum aims at all round formation,
training and development of students. But does the curriculum include the training to make
students emotionally mature? These are crucial questions to answer, which we need to shift our
attention to the emotional aspects of students for full, complete and wholistic formation of
The word emotion comes from Latin word ‘motere’, which means to move. The Oxford English
Dictionary defines emotion as ‘any agitation or disturbance of mind, feeling, passion any
vehement or excited mental state’. Emotions refer to motions, movements feelings etc. Every
emotion has an impulse to act. They are also complex and contagious, e.g. anger, sadness, fear,
enjoyment, love, disgust, shame etc. All our emotions usually depend on the information our
senses grasp. And so emotion is said to be primarily a psychic reaction to stimuli from the word
All emotions are feelings. But not all feelings are emotions. Feelings that are not emotion
includes pain, hunger, thirst, cold, warmth, fatigue, tension, relaxation etc. Feelings have the
origin in our body. They alert our bodily conditions and needs. A large number of course,
varieties of exercise are offered to cope up artfully and carefully as every human being is
expected to rise above one’s feelings and emotion.
1.1) HISTORICAL ROOTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
When psychologists began to write and think about intelligence, they focused on cognitive
aspects, such as memory and problem-solving. However, there were researchers who recognized
early on that the non-cognitive aspects were also important. For instance, David Wechsler
defined intelligence as “the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to
think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.” As early as 1940 he referred to
“non-intellective” as well as “intellective” elements, by which he meant affective, personal, and
social factors. Furthermore, as early as 1943, Wechsler was proposing that the non-intellective
abilities are essential for predicting one’s ability to succeed in life. He wrote:
“The main question is whether non-intellective, that is affective and cognitive abilities, are
admissible as factors of general intelligence. (My contention) has been that such factors are not
only admissible but necessary. I have tried to show that in addition to intellective there are also
definite non-intellective factors that determine intelligent behavior. If the foregoing observations
are correct, it follows that we cannot expect to measure total intelligence until our tests also
include some measures of the non-intellective factors.”
Wechsler was not the only researcher who saw non-cognitive aspects of intelligence to be
important for adaptation and success. Robert Thorndike, to take another example, was writing
about “social intelligence” in the late thirties. Unfortunately, the work of these early pioneers
was largely forgotten or overlooked until 1983 when Howard Gardner began to write about
“multiple intelligence.” Gardner proposed that “intrapersonal” and “interpersonal” intelligences
are as important as the type of intelligence typically measured by IQ and related tests.
Other strands of research and theory could be cited, but it is clear that by the early 1990s, there
was a long tradition of research on the role of non-cognitive factors in the helping people to
succeed in both life and the workplace. The current work on emotional intelligence builds on this
2] NEED AND IMPORTANCE :
Individual Group Cross-Boundary
Norms That Create Awareness of Emotions
1. Take time away from group
tasks to get to know one
2. Have a “check in” at the
beginning of the meeting-that
is, ask how everyone is
3. Assume that undesirable
behavior takes place for a
reason. Find out what that
reason is. Ask questions
and listen. Avoid negative
4. Tell your teammates what
you’re thinking and how
1. Ask whether everyone
agrees with a decision.
2. Ask quiet members what
3. Question decisions that
come too quickly.
4. Appoint a devil’s advocate.
1. Schedule time to examine team
2. Create measurable task and process
objectives and then measure them.
3. Acknowledge and discuss group
4. Communicate your sense of what is
transpiring in the team.
5. Allow members to call a “process
check.” (for instance, a team member
might say, “Process check: is this the
most effective use of our time right
1. Ask your “customers” how you are
2. Post your work and invite comments.
3. Benchmark your process.
1. Find out the concerns and needs
of others in the organization.
2. Consider who can influence the
team’s ability to accomplish its
3. Discuss the culture and politics in
4. Ask whether proposed team
actions are congruent with the
organization’s culture and politics.
Norms That Help Regular Emotions
1. Set ground rules and use
them to point out errant
2. Call members on errant
3. Create playful devices for
pointing out such behavior.
These often emerge from the
1. Support members: volunteer
to help them if they need it,
be flexible, and provide
2. Validate members’
contributions. Let members
know they are valued.
3. Protect members from
4. Respect individuality and
difference in perspectives.
5. Never be derogatory or
Creating Resources for
Working with Emotion
1. Make time to discuss difficult issues,
and address the emotions that
2. Find creative, shorthand ways to
acknowledge and express the
emotion in the group.
3. Create fun ways to acknowledge and
relieve stress and tension.
4. Express acceptance of members’
Creating on Affirmative Environment
1. Reinforce that the team can meet a
challenge. Be optimistic. For example
say things like, “We can get through
this” or nothing will stop us.”
2. Focus on what you can control.
3. Remind members of the group’s
important and positive mission.
4. Remind the group how it solved a
similar problem before.
5. Focus on problem solving, not
Building External Relationships
1. Create opportunities for
networking and interaction.
2. Ask about the needs of other
3. Provide support for other teams.
4. Invite others to team meetings if
they might have a stake in what
you are doing.
learn new things,
focus on tasks and exercises
retain and recall objective information
think abstractly as well as analytically &
solve problems the application of prior knowledge
EQ stands for Emotional Quotient. It borrows from the term "Intelligence Quotient," and is
used interchangeably with "Emotional Intelligence."
2.1)WHAT IS IQ AND EQ?
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Intelligence Quotient is a measure of an individual’s intellectual, analytical, logical and rational
abilities. It’s concerned with verbal, spatial, visual and mathematical skills.
IQ is a measure of an individual’s personal information bank – one’s memory, vocabulary and
visual motor coordination.
It gauges how readily we:
Emotional Quotient (EQ)
Emotional Quotient is an ability of an individual to identify and understand one’s own emotions
and those of others. It is also an ability of an individual to regulate one’s own emotions to make
good decisions and act effectively.
EI is the ability to
- Perceive emotions
- Access and generate emotions so as to assist thoughts
- Understand emotions and emotional meanings and
- Reflectively regulate emotions in ways that promote emotional and intellectual growth.
In other words, it’s a set of skills that enables us to make our way in a complex world – the
personal, social and survival aspects of overall intelligence, the elusive common sense and
sensitivity that are essential to effective daily functioning.
Finally, it has to do with the ability to
2.2) THE ROLE OF EMOTION
Emotion has been a major variable in psychology, but not organizational behavior, over
the years. Similar to other psychological constructs, the exact definition and meaning of emotion
is not totally agreed upon. However, most psychologists would agree that the best one word to
describe emotion would be how a person feels about something. These emotional feelings are
directed at someone or something, are not as broad as the term affect and more intense and
specific than the term mood. The specific differences between emotion, affect, and mood are
summarized as follows:
Emotions are reactions to an object, not a trait. They’re object specific. You show your
emotions when you’re “happy about something, angry at someone, afraid of something.”
Moods, on the other hand, aren’t directed at an object. Emotions can turn into moods when you
lose focus on the contextual object. So when a work colleague criticizes you for the way you
spoke to a client, you might become angry at him (emotion). But later in the day, you might find
Read the political and social environment and landscape them
Intuitively grasp what others want and need, what their strengths and
Remain unruffled by stress and
Be engaging, the kind of person that others want to be around.
yourself just generally dispirited. This affective state describes a mood
2.3) EMOTIONAL PROCESSING:
How do emotional reactions come about, and what are the inputs into emotional
processing? A very simple, layperson’s explanation of the process is that emotional feelings are
in contrast with rational thinking. Put into popular terms, emotions come from the ‘heart”
whereas rational thinking comes from the “head”.. For example, a young manager given a
choice between two assignments may undergo the following cognitive processing: “my ‘head’
tells me to get involved with Project A because it has the best chance of succeeding and helping
my career, but my ‘heart’ says that Project B will be more fun, I like the people better, and I can
take more pride in any results we achieve.” Obviously, such emotions often win out over rational
thinking in what people decide, do, or how they behave.
Traditionally in psychology, both personality traits (e.g., extraversion/neuroticism or
conscientiousness) and mood states (either positive or negative) have separate influences or
emotional processing. Recently, however, to represent the more realistic complexity involved, it
is suggested that:
(1) mood states interact with individual differences in emotion-relevant personality traits
to influence emotional processing, and/or
(2) personality traits predispose individuals to certain mood states, which then influence
In other words, for (1) above, someone in a positive mood may have to have (or will be
enhanced by) a personality trait such as conscientiousness in order to experiment emotional
happiness. The individual may have to have the personality trait such as extraversion in order to
get into a positive mood state. This positive mood in turn will lead the person to experience
emotional happiness. These Moderation and meditation models of emotional processing help
resolve some of the inconsistencies that have been found in the research using the separate
influences of moods and personality traits for emotions.
2.4) TYPES OF EMOTIONS
Like the meaning of emotion, there is also not total agreement on the primary types of
emotions . In the following table the primary emotions and their descriptors are given.
Types of Emotions
Positive Primary Emotions Other Descriptors
Love/affection Happiness / joy Surprise Acceptance, adoration, longing, devotion,
infatuation Cheerfulness, contentment, bliss,
delight, amusement, enjoyment, enthrallment,
thrill euphoria, zest Amazement, wonder,
Negative Primary Emotions Other Descriptors
Fear Sadness Anger Disgust Shame Anxiety, alarm, apprehension, concern, qualm,
dread, fright, terror Grief, disappointment,
sorrow, gloom, despair, suffering, dejection
Outrage, exasperation, wrath, indignation,
hostility, irritability Contempt, disdain,
abhorrence, revulsion, distaste, Guilt, remorse,
regret, embarrassment, humiliation
2.5) EI VERSUS IQ WORKPLACE PERFORMANCE
As for IQ’s relevance in the workplace, studies have shown that it can
serve to predict between 1 and 20 % (the average is 6%) of success in a given job.
EQ, on the other hand, has been found to be directly responsible for between 27 and 45 % of job
success, depending on which field is under study.
IQ is pretty much set. It tends to peak when a person is 17, remains
constant throughout adulthood, and wanes during old age.EQ however is not fixed.
A study of almost 4,000 people in Canada and United States concluded
that EQ rises steadily from an average of 95.3 (when you’re in the late teens) to an average of
102.7 (where it remains throughout your 40’s). Once you’re past 50, it tapers off a bit, to an
average of 101.5 – not exactly a precipitous decline. [See Figure]
This does not come as surprise: we get older but wiser. We live and
learn, and one of the things we learn is to balance emotion and reason.
EQ Over The Age Span
16-19 20-29 Average
30-39 40-49 50+
In short, the position is that IQ will be a more powerful predictor
than EI of individuals’ career success in studies of large populations
over the career course because it sorts people before they embark on
a career, determining which fields or professions they can enter. But
when studies look within a job or profession to learn which
individuals rise to the top and which plateau or fail, EI proves to be
a more powerful predictor of success than IQ.
2.6) EI LEADERSHIP, CLIMATE, AND ORGANIZATIONAL
EI can affect an individual's success in an organization. But how does it affect
organizational success overall? The evidence suggests that emotionally intelligent leadership is
a key to creating a working climate that nurtures employees and encourages them to give their
best. That enthusiasm, in turn, pays off in improved business performance. This trickle-down
effect emerged, for example, in a study of CEOs in U.S. insurance companies. Given comparable
size, companies whose CEOs exhibited more EI competencies showed better financial results as
measured by both profit and growth.
A similar relationship between EI strengths in a leader and business results was found by
McClelland (1998) in studying the division heads of a global food and beverage company. The
divisions of the leaders with a critical mass of strengths in EI competencies outperformed yearly
revenue targets by a margin of 15 to 20 %. The divisions of the leaders weak in EI competencies
underperformed by about the same margin.
The relationship between EI strengths in a leader and performance of the unit led appears
to be mediated by the climate the leader creates. In the study of insurance CEOs, for example,
there was a significant relationship between the EI abilities of the leader and the organizational
climate. Climate reflects people's sense of their ability to do their jobs well. Climate indicators
include the degree of clarity in communication; the degree of employees' flexibility in doing
their jobs, ability to innovate, and ownership of and responsibility for their work; and the level of
the performance standards set.
In the insurance industry study, the climate created by CEOs among their direct reports
predicted the business performance of the entire organization and in three-quarters of the cases
climate alone could be used to correctly sort companies by profits and growth.
Leadership style seems to drive organizational performance across a wide span of
industries and sectors and appears to be a crucial link in the chain from leader to climate to
business success. A study of the heads of forty-two schools in the United Kingdom suggests that
leadership style drove up students' academic achievement by directly affecting school climate.
When the school head was flexible in leadership style and demonstrated a variety of EI abilities,
teachers’ attitudes were more positive and students' grades higher; when the leader relied on
fewer EI competencies, teachers tended to be demoralized and students underperformed
academically. Effective school leaders not only created a working climate conducive to
achievement but were more attuned to teachers' perceptions of such aspects of climate and
organizational health as clarity of vision and level of teamwork.
The benefits of an understanding and empathic school leader were reflected in the
teacher-student relationship as well. In a related follow-up analysis, which studied the climates
of individual classrooms, concluded that teachers who are more aware of how students feel in the
classroom are better able to design a learning environment that suits students and better able to
guide them toward success. Teachers who have a leader who has created a positive school
climate will be better equipped to do the same in their own classrooms. Indeed, several
dimensions of school climate identified in the earlier study correspond to dimensions of
classroom climate. For instance, clarity of vision in a school's purpose parallels clarity of
purpose in class lessons; challenging yet realistic performance standards for teachers translate
into like standards for students.
A similar effect of EI-based leadership on climate and performance was demonstrated in
a study of outstanding leaders in health care (Catholic Health Association, 1994). For this study,
1,200 members of health care organizations were asked to nominate outstanding leaders based on
criteria such as organizational performance and anticipation of future trends. The members were
then asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the nominees in fifteen key situations that leaders
face-among them organizational change, diversity, and institutional integrity. The study revealed
that the more effective leaders in the health care industry were also more adept at integrating key
EI competencies such as Organizational Awareness and relationship skills like persuasion and
The link between EI strengths in a leader and the organization's climate is important for
EI theory. A Hay/McBer analysis of data on 3,781 executives, correlated with climate surveys
filled out by those who worked for them, suggests that 50 to 70 % of employees' perception of
working climate is linked to the EI characteristics of the leader. Research drawing on that same
database sheds light on the role of EI competencies in leadership effectiveness, identifying how
six distinct styles of EI-based leadership affect climate. Four styles-the visionary (sometimes
called the "authoritative"), the affiliative, the democratic, and the coaching-generally drive
climate in a positive direction. Two styles-the coercive and the pacesetting-tend to drive climate
downward, particularly when leaders overuse them (though each of these two can have positive
impact if applied in appropriate situations).
2.7) PROFILE OF INDIAN EXECUTIVES [E I]
For years, educationalists, human resource professionals, corporate trainers, recruiters, managers
and others have known that what sets apart average performers and stars isn’t the technical skills,
not necessarily the intelligence either. They have felt the existence of something in addition – a
capacity which pervades and fades other abilities into background and stands out. They have
come up with various terms like human relations or human resource approaches, people skills,
etc. It is felt that a more objective measurable term - Emotional Intelligence can be termed as the
skill which makes people shine at the work place. Also EI plays an important role in many areas
of our lives.
We can sum up by saying that:
EI is an important component relating to
workplace success, career satisfaction and
Here, an attempt has been made to profile emotional intelligence of Indian executives, with a
view to evolve strategies to improve their emotional intelligence quotient.
3] CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE APPLICATION:
Although emotions are given primary attention in psychology, in the organizational
behavior literature, with the exception of the increasing popularity of emotional labor and the
impact of emotions in relation to stress, emotion generally is only an indirect, subtopic in
discussions of personality and individual differences. As one organization list behavior
theorist/researcher recently noted:
It’s an under appreciated line of research. Emotions as part of the workplace have been
ignored. They have either been seen as a commodity hiring smiling faces or something that gets
in the way of rational decisions making.
This neglected status is unfortunate because most academics and practicing managers
would agree with the systematic assessment that emotions permeate all of organization life.
Recently, and the reason emotions are singled out for special attention in this chapter, is the
popularity of emotional intelligence and its relevance to the study and application to organization
behavior. Emotionally intelligence people not only can read the expressed emotions of other
people as discussed in the previous section, but also have the maturity to hold their felt emotions
in check and not display undesirable, immature negative emotions such as anger or disgust. This
distinction between felt and displayed emotions as well as the rest of the previous discussions on
the meaning, cognitive processing, and types/categories/continuum of emotions, when combined
with the next section on intelligence, serve as the foundation and point of departure for the
important emerging role that emotional intelligence can play in organizational behavior.
3.1) A Framework of Emotional Competencies
The framework of emotional intelligence (EI) by ‘Daniel Goleman’ reflects how an individual's
potential for mastering the skills of Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness, and
Relationship Management translates into on-the-job success. This model is based on EI
competencies that have been identified in internal research at hundreds of corporations and
organizations as distinguishing outstanding performers.
· Emotional self-awareness
· Accurate self-assessment
· Service orientation
· Organizational awareness
· Achievement drive
· Developing others
· Conflict management
· Change catalyst
· Building bonds
· Teamwork & collaboration
1. SELF - AWARENESS
Emotional self-awareness: Recognizing one’s emotions and their effects. People with this
• Know which emotions they are feeling and why
• Realize the links between their feelings and what they think, do, and say
• Recognize how their feelings affect their performance
• Have a guiding awareness of their values and goals
Accurate self-assessment: Knowing one’s strengths and limits. People with this competence are:
• Aware of their strengths and weaknesses
• Reflective, learning from experience and continuous learning
• Open to candid feedback, new perspectives, and self-development
• Able to show a sense of humor and perspective about themselves
Self-confidence: Sureness about one’s self – worth and capabilities. People with this
• Present themselves with self-assurance; have “presence”
• Can voice views that are unpopular and go out on a limb for what is right
• Are decisive, able to make sound decisions despite uncertainties and pressures
2. SELF – MANAGEMENT
Self-control: Managing disruptive emotions and impulses. People with this competence:
• Manage their impulsive feelings and distressing emotions well
• Stay composed, positive, and unflappable even in trying moments
• Think clearly and stay focused under pressure
Trustworthiness: Maintaining standards of honesty and integrity. People with this competence:
• Act ethically and are above reproach
• Build trust through their reliability and authenticity
• Admit their own mistakes and comfort unethical actions in others
• Take tough, principled stands even if they are unpopular
Conscientiousness: Taking responsibility for personal performance. People with this
• Meet commitments and keep promises
• Hold themselves accountable for meeting their objectives
• Are organized and careful in their work
Adaptability: Flexibility in handling change. People with this competence:
• Smoothly handle multiple demands, shifting priorities, and rapid change
• Adapt their responses and tactics to fit fluid circumstances
• Are flexible in how they see events
Achievement drive: Striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence. People with this
• Are results-oriented, with a high drive to meet their objectives and standards
• Set challenging goals and take calculated risks
• Pursue information to reduce uncertainty and find ways to do better
• Learn how to improve their performance
Initiative: Readiness to act on opportunities. People with this competence:
• Are ready to seize opportunities
• Pursue goals beyond what’s required or expected of them
• Cut through red tape and bend the rules when necessary to get the job done
• Mobilize others through unusual, enterprising efforts
3. SOCIAL AWARENESS
Empathy: Sensing others’ feelings and perspective, and taking an active interest in their
concerns. People with this competence:
• Are attentive to emotional cues and listen well
• Show sensitivity and understand others’ perspectives
• Help out based on understanding other people’s needs and feelings
Service orientation: Anticipating, recognizing, and meeting customers’ needs. People with this
• Understand customers’ needs and match them to services or products
• Seek ways to increase customers’ satisfaction and loyalty
• Gladly offer appropriate assistance acting as a trusted advisor
Organizational awareness: Reading a group’s emotional currents and power relationships.
People with this competence:
• Accurately read key power relationships and detect crucial social networks
• Understand the forces that shape views and actions of clients, customers, or competitors
4. RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT
Developing others: Sensing what others need in order to develop, and bolstering their abilities.
People with this competence:
• Acknowledge and reward people’s strengths, accomplishments
• Offer useful feedback and identify people’s needs for development
Influence: Wielding effective tactics for persuasion. People with this competence:
• Are skilled at persuasion
• Fine-tune presentations to appeal to the listener
• Use complex strategies like indirect influence to build consensus and support
• Orchestrate dramatic events to effectively make a point
Communication: Sending clear and convincing messages. People with this competence:
• Are effective in give-and-take, registering emotional cues in attuning their message
• Deal with difficult issues straightforwardly
• Listen well, see mutual understanding, and welcome sharing of information fully
• Foster open communication and stay receptive to bad news as well as good
Leadership: Inspiring and guiding groups and people. People with this competence:
• Articulate and arouse enthusiasm for a shared vision and mission
• Step forward to lead as needed, regardless of position
• Guide the performance of others while holding them accountable
• Lead by example
Change catalyst: Initiating or managing change. People with this competence:
• Recognize the need for change and remove barriers
• Challenge the status quo to acknowledge the need for change
• Champion the change and enlist others in its pursuit
Conflict management: Negotiating and resolving disagreements. People with this:
• Handle difficult people and tense situations with diplomacy and tact
• Spot potential conflict, bring disagreements into the open, and help deescalate
• Encourage debate and open discussion
• Orchestrate win-win solutions
Building bonds: Nurturing instrumental relationships. People with this competence:
• Cultivate and maintain extensive informal networks
• Seek out relationships that are mutually beneficial
• Build rapport and keep others in the loop
• Make and maintain personal friendships among work associates
Teamwork and Collaboration: People with this competence:
• Model team qualities like respect, helpfulness, and cooperation
• Draw all members into active and enthusiastic participation and share credit
• Build team identity, commitment and protect the group and its reputation
• Balance a focus on tasks with attention to relationships
• Collaborate, sharing plans, information, and resources
• Promote a friendly, cooperative climate
• Spot and nurture opportunities for collaboration
3.2) EMOTIONAL COMPETENCIES
An emotional competence is a learned capability based on emotional intelligence that results in
outstanding performance at work. To be adept at an emotional competence like Customer
Service or Conflict Management requires an underlying ability in EI fundamentals, specifically,
Social Awareness and Relationship Management. However, emotional competencies are learned
abilities: having Social Awareness or skill at managing relationship does not guarantee we have
mastered the additional learning required to handle a customer adeptly or to resolve a conflict-
just that we have the potential to become skilled at these competencies.
Emotional competencies are job skills that can, and indeed must, be learned. An underlying EI
ability is necessary, though not sufficient, to manifest competence in any one of the four EI
domains. Consider the IQ corollary that a student can have excellent spatial abilities yet never
learn geometry. So too can a person be highly empathic yet poor at handling customers if he or
she has not learned competence in customer service. ‘Although our emotional intelligence
determines our potential for learning the practical skills that underlie the four EI clusters, our
emotional competence shows how much of that potential we have realized by learning and
mastering skills and translating intelligence into on-the-job capabilities.’
4] MEASURING E I :
4.1) THE MEANING OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
As a point of departure for the important role that emotions have played in psychology over the
years and Gardner’s recognition of multiple intelligences is the recent emergence of emotional
intelligence. Although its roots are usually considered to go back
Goleman’s Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence in the workplace
EI Dimensons Characteristics Workplace Example
Self-understanding: knowledge of true
feeling at the moment
Handle one’s emotion to facilitate rather
than hinder the task at hand; shake off
negative emotions and get back on
constructive track for problem solution
Stay the course toward desired goal;
overcome negative emotional impulses and
delay gratification to attain the desired
Understand and be sensitive to the feelings
of others: being able to sense what others
feel and want
John recognizes that he is angry
so he will wait to cool down and
gather more information before
making an important personnel
Amber holds back her impulse to
become visibly upset and raise
her voice at the customer’s unfair
complaint and tries to get more
facts of what happened. Pat
persisted to successful project
completion in spite of the many
frustrations from the lack of
resources and top management
support. Because the head of the
team knew her members were
mentally if not physically
exhausted, she took everyone
bowling during an afternoon
Social skills The ability to read social situations smooth
in interacting with others and forming
networks; able to guide others emotions and
the way they act
break and bought refreshments.
Jeremy could tell from the
nonverbal cues from his staff
members that they were not
buying into the new policy being
presented, so after the meeting
he visited with each of them to
explain how they will all benefit.
Sources: Adapted from Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence, Bantam Books. New York 1995. pp. 43-44 and
Daniel Goleman, Working with Emotional intelligence. Bantam Books. New York, 1998, p. 318.
EQ unlike IQ is not easily quantifiable. It pivoted on such intangibles as social deftness,
persistence and empathy. Cyberia shrink developed a test on emotional intelligence. It consists of
70 items to complete by the subject in 35-40 minutes. Here is the model items to rate the level of
your intelligence on the basis of your response.
When I feel crappy, I don’t know what or who is upsetting me.
□ Most of the time
□ Almost never
4.2) Building the Emotional Intelligence of Groups
When Managers first started hearing about the concept of emotional intelligence in the
1990’s scales fell from their eyes. The basic message, that effectiveness in organization is at
least as much about EQ as IQ, resonated deeply; it was something that people to knew in their
guts but that had never before been so well articulated. Most important, the idea held the
potential for positive change. Instead of being stuck with the hand they’d been dealt, people
could take steps to enhance their emotional intelligence and make themselves more effective in
their work and personal lives.
Indeed, the concept of emotional intelligence had read impact. The only problem is that
so far emotional intelligence has been viewed only as an individual competency when the reality
is that most work in organization is done by team. And if managers have one pressing need
today, it’s to find ways to make teams work better.
It is with real excitement, therefore, that we share these findings from our research:
individual emotional intelligence has a group analog, and it is just as critical to groups’
effectiveness. Teams can develop greater emotional intelligence and, in so doing, boost their
A model of Team Effectiveness
Study after study has shown that teams are more creative and productive when they can
achieve high levels of participation, cooperation and collaboration among members. But
interactive behaviors like these aren’t easy legislate. Our work shows that three basic conditions
need to be present before such behaviors can occur: mutual trust among members, a sense of
group identity (a feeling among members that they belong to a unique and worthwhile group),
and a sense of group efficacy(the belief that the team can perform well and that group members
are more effective working together than apart).
At the heart of these three conditions are emotions. Trust, a sense of identity, and a
feeling of efficacy arise in environments where emotion is well handled, so groups stand to
benefit by building their emotional intelligence.
Group emotional intelligence isn’t a question of dealing with a necessary evil-catching
emotions as they bubble up and promptly suppressing them. Far from it. It’s about bringing
emotions deliberately to the surface and understanding how they affect the team’s work. It’s also
Better decisions, More creative
solutions, Higher productivy
Trust, Identity, Efficacy
Group Emotional Intelligence
about behaving in ways that build relationships both inside and outside the team and that
strengthen the team’s ability to face challenges. Emotional intelligence means exploring,
embracing, and ultimately relying on emotion in work that is, at the end of the day, deeply
Baron Emotional Quotient Inventory EQ-I
Dr. Reuven Baron developed an inventory to measure emotional intelligence. This
inventory consisted 133 items and takes approximately 30 minutes to complete. It gives an
overall EQ scores as well as scores for five composite scales and 15 subscales.
Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale
This MEIS has been created by the co-developed of the theory of emotional intelligence,
John D. Mayer and Peter Salovey. They have been conducting research on emotional intelligence
since the late 1980’and they have been driving research price in this area. Dr. David R. Caruso, a
management psychologist also joined in the development of Multifactor Emotional Intelligence
Scale. This is an ability test designed to measure the under mentioned four branches of the
emotional intelligence ability model of Mayer and Salovey.
● Identifying emotions---the ability to reorganize how you and those around you are feeling
● Using Emotions---the ability to generate emotion, and then to reason with this emotion
● Understanding Emotion---the ability to understand complex emotions and emotional
‘chains’, how emotion transmit from one stage to another.
● Managing emotion---the ability which always you to manage emotions in your self and
The EQ Map
In 1995, Essi system Inc. and Advanced Intelligence Technologies (AIT) joined together
to create the first-over EQ Map. A measurement of various qualities and competencies of EQ.
The EQ Map determines not how smart you are, but how smart you are. The EQ Map is unique,
non-judgmental, interactive approach to assess the emotional intelligence including stress and
Unlike the numeric scores obtained in the tests used to measure emotional intelligence, it
provides the bird’s eye approach to survey the landscape, identifying strengths and pinpointing
vulnerabilities and targeting specific action to be taken by the individual concerned. Its scoring
version is self administered, confidential, and easy to use and understand. It comes complete
with a questionnaire, scoring grid, interpretation guide, and action planning worksheets.
4.3) THE BAR-ON MODEL OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
The INTRAPERSONAL REALM concerns ones ability to know and manage oneself.
The INTERPERSONAL REALM concerns ones “people skills” – ones ability to interact and
get along with others. It is composed of three scales:
• Social Responsibility
• Interpersonal Relationships
The ADAPTABILITY REALM involves ones ability to be flexible and realistic, and to solve a
range of problems as they arise. Its 3 scales are:
• Reality Testing
The STRESS MANAGEMENT REALM concerns ones ability to tolerate stress and control
impulses. Its two scales are
• Stress Tolerance
• Impulse Control
The GENERAL MOOD REALM also has two scales:
The above model can be compared to the ‘Framework of Emotional Competencies’.
The Personal Competence and Social Competence of the ‘Framework’ can be compared to
Intrapersonal Realm and the Interpersonal Realm respectively.
The BarOn Model says that when the 4 realms – Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Adaptability and
Stress Management are integrated along with the Good Mood Realm (optimism and happiness),
EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE is certainly achieved.
4.4) SIGNS OF HIGH AND LOW EQ
Listed below are general characteristics of people with high and low EQ, as is defined.
Obviously these are generalizations, but are helpful as guidelines. These lists include general
signs of high and low self-esteem, as well as other variables which have not in fact been
specifically correlated to emotional intelligence as defined by Mayer and Salovey.
Signs of high EQ
A person with High EQ:
• Expresses his feelings clearly and
directly with three word sentences
beginning with “I feel…..”
• Does not disguise thought as feelings by
the use of “I feel like….” and “I feel
• Is not afraid to express feelings
• Is not dominated by negative emotions
such as: Fear, Worry, Guilt, Shame,
• Is able to read non-verbal
• Lets his feelings lead him to healthy
choices and happiness
• Balances feelings with reason, logic,
• Acts out of desire, not because of duty,
guilt, force or obligation
• Is independent, self-reliant, morally
autonomous and emotionally resilient
• Is intrinsically motivated and not by
power, wealth, fame, or approval
• Tends to feel optimistic, but is also
realistic, and can feel pessimistic at
• Does not internalize failure and is not
immobilized by fear or worry
• Is interested in other people’s feelings
• Is comfortable talking about feelings
Signs of low EQ
A person with Low EQ:
• Doesn’t take responsibilities for his
feelings; but blames others for them
• Can’t put together three word
sentences starting with “I feel…”
• Can’t tell why she feels the way she
does, or can’t do it without blaming
• Attacks, blames, commands,
criticizes, interrupts, invalidates,
lectures, advises and judges others.
• Tries to analyze others, for example
when they expresses their feelings
• Often begins sentences with “I think
• Sends “you messages” disguised as
“I feel messages”. For example, “I
feel like you…”
• Lays guilt trips on others
• Withholds information about or lies
about feelings. (Emotional
• Exaggerates or minimizes her
• Lets things build up, then they blow
up, or react strongly to something
• Lacks integrity and sense of
• Acts out feelings rather than talking
• Has no empathy, no compassion
• Avoids responsibility by saying
things like: “What was I supposed to
do? I had no choice!”
• May be overly pessimistic; may
invalidate others’ joy
• Frequently feels inadequate,
disappointed, resentful, bitter or
• Rigidly clings to his beliefs because
he is too insecure to be open to new
• Avoids connections with people and
seeks substitute relationships with
everything from pets and plants to
4.5) MINI EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TEST
How does one know if one has a high or low EQ? These questions help judge the level of EQ:
1. When you're feeling depressed and a friend asks how you are feeling, are you more
likely to answer:
i) Fine. I don't know. Alright, I guess. You don't want to know.
ii) I feel depressed.
2. When your partner does something, which upsets you, your most likely reply:
i) You shouldn't have... You really hurt my feelings.
ii) I felt hurt by that.
3. When someone points out a mistake, are you more likely to:
i) Defend yourself. Find something wrong with the other person.
ii) Thank the person.
4. When facing a scary situation are you more likely to:
i) Worry about it. Try to avoid thinking about it. Hope that it will go away.
ii) Estimate the probability of your fears coming true and begin focusing on your options.
5. When someone reacts strongly to something you say, are you more likely to:
i) Think they are too sensitive. Tell them you were just kidding.
ii) Apologize and ask them what bothered them about what you said.
Generally speaking, the more you tend towards the answers in the second set of responses, the
higher your EQ.
1. High EQ suggests that you can identify and express your feelings.
2. High EQ suggests that you take responsibility for your feelings by saying "I feel..."
instead of "You shouldn't have..."
3. If you have high EQ, you are not easily threatened by criticism, so you don't feel the need to
defend yourself or attack the other person. Instead, you are always willing to listen and learn
from other people.
4. High EQ suggests you address your fears using reason, rather than avoiding them or letting
them paralyze you.
5. High EQ people empathize with others' feelings, acknowledge them, and seek to help soothe
4.6)HOW TO RAISE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
There are at least two good reasons to work on raising your EQ:
1. If you want to be happier.
2. If you want people around you to be happier.
You will be happier because you will learn to spend your time more efficiently. You will avoid
activities and situations which don't feel good, and you will seek and create situations which do.
You will learn to take responsibility for your emotions and your happiness. You will attract more
positive people, and you will enter into more meaningful relationships. You will begin to value
your time more and get more accomplished.
People around you will be happier because they will feel more accepted, more understood, more
respected, more safe, and more significant.
can do with
can do alone
and also to
Things You Can Do Alone
• Frequently ask yourself how you feel.
• Write down your feelings to increase
your recall of the feelings and their
• Work on raising your self-esteem, by
taking courses, listening to tapes, and
taking advantage of the abundant
practical literature available at your
• Track your feelings in a written
• Take responsibility for your feelings.
• Begin expressing your feelings
accurately. Neither exaggerate them
nor minimize them.
• One reason people exaggerate is to get
attention because they do not feel they
are being heard. When you are
comfortable with your feelings, and
you surround yourself with people who
validate your feelings, you won't need
to exaggerate them any more. Neither
will you feel the need to minimize
them, so as not to burden your friends.
• Stop over-using expressions like "I
hate..." and "I love..."
• Let your feelings teach you what your
• Acknowledge, accept, respect, and
validate your feelings.
• When you feel defensive, ask yourself
what you are defending.
• Listen to your feelings. Let them guide
• Think about the consequences of your
• Balance your feelings and your logic.
• Try to anticipate your feelings. Don't
do things which will bring you
• Make changes in areas where there are
persistent negative feelings.
• Invest more time on activities that
have lasting, not just temporary,
Things You Can Do with Others
• Start asking other people how they
• Try to understand their feelings. Ask
them to explain their feelings so you
can understand them better.
• Ask others how they would feel about
possible future events. In other words,
start to take their feelings into
• Listen to others non-judgmentally.
• Begin being more honest with your
• Use the tactful, but honest expression
of your feelings to set your boundaries.
• Take some risks by sharing more true
• Get a group of close friends together &
talk about feelings in a supportive way.
Share your deepest fears & desires.
• Attend some of the existing support
groups and just listen while others talk
about their feelings.
• Ask others for feedback on how they
perceive you and your emotions.
Others will see things that you don't.
• Don't defend yourself if you hear
things you disagree with, or you will
stifle their openness. Instead, thank
them for their honesty.
• Work on becoming less defensive,
more open, and easier on yourself. Ask
others to let you know when they
perceive you as defensive, insecure,
rigid or hard on yourself.
• Set some emotional improvement
goals and share them with someone
you trust. Ask them to give you honest
5.1) Data Collection / Sample
Data collection was done on a Sample of 219 executives by using the EI scale developed
by Dr. Cooper & Prof. Sawaf (1996).
The questionnaire covers 21 variables (e.g. life events, work pressures, personal
pressures, emotional self awareness, emotional awareness of others, creativity, resilience,
interpersonal connections, compassion intuition, trust radius, personnel power, quality of life,
etc.) and leads to mapping of Emotional Quotient (EQ) and it’s inherent competencies. The
instrument is extensively researched and found statistically reliable and valid in USA and
The Questionnaire is already in use for training programs conducted for Indian
Executives and is a basis for personal feedback and counseling. Here the same has been pilot
tested on Indian executive population. Data was collected on the sample of 250 executives who
were attending the Professional Managerial Programs; out of which 219 are considered for
analysis (based on the completeness of their response).
The characteristics of sample in terms of age, gender, qualification, functional areas
and work experience is given below.
AGE GENDER FUNCTIONAL AREAS
QUALIFICATION WORK EXPERIENCE
20-30 yrs – 73 %
31-50 yrs – 27 %
Male – 80 %
Female – 20 %
Graduates – 78 %
Post Graduates – 18 %
Professional – 2 %
Doctorate – 2 %
Marketing – 54 %
Finance – 22 %
HR – 24 %
0-5 yrs – 53 %
6-10 yrs – 33 %
11-15 yrs – 6 %
16-20 yrs – 5 %
21 + yrs – 3 %
The data collected was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to arrive at an EQ map of Indian
Executives. The score on 21 variables is analyzed to get an Emotional Quotient (EQ) Profile
using 5 competencies.
Profile of EQ competencies
Components Category Interpretation Strategy To Improve
Current environment Low
Current environment is not
perceived as very helpful. Work
& personal pressures are high
Training for awareness,
coping & stress
Emotional Literacy Average
emotional expression &
awareness for others
Training for assertiveness,
giving & accepting
EQ Competency Average
resilience and self-control,
avoid confrontation &
Training for goal setting,
developing creativity &
EQ Values & Beliefs Low
Dissatisfaction with life, low on
compassion, intuition, trust,
personal power & integrity
Training for teambuilding,
conflict management &
adaptation to change
EQ Outcomes Low
Not happy with the quality of
life, quality of relationship &
other health related issues
Holistic training covering
(training in yoga, reiki,
stress management, etc.)
Here we may say that this test is applicable to Indian managerial population and helps in arriving
at their EQ profile. However further analyses and research is essential for getting a better insight
into the construct of emotional intelligence. Also there is a need for preparing a shortened
version of the scale to check its reliability and validity.
6] EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AT WORKPLACE
When the book, Emotional Intelligence, appeared in 1995, many business leaders agreed
with the basic message that success is strongly influenced by personal qualities such as
perseverance, self-control, and skill in getting along with others. They could point to "super sales
persons" who had an uncanny ability to sense what was most important to the customers and to
develop a trusting relationship with them. They could point to customer service employees who
excelled when it came to helping angry customers to calm down and be more reasonable about
their problems with the product or service. And they also could point to brilliant executives who
did everything well except get along with people, or to managers who were technically brilliant
but could not handle stress, and whose careers stalled because of these deficiencies. Business
leaders well understood how valuable these "emotionally intelligent" employees are to an
But what about the many workers who lack these important emotional competencies? Is
it possible for adults to become more socially and emotionally competent? Many business
leaders are less certain about this question. For instance, the dean of a major business school,
when asked about the importance of emotional intelligence at work, enthusiastically agreed that
it was crucial. But when asked as to how his school attempted to improve the emotional
intelligence of MBA students, he said, "We don’t do anything. I don’t think that our students’
emotional intelligence can be improved by the time they come here. They’re already adults, and
these qualities are developed early in life."
On the other hand, there are those who seem to claim that they can raise the emotional
intelligence of a whole group of employees in a day or less. Scores of consultants now are selling
workshops and seminars designed to help people become more emotionally competent and
socially skilled. Some of these programs are quite good, but others make unrealistic claims. The
worst ones are those that involve a heavy reliance on inspirational lectures or intense, short-lived
experiences – and little else.
So who is right – the skeptics who believe that nothing can be done to improve emotional
competence after the age of 15, or the hucksters who claim that they can turn emotional dunces
into emotional Einsteins in an afternoon? As usual, the answer lies somewhere in between.
A growing body of research on emotional learning and behavior change suggests that it is
possible to help people of any age to become more emotionally intelligent at work. However,
many programs designed to do so fail to recognize the difference between two types of learning.
6.1) Two Types of Learning
Training and development efforts in industry have not always distinguished between
cognitive learning and emotional learning, but such a distinction is important for effective
practice. For instance, consider the example of the engineer whose career was stymied because
he was shy, introverted, and totally absorbed in the technical aspects of his job. Through
cognitive learning, he might come to understand that it would be better for him to consult other
people more, make connections, and build relationships. But just knowing he should do these
things would not enable him to do them. The ability to do these things depends on emotional
competence, which requires emotional learning as well as cognitive learning.
Emotional incompetence often results from habits deeply learned early in life. These
automatic habits are set in place as a normal part of living, as experience shapes the brain. As
people acquire their habitual repertoire of thought, feeling, and action, the neural connections
that support these are strengthened, becoming dominant pathways for nerve impulses.
Connections that are unused become weakened, while those that people use over and over grow
increasingly strong. When these habits have been so heavily learned, the underlying neural
circuitry becomes the brain’s default option at any moment – what a person does automatically
and spontaneously, often with little awareness of choosing to do so. Thus, for the shy engineer,
diffidence is a habit that must be overcome and replaced with a new habit, self-confidence.
Emotional capacities like empathy or flexibility differ from cognitive abilities because
they draw on different brain areas. Cognitive learning involves fitting new data and insights into
existing frameworks of association and understanding, extending and enriching the
corresponding neural circuitry. But emotional learning involves that and more – it requires that
we also engage the neural circuitry where our social and emotional habit repertoire is stored.
Changing habits such as learning to approach people positively instead of avoiding them, to
listen better, or to give feedback skillfully, is a more challenging task than simply adding new
information to old.
6.2) INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR CURVE
(Kubler – Ross Change Curve)
This curve shows the changes and reactions of the trainee, a trainer might have to face in certain
The above curve is important to an intervention agent or a coach, as he would face the above
circumstances. Enough care has to be taken by him in the process of deconstructing the
individual’s behaviour, guiding the trainee to insights and identifying emotional triggers from the
Y-axis: Perceived competence & confidence OR Development level
The curve starts from the middle of the Y-axis, which means that the trainee has a
certain level of perceived competence and confidence. He gets a shock or fears when he gets the
information about the major changes in the organization or when he realizes that he needs to
It should be borne in mind that most people do need a significant shift in their view of
themselves to be capable of making significant beneficial changes.
Initially there is disbelief towards, and resistance to change. But over a period of time,
awareness sets in. The actual change process is always difficult phase to pass. Hence he passes
through the phase of anger and blame and finally reaches the acceptance and regret phase
over a period of time.
After regret, the recovery is generally quick. This can be seen in the diagram (after
regret, the curve takes an immediate steep rise.)
The trainee recognizes his strengths and explores better and improved ways of functioning. He
discovers the right approach for improved performance and develops on it.
Integrating the right steps he achieves improved performance. Here his development levels
are high and is ready to take on the front with high spirits.
goals to personal
Set clear goals
Break goals into
use of skills
on the job
6.3) Guidelines for Effective Social and Emotional Learning:
The guidelines for social and emotional training are presented schematically in Figure 1.
They are arranged in the form of a flow chart that describes the optimal process for helping
individuals to increase their emotional competence in personal and interpersonal contexts.
The Optimal Process for Developing Emotional Intelligence in Organizations
Preparation Phase Training Phase Transfer & Maintenance Evaluation
The flow chart suggests that there are four basic phases to the training process. The first
occurs even before the individual begins formal training. This initial phase, which is crucial for
effective social and emotional learning, involves preparation for change. This preparation occurs
at both the organizational and individual levels. The second phase, training, covers the change
process itself. It includes the processes that help people change the way in which they view the
world and deal with its social and emotional demands. The third phase, transfer and
maintenance, addresses what happens following the formal training experience. The final phase
involves evaluation. Given the current state of knowledge about social and emotional learning,
the complexity of programs designed to promote such learning and the great unevenness in the
effectiveness of existing programs, evaluation always should be part of the process.
7.1) EQ - USEFULNESS IN HR PRACTICES
Emotional intelligence/quotient plays a very important role as a tool in organizations. It
contributes to the bottom line in any work organization. It can also be a valuable tool for HR
practitioners and managers who need to bring revolution in their organizations.
1. Godrej Boyce India Limited
HR manager – T.P. Vaishnav
Question – What role does EQ play in your company?
Response – EQ is yet not practiced as a tool to improve and measure performance in the
company. But we have started an EQ / EI awareness program, which is very preliminary.
2. Reliance Infocom
HR manager – Ravi Ranganathan
Question – Is EQ used as a tool to measure performance in your company?
Response – EQ as a tool is not used explicitly in our company. We check the EI levels in the
candidates through few indirect questions during the recruitment and selection processes.
3. Jhonson & Jhonson
HR manager – Shruti Chaterjee
Response given by her was similar to that given by HR manager of Reliance Infocom
4. Raptakos Brett Company India Limited (A Pharma company)
General Manager (HR & Marketing) - Mr. V.P. Dikshit
Question – Has EQ as a tool entered your organization?
Response - No, till date it hasn’t entered explicitly. We have been using it in some other form in
transitions like transfers and promotions.
But realizing that IQ is not a powerful predictor of success in an organization and understanding
the gaining importance of EQ, we have full plans to have EQ as an explicit tool in our company
within two months, (by November, ’02).
Question – In which areas will EQ play a role?
Response – It will play a significant role in:
• Overall performance evaluation – ( of middle as well as top management )
• Recruitment and Selection
• Training and Development
We expect major changes and improvements in the working of employees and managers. We
also expect our employees bettering in their ‘soft skills’ after having undergone training in
Further, EQ’s role can also be extended to –
• Coaching and
1) To understand the meaning of EQ
2) To find out its uses in different areas.
3) To evalute its importance through case study.
1) Books .
2) Questionnaire .
10] CASE STUDY
Q1) What do you understand by Emotional Intelligence?
Ans : According to me E.I is understanding the emotions and feelings of others
by being empathetic and knowing yourself..
Q2) What are your strengths and weaknesses ?
Ans : Strengths
a) extremely patient ,
b) can connect people easily(networking),
c) aware of my own-self (introspection),
d) art of saying “NO”
b) Extra anxious,
c) Very competitive
Q3) How do you work upon your blind spot?
Ans: Basically by two ways i.e.
Q4) How you make decisions when you are under pressure?
Ans : I do:
a) Deep Breathing and
b) Introspection of what is happening.
Q5) How you face your upsets while handling emotional cases?
Ans : I show Empathy rather than sympathy by keeping professional approach.
Q6) What are the steps you follow to solve emotional cases?
Ans : By being:-
Q7) How you control your different moods while solving a case?
Ans : I don’t always manage to control myself as the cases make me emotional but I try
to control by
a) Deep Breathing technique,
b) Tea Break ,
c) Washing the face
d) Watching the sky.
Q8) How do you develop trust among the people?
Ans : By Rapo Building
Q9) How do you motivate the people ?
Ans : I try to find out the
a) Intensity of the problem,
b) Speak at emotional level,
c) How do you feel the problem?,
d) Speak at practical level and also help them to take a decision.
Q10) How committed are you to achieve the goals?
Ans : I have set certain reachable goals not too high or too low and very much committed
to achieve them.
Q11) Do you think you are an empathetic listener ? Can you give some example.
Ans : Yes. In this she gave me an example of a battered woman. The daughter in law had
to face a lot of problems with this new family. These people used to physically harass
her. And her husband used to just watch the game without raising his voice. He couldn’t
support her in any way in this matter. Wounds were developed on her different parts of
the body. Her physical condition itself spoke everything. She was crying. She wanted to
take revenge but being a woman the only way out suggested was file a case with the court
where they will be properly handled and also she will get her right back. This was the
suggestion given only after a patient hearing of both the parties. The outcome was she
filed a case against them and got a divorce.
Q12) How you show interest to understand others ?
Ans : By giving good gestures as per the situation, nodding the head, positive body
language, by being optimistic, and most importantly by making them comfortable by
letting them say whatever they feel like by creating confidence in them. So that
maximum facts can be obtained.
Q13) What leadership qualities do you feel you have?
Ans : I am
a) Empathetic ,
b) Support group co operation by giving every one a say in the discussion ,
c) I think well in stress,
d) I accept my own mistakes and try to work on them,
e) At times I am democratic at times I am situational .
f) Also I am non-judgmental.
Q14) Do you think you are emotionally balanced ? give any 1 case to support your
Ans : I am not completely emotionally balanced.
In this she gave me a famous case of a mother in law and a daughter in law. They
both approach me for a problem .The mother in law started telling her problems shouting
and screaming at the top of her voice ,making hands at me,she looked frustrated. I got
afraid too by way of talking. Also she was dressed in a green saree wearing green bangles
in both the hands and a big tika on her fore-head which threatened me more. I just
thought if I am so afraid of her then what about the girl. I was feeling like laughing by
looking at her overall way of talking, but couldn’t as it was a serious matter.
10.2) Business case for Emotional Intelligence
Here are few corporate examples which show the significance of Emotional Quotient /
Intelligence in fields like –
• Recruitment and Selection
• Training and Development
1. The US Air Force used the EQ-I to select recruiters (the Air Force’s front-line HR
personnel) and found that the most successful recruiters scored significantly higher in the
emotional intelligence competencies of Assertiveness, Empathy, Happiness, and Emotional
Self Awareness. The Air Force also found that by using emotional intelligence to select
recruiters, they increased their ability to predict successful recruiters by nearly three-fold.
The immediate gain was a saving of $3 million annually. These gains resulted in the
Government Accounting Office submitting a report to Congress, which led to a request that
the Secretary of Defense order all branches of the armed forces to adopt this procedure in
recruitment and selection. (The GAO report is titled, “Military Recruiting: The
Department of Defense Could Improve Its Recruiter Selection and Incentive Systems,” and it
was submitted to Congress January 30, 1998. Richard Handley and Reuven Bar-On provided
2. At L’Oreal, sales agents selected on the basis of certain emotional competencies
significantly outsold salespeople selected using the company’s old selection procedure. On
an annual basis, salespeople selected on the basis of emotional competence sold $91,370
more than other salespeople did, for a net revenue increase of $2,558,360. Salespeople
selected on the basis of emotional competence also had 63% fewer turnovers during the first
year than those selected in the typical way.
3. In a large beverage firm based in the United States, using standard methods to hire division
presidents, 50% left within two years, mostly because of poor performance. When they
started selecting based on emotional competencies such as initiative, self-confidence, and
leadership, only 6% left in two years. Furthermore, the executives selected based on
emotional competence were far more likely to perform in the top third based on salary
bonuses for performance of the divisions they led: 87% were in the top third. In addition,
division leaders with these competencies outperformed their targets by 15 to 20 percent.
Those who lacked them under-performed by almost 20%.
4. After supervisors in a manufacturing plant received training in emotional competencies such
as how to listen better and help employees resolve problems on their own, lost-time accidents
were reduced by 50 percent, formal grievances were reduced from an average of 15 per year
to 3 per year, and the plant exceeded productivity goals by $250,000. In another
manufacturing plant where supervisors received similar training, production increased 17
percent. There was no such increase in production for a group of matched supervisors who
were not trained.
5. For sales representatives at a computer company, those hired, based on their emotional
competence were 90% more likely to finish their training than those hired on other criteria.
6. For 515 senior executives analyzed by the search firm ‘Egon Zehnder International’, those
who were primarily strong in emotional intelligence were more likely to succeed than those
who were strongest in either relevant previous experience or IQ. In other words, emotional
intelligence was a better predictor of success than either relevant previous experience or high
IQ. More specifically, the executive was high in emotional intelligence in 74 percent of the
successes and only in 24 percent of the failures. The study included executives in Latin
America, Germany, and Japan, and the results were almost identical in all three cultures.
7. Financial advisors at American Express whose managers completed the Emotional
Competence training program were compared to an equal number whose managers had not.
During the year following training, the advisors of trained managers grew their businesses by
18.1% compared to 16.2% for those whose managers were untrained.
8. An analysis of more than 300 top-level executives from fifteen global companies showed that
six emotional competencies distinguished stars from the average: Influence, Team
Leadership, Organizational Awareness, self-confidence, Achievement Drive, and Leadership.
9. In jobs of medium complexity like those of sales clerks and mechanics, a top performer is 12
times more productive than those at the bottom and 85 percent more productive than an
average performer. In the most complex jobs like insurance salespeople and account
managers, a top performer is 127 percent more productive than an average performer.
Competency research in over 200 companies and organizations worldwide suggests that
about one-third of this difference is due to technical skill and cognitive ability while two-
thirds is due to emotional competence. In top leadership positions, over four-fifths of the
difference is due to emotional competence.
10. Research by the Center for Creative Leadership has found that the primary causes of
derailment in executives involve deficits in emotional competence. The three primary ones
• Difficulty in handling change
• Not being able to work well in a team, and
• Poor interpersonal relations.
1) Individual level – Every individual to become more successful in his life should
try to evaluate his EI connected to his working areas so that he can increase his
2) Group level – In the companies, they should develop in-service training module
for evaluating and improving emotional intelligence of workers form the point of
view of productivity.
3) Managerial level – The emotional intelligence can be evaluated even for the
managerial category at a particular time intervals to get optimum use of human
12 ] SUPPLEMENTARY
I am thankful to N.E.S.Ratnam college for giving me an opportunity to work on the project of
Emotional Intelligence Quotient. I am highly thankful to my esteemed guide Mr.Subramanium
for his support throughout the completion of this project.
I am also thankful to Stri.Chetana Shakti,collector colony ,chembur for assisting me in
this project and allowing me to do a case study form their staff. I am thankful to Ms.Mitali
(psychiatrist), who works there as a counsellor ,for answering to my questionnaire.
So is there anything new about emotional intelligence? In some ways, emotional
intelligence really is not new. In fact, it is based on a long history of research and theory in
personality and social psychology. Furthermore, Goleman has never claimed otherwise. In fact,
one of his main points was that psychologists have studied the abilities associated with emotional
intelligence for many years, and there is an impressive, and growing, body of research
suggesting that these abilities are important for success in many areas of life.
However, rather than arguing about whether emotional intelligence is new, it is more
useful and interesting to consider how important it is for effective performance at work. There
now is a considerable body of research suggesting that a person’s ability to perceive, identify,
and manage emotion provides the basis for the kinds of social and emotional competencies that
are important for success in almost any job. Furthermore, as the pace of change increases and
the world of work makes ever-greater demands on a person’s cognitive, emotional, and physical
resources, this particular set of abilities has become increasingly important.
Use of Emotional Intelligence has become imperative to improve both productivity and
psychological well being in the workplace of tomorrow.
At present, there is little in the way of published, fundamental research that examines
either emotional intelligence or its measurement. However, This is a very interesting and
potentially powerful area that bears watching. It is not without controversy. It is a long way to
go. No doubt, the emotional intelligence will contribute much to a happy living of an individual
and the community.
Emotional intelligence allows us to think more creatively and use our emotions to solve
problem. Emotional intelligence appears to be an important set of psychological abilities that
relate to life success. It is empathy and communication skills as well as social and leadership
skills that will be central to your success in life and personal relationships. Rather than a high IQ,
purpose that it is far better to have a high E-IQ, emotional intelligence, if you want to be a valued
and a productive member of the society.
Men particularly need to develop emotional skills, and there are many examples of men
with high intelligence who were not successful because they had problems with there people
skills. It is found from this research that people with high emotional intelligence generally have
successful relationships with family, friends and fellows workers. They are also successful
because they have persisted the face of setbacks and channel their emotional energies towards
achieving their goals.
Goleman, D. (1995) – ‘Emotional intelligence’. New York: Bantam.
Goleman, D.(1998) - ‘Working with Emotional Intelligence’. New York: Bantam.
The EQ Edge
Hemphill, J. K. (1959) - ‘Job description’. Harvard Business Review.
Claude Steiner, Ph. D - ‘Achieving Emotional Literacy’
A research done on Profile of Indian Executives by - Dr. Vijaya Manerikar & Dr. C. D’lima