Objective of study
The objective behind the study of this topic was the hunger of
knowledge about a completely new industry viz Corrugated
There are studies been made on packaging industry but the
corrugation sector was not given so much importance, I wanted to
bring it to everyone’s notice that an industry known as corrugated
packaging not only exists but also yields great returns and has a
lot of scope for development.
• Packaging overview
• History of packaging
• Factors to consider when making
Packaging – an overview
Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting
products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the
process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Package
labelling (BrE) or labeling (AmE) is any written, electronic, or graphic
communications on the packaging or on a separate but associated label.
Packaging is heavily integrated into our daily lives, we see it all around us,
on everyday items such as chocolate bars and potato chip (crisp) packets- As
explained below, the main use for packaging is protection of the goods
inside, but packaging also provides us with a recognisable logo, or
packaging, we instantly know what the goods are inside
A Brief History of Packaging
From the very earliest times, humans consumed food where it was found.
Families and villages made or caught what they used. They were also self-
sufficient, so there was little need for packaging of goods, either for storage
or transportation. When containers were needed, nature provided gourds,
shells, and leaves. Later, containers were fashioned from natural materials,
such as hollowed logs, woven grasses and animal organs. As ores and
chemical compounds were discovered, metals and pottery were developed,
leading to other packaging forms.
Packaging is used for several purposes:
• Contain products, defining the amount the consumer will purchase.
• Protects products from contamination, from environmental damage
and from theft.
• Facilitate transportation and storing of products.
• Carry information and colorful designs that make attractive displays.
For each product's needs, there are good packaging solutions. Though
packages are often taken for granted, they are the result of many years of
innovation -- in some cases accidental. A brief review of the more popular
packaging developments are included in this fact sheet.
Paper and Paper Products
One way of placing packages into categories is to describe them as flexible,
semi-flexible, or rigid. Flexible packaging includes the paper sacks that dog
food comes in, the plastic bags that hold potato chips, and the paper or
plastic sacks in which we carry home our purchases. An example of semi-
flexible packaging is the paperboard boxes that cereal, many other food
products, small household items, and many toys are packaged in. For many
non-food items, the packaging is made more rigid by formed packing
materials that slip inside the box and hold the product and its accessories or
components in place. Forms of rigid packaging include crates, glass bottles,
and metal cans.
Cloth or paper may be the oldest forms of flexible packaging. Flexible
packaging is the most "source-reduced" form of packaging, that means that a
flexible package has the least amount of material compared to other forms of
packages that would hold the product. This also means that flexible
packaging adds very little weight to the overall product, and there is very
little to discard when the package is empty.
The use of flexible packaging materials began with the Chinese, They used
sheets of treated mulberry bark to wrap foods as early as the first or second
century B.C. During the following centuries, the Chinese also developed and
refined the techniques of paper making. Knowledge of how to make paper
gradually moved west across Asia and into Europe. In 1310, paper making
was introduced to England. The technique arrived in America in
Germantown, Pennsylvania, in 1690.
Paper is basically a thin sheet of cellulose. Cellulose is a fibrous material
derived from plants. Early paper was made from cellulose fibers derived
from flax, the plant that also gives fibers for linen cloth. As demand for
paper grew, old linen rags were sought as a source of fiber.
In 1867, the process for deriving useful cellulose fiber from wood pulp was
developed. Because wood was so cheap and plentiful, this fiber source
rapidly replaced cloth fibers as the primary source of paper fiber. Today,
virtually all paper has wood pulp as the source of cellulose fiber.
An important step for the use of paper in packaging came with the
development of paper bags. Commercial paper bags were first manufactured
in Bristol, England, in 1844. Shortly thereafter, in 1852, Francis Wolle
invented the bag-making machine in the United States. Further
advancements during the 1870s included glued paper sacks and the gusset
design, producing the types of paper bags used today. In 1905, machinery
was invented to automatically produce in-line printed paper bags.
With the development of the glued paper sack, the more expensive cotton
flour sacks could be replaced. But a sturdier multiwalled paper sack for
larger quantities did not replace cloth until 1925, when a means of sewing
the ends was finally invented.
Another important use of paper in packaging came with the development of
paperboard -- the kind of paper that packages a box of cereal. The first
paperboard carton -- often called a cardboard box -- was produced in
England in 1817, more than two hundred years after the Chinese invented
cardboard or paperboard.
Another common form of "cardboard" based on corrugated paper appeared
in the 1850s. Basically, this form of cardboard is made from thin sheets of
paperboard that are molded into a wavy shape and then "faced" or
sandwiched between two flat sheets of paperboard. The strength, lightness,
and cheapness of this material make it very useful for shipping and storing.
However, replacing wooden crates with the new paper alternative would
prove to be something of a battle. Nevertheless, about 1910, after much
litigation between manufacturers and the railroads, shipping cartons of faced
corrugated paperboard began to replace self-made wooden crates and boxes
used for trade. Today, cardboard boxes -- more accurately called "C-flute
corrugated paperboard cartons" -- are used almost universally for product
As with many innovations, the development of the carton was accidental.
Robert Gair was a Brooklyn printer and paper-bag maker during the 1870s.
While he was printing an order of seed bags, a metal rule normally used to
crease bags shifted in position and cut the bag. Gair concluded that cutting
and creasing paperboard in one operation would have advantages; the first
automatically made carton, now referred to as "semi-flexible packaging,"
was created. Such folding cartons or "tubular cartons" dominate the dried,
processed food market.
The development of flaked cereals advanced the use of paperboard cartons.
The Kellogg brothers were first to use cereal cartons. The Kelloggs operated
a sanatorium at Battle Creek, Michigan. They developed flaked cereals as a
health food for their patients, but soon began marketing this new food
product on a mass scale. Their original packaging was a waxed, heat-sealed
bag of Waxtite wrapped around the outside of a plain box. The outer
wrapper was printed with the brand name and advertising copy. Today, of
course, a plastic liner protects cereals and other products within the printed
carton. Some cereal manufacturers have attempted to sell cereal in flexible
pouches, like snack foods. However, U.S. consumers have only marginally
accepted cereals in a pouch only, so we continue to see a bag-in-box format
Paper and paperboard packaging increased in popularity throughout much of
the 20th century. Then with the advent of plastics as a significant player in
packaging (late 1970s and early 1980s), paper and its related products were
replaced in many uses. Lately that trend has slowed as designers have tried
to respond to the perception that plastic is environmentally unfriendly. The
fact is that decreasing that amount of material in packaging is usually more
important than the composition of the package to get the most
environmentally friendly form of packaging.
Although glass-making began in 7000 B.C. as an offshoot of pottery, it was
first industrialized in Egypt in 1500 B.C. Made from base materials
(limestone, soda, sand and silica), which were in plentiful supply, all
ingredients were simply melted together and molded while hot. Since that
early discovery, the mixing process and the ingredients have changed very
little, but the molding techniques have progressed dramatically.
At first, ropes of molten glass were coiled into shapes and fused together. By
1200 B.C., glass was pressed into molds to make cups and bowls. When the
blowpipe was invented by the Phoenicians in 300 B.C., it not only speeded
production but allowed for round containers. Colors were available from the
beginning, but clear, transparent glass was not discovered until the start of
the Christian Era. During the next 1000 years, the process spread steadily,
but slowly, across Europe.
The split mold, which was developed in the 17th and 18th centuries, further
provided for irregular shapes and raised decorations. The identification of
the maker and the product name could then be molded into the glass
container as it was manufactured. As techniques were further refined in the
18th and 19th centuries, prices of glass containers continued to decrease.
Owens invented the first automatic rotary bottle-making machine, patented
in 1889. Suddenly, glass containers of all shapes and sizes became
economically attractive for consumer products, and from the early 1900s
until the late 1960s glass containers dominated the market for liquid
products. A typical modern bottle-making machine automatically produces
20,000 bottles per day.
While other packaging products, such as metals and plastics, were gaining
popularity in the 1970s, packaging in glass tended to be reserved for high-
value products. As a type of "rigid packaging," glass has many uses today.
High weight, fragility and cost have reduced the glass markets in favor of
metal and plastic containers. Still, for products that have a high quality
image and a desire for high flavor or aroma protection, glass is an effective
packaging material. The packaging glass used today is the only type of glass
accepted in US recycling programs.
Ancient boxes and cups, made from silver and gold, were much too valuable
for common use. Metal did not become a common packaging material until
other metals, stronger alloys, thinner gauges and coatings were eventually
One of the "new metals' that allowed metal to be used in packaging was tin.
Tin is a corrosion-resistant metal, and ounce-for-ounce, its value is
comparable to silver. However, tin can be "plated" in very thin layers over
cheaper metals, and this process made it economical for containers.
The process of tin plating was discovered in Bohemia in 1200 A.D., and
cans of iron coated with tin were known in Bavaria as early as the 14th
century. However, the plating process was a closely guarded secret until the
1600s. Thanks to the Duke of Saxony, who stole the technique, it progressed
across Europe to France and the United Kingdom by the early 19th century.
After William Underwood transferred the process to the United States via
Boston, steel replaced iron, which improved both output and quality. The
term 'tin can' referred to a tin-plated iron or steel can and was considered a
cheap item. Tin foil also was made long before aluminum foil. Today many
still refer to metal cans as 'tin cans' and aluminum foil as 'tin foil', a
carryover from times well past.
In 1764, London tobacconists began selling snuff in metal canisters, another
type of today's "rigid packaging." But no one was willing to use metal for
food since it was considered poisonous.
The safe preservation of foods in metal containers was finally realized in
France in the early 1800s. In 1809, General Napoleon Bonaparte offered
12,000 francs to anyone who could preserve food for his army. Nicholas
Appert, a Parisian chef and confectioner, found that food sealed in tin
containers and sterilized by boiling could be preserved for long periods. A
year later (1810), Peter Durand of Britain received a patent for tinplate after
devising the sealed cylindrical can.
Since food was now safe within metal packaging, other products were made
available in metal boxes. In the 1830s, cookies and matches were sold in tins
and by 1866 the first printed metal boxes were made in the United States for
cakes of Dr. Lyon's tooth powder.
The first cans produced were lead-soldered by hand, leaving a 1 1/2-inch
hole in the top to force in the food. A patch was then soldered in place but a
small air hole remained during the cooking process. Another small drop of
solder then closed the air hole. At this rate, only 60 cans per day could be
In 1868, interior enamels for cans were developed, but double seam closures
using a sealing compound were not available until 1888.
Aluminum particles were first extracted from bauxite ore in 1825 at the high
price of $545 per pound. When the development of better processes began in
1852, the prices steadily declined until 1942, when the price of a pound of
aluminum was $14. Although commercial foils entered the market in 1910,
the first aluminum foil containers were designed in the early 1950s while the
aluminum can appeared in 1959.
The invention of cans also required the invention of the can opener! Initially,
a hammer and chisel was the only method of opening cans. Then in 1866,
the keywind metal tear-strip was developed. Nine years later (1875), the can
opener was invented. Further developments modernized the mechanism and
added electricity, but the can opener has remained, for more than 100 years,
the most efficient method of retrieving the contents of a can. In the 1950s,
the pop top/tear tab can lid appeared and now tear tapes that open and reseal
Collapsible, soft metal tubes, today known as "flexible packaging," were
first used for artists paints in 1841. Toothpaste was invented in the 1890s
and started to appear in collapsible metal tubes. But food products really did
not make use of this packaging form until the 1960s. Later, aluminum was
changed to plastic for such food items as sandwich pastes, cake icings and
Plastic is the newest packaging material in comparison with metal, glass,
and paper. Although discovered in the 19th century, most plastics were
reserved for military and wartime use. Plastics have become very important
materials and a wide variety of plastics have been developed over the past
Several plastics were discovered in the nineteenth century: styrene in 1831,
vinyl chloride in 1835, and celluloid in the late 1860s. However, none of
these materials became practical for packaging until the twentieth century.
Styrene was first distilled from a balsam tree in 1831, but the early products
were brittle and shattered easily. Germany refined the process in 1933 and
by the 1950s styrofoam was available worldwide. Insulation and cushioning
materials as well as foam boxes, cups and meat trays for the food industry
Vinyl chloride, discovered in 1835, provided for the further development of
rubber chemistry. For packaging, molded deodorant squeeze bottles were
introduced in 1947 and in 1958, heat shrinkable films were developed from
blending styrene with synthetic rubber. Today some water and vegetable oil
containers are made from vinyl chloride.
Celluloid was invented during the American Civil War. Due to a shortage of
ivory, a United States manufacturer of billiard balls offered a $10,000
reward for an ivory substitute. A New York engineer, John Wesley Hyatt,
with his brother Isaiah Smith Hyatt, experimented several years before
creating the new material. Patented in 1870, "celluloid" could not be
molded, but rather carved and shaped, just like ivory.
Cellulose acetate was first derived from wood pulp in 1900 and developed
for photographic uses in 1909. Although DuPont manufactured cellophane
in New York in 1924, it wasn't commercially used for packaging until the
late 1950s and early 1960s. In the interim, polyethylene film wraps were
reserved for the military. In 1933, films protected submarine telephone
cables and later were important for World War II radar cables and drug
Other cellophanes and transparent films have been refined as outer
wrappings that maintain their shape when folded. Originally clear, such
films can now be made opaque, colored or embossed with patterns.
One of the most commonly used plastics is polyethylene terephthalate
(PETE). This material only became available for containers during the last
two decades with its use for beverages entering the market in 1977. By
1980, foods and other hot-fill products such as jams could also be packaged
Current packaging designs are beginning to incorporate recyclable and
recycled plastics but the search for reuse functions continues.
Labels and Trademarks
It now seems obvious that product containers will bear the identification of
the maker alongside pictures, nutritional information, ingredients, etc.
However, this seeminlgy obvious feature of packaging has its own history.
In the 1660s, imports into England often cheated the public and the phrase
"let the buyer beware" became popular. Inferior quality and impure products
were disguised and sold to uninformed customers. Honest merchants,
unhappy with this deception, began to mark their wares with their
identification to alert potential buyers.
Official trademarks were pioneered in 1866 by Smith Brothers for their
cough drops marketed in large glass jars. This was a new idea - using the
package to "brand" a product for the benefit of the consumer.
In 1870, the first registered U.S. trademark was awarded to the Eagle-Arwill
Chemical Paint Company. Today, there are nearly three-quarters of a million
(750,000) registered trademarks in the United States alone. Labels now
contain a great deal of information intended to protect and instruct the
From containers provided by nature to the use of complex materials and
processes, packaging has certainly changed. Various factors contributed to
this growth: the needs and concerns of people, competition in the
marketplace, unusual events (such as wars), shifting lifestyles, as well as
discoveries and inventions. Just as no single cause influenced past
development, a variety of forces will be required to create the packages of
the future, but a very important factor will always be consumer choice.
Ultimately, only the packaging that our society demands is produced. We
choose by the products we purchase.
Factors to Consider When Making Packaging
Packaging decisions are important for several reasons including:
•Protection – Packaging is used to protect the product from damage
during shipping and handling, and to lessen spoilage if the protect is
exposed to air or other elements.
•Visibility – Packaging design is used to capture customers’ attention
as they are shopping or glancing through a catalog or website. This is
particularly important for customers who are not familiar with the
product and in situations, such as those found in grocery stores, where
a product must stand out among thousands of other products.
Packaging designs that standout are more likely to be remembered on
future shopping trips.
•Added Value – Packaging design and structure can add value to a
product. For instance, benefits can be obtained from package
structures that make the product easier to use while stylistic designs
can make the product more attractive to display in the customer’s
•Distributor Acceptance – Packaging decisions must not only be
accepted by the final customer, they may also have to be accepted by
distributors who sell the product for the supplier. For instance, a
retailer may not accept packages unless they conform to requirements
they have for storing products on their shelves.
•Cost – Packaging can represent a significant portion of a product’s
selling price. For example, it is estimated that in the cosmetics industry
the packaging cost of some products may be as high as 40% of a
product’s selling price. Smart packaging decisions can help reduce
costs and possibly lead to higher profits.
•Expensive to Create - Developing new packaging can be extremely
expensive. The costs involved in creating new packaging include:
graphic and structural design, production, customer testing, possible
destruction of leftover old packaging, and possible advertising to
inform customer of the new packaging.
•Long Term Decision – When companies create a new package it is
most often with the intention of having the design on the market for an
extended period of time. In fact, changing a product’s packaging too
frequently can have negative effects since customers become
conditioned to locate the product based on its package and may be
confused if the design is altered.
•Environmental or Legal Issues – Packaging decisions must also
include an assessment of its environmental impact especially for
products with packages that are frequently discarded. Packages that
are not easily bio-degradable could draw customer and possibly
governmental concern. Also, caution must be exercised in order to
create packages that do not infringe on intellectual property, such as
copyrights, trademarks or patents, held by others.
Corrugated Packaging Industry
• Corrugated Packaging overview
• Industry Info
Corrugated packaging industry overview
125 Years of the Corrugated Packaging Industry
The booming Indian economy and a flourishing organised retail have raised
the expectations that consumption of corrugated packaging will begin to
expand again as the number and volume of goods packaged in corrugated
increases. MNCs are demanding corrugated boxes of international standards
and the pattern of buying the packaging is changing.
Prices of corrugated sheet and converted boxes have remained low due to
the over-capacity, manual operations and low productivity. Besides,
transport constraints and high freight costs have meant that small to medium
sized corrugated box plants are located near the customers.
The over 4,000 corrugated board and sheet plants are highly labour-
intensive, employing over half a million people – both directly and
indirectly. The industry is converting about 2 million tons of Kraft paper
into corrugated boxes. Factories are spreadout in all parts of India, even in
the remote industrially backward areas.
This present scenario is already being challenged by the sweeping changes
that are beginning to take shape. More and more in-line automatic plants are
being set up, as corrugated box makers gear up to meet the new demands for
high precision boxes with attractive graphics and large integrated production
Corrugation Industry .
Corrugated boxes industry is a packaging industry. Corrugated boxes are
manufactured from paper. Initially the paper used for manufacturing was
obtained from wood pulp which is known as virgin paper. Now a days, in
order to reduce the wastage and make optimum utilization of resources,
recycled quality paper is also used which is known as non- virgin paper.
Boxes were also made from bagasse (by product of sugar cane), but it was
not environment friendly. Thus, due to the above reasons recycled paper is
being largely used by the industries today to manufacture corrugated boxes.
Corrugated boxes are required by all types of industries no matter whether it
is a large/small/medium-scale industry. They are required by the wholesalers
and retailers. Corrugated boxes are even used by Movers and Packers.
Therefore, there is a huge market for corrugated boxes.
History of Corrugated Packaging
History of Corrugated
The ancient Egyptians produced the first writing material by pasting together
thin layers of plant stems..
The Chinese created the first authentic paper from bamboo and mulberry
Paper mills appeared in Spain, Italy, Germany and France
The first sheet paper mill in North America was built near Philadelphia.
England wanted to regain their loss of colonial paper exports. They imposed
the Stamp Act, which included a tax on all paper made in the colonies. Many
consider this fuel for the American Revolution.
The first continuous papermaking machine was patented.
In England, the first pulp from wood was manufactured
The first known corrugated material was patented for sweatband lining in
tall hats of Victorian Englishmen.
Unlined corrugated first appeared as a packaging material for glass and
kerosene lamp chimneys
A liner was added to one side of the corrugated material to prevent the flutes
Corrugated was slotted and cut to make the first boxes. Wells Fargo began
using corrugated boxes for small freight shipments.
Corrugated was first approved as a valid shipping material and was used to
Rubber printing plates were developed which allowed for greater design
Tariffs imposed on corrugated shipping containers were ruled
Flexographic printing virtually replaced letterpress and oil-based ink.
The flexo folder-gluer was invented.
Preprinted linerboard emerged.
New developments in the anilox roll, plate and press design drove the
industry into short-run, high-graphic products.
The edge crush test was added to Item 222 and Rule41 as an alternative to
burst strength and basis weight, allowing the manufacture of lighter weight
• What is Corrugated packaging
• Why Corrugated Packaging
Corrugated board is essentially a paper sandwich consisting of corrugated
medium layered between inside and outside linerboard. On the production
side, corrugated is a sub-category of the paperboard industry, which is a sub-
category of the paper industry, which is a sub-category of the forest products
industry. Traditionally, corrugated is best known for its structural strength
that offers protection to packaged products throughout the transportation
cycle. However, it has evolved over the course of time and today it is a
much more versatile product. It can be easily cut to any shape and creased to
fold in any direction. Thus, corrugated boards can be further converted to
produce cartons, boxes, cases, containers, inherent fitments/ accessories such
as interlockers, partitions, dividers, pads, plates, supporters, fillers etc. which
provide internal cushioning and restrict movements. The various shapes and
forms described above are referred to as corrugated boxes for sake of
Packaging done by corrugation helps in the movement of goods from the
manufacturer to the seller to the buyer without any hassles of breakages,
pilferage etc. Therefore the importance of corrugation is not only to the
seller but also to the buyer as it gives a form of safety satisfaction to both.
Corrugated boxes are easy to recognize. Corrugated is made of paper and
has an arched layer, called "fluting," between smooth sheets, called "liner."
The corrugated most commonly used to make boxes has one layer of fluting
between two smooth sheets. But there are many types of corrugated
available, each with different flute sizes and thicknesses.
Corrugated is an extremely durable, versatile, economical and lightweight
material used for custom-manufactured shipping containers, packaging and
point-of-purchase displays, in addition to numerous non-traditional
applications ranging from pallets to children's toys to furniture.
Corrugated. It's not just a brown box.
Corrugated is a complete, high-performance material design, manufacturing
and delivery system. Corrugated is the preferred packaging material because
Made from a Renewable Resource
Protective and Durable
Features Of Corrugated Packaging
& Raw Materials Used
Features of corrugated box
A High-Tech Engineered Material.
What may come as a big surprise to many is that the ever-present corrugated
"cardboard box" is high-tech:
Ongoing R&D programs continuously improve such characteristics as
strength-to-weight ratios, printability, moisture barriers and
Corrugated components, designs and end products are manufactured
on sophisticated, automatic equipment that reduces costs and ensures
The vast majority of corrugated products are designed and prototyped
with advanced, computer-aided design and manufacturing systems,
providing customers with the best and most cost-effective solutions to
their packaging challenges.
Corrugated offers thousands of possible combinations of board types, flute
sizes (caliper), basis weight, adhesives, treatment and coatings, including
flame retardant and static control protection.
Corrugated is the only rigid shipping container and packaging medium that
can be cut and folded into an infinite variety of shapes and sizes and direct-
printed with high-resolution color graphics (including lithography,
flexography and silk screening). And corrugated is not just for displays and
boxes. Other uses include low-cost, one-way recyclable pallets, retail bulk
bins, and lightweight castles that children can build themselves.
There are hundreds of basic designs and thousands of adaptations, each
chosen on the basis of proven experience and the proposed use of the
Corrugated is routinely custom-designed to fit specific product protection,
shelf space and shipping density requirements (including inner packaging
that prevents shifting).
Corrugated combines structural rigidity with superior cushioning qualities.
Containers, packages and pallets nest products in an optimally protective
environment, so even heavy or fragile contents arrive undamaged.
Corrugated offers excellent tear, tensile and burst strength to withstand
shipping pressures. It resists impact, drop and vibration damage while
offering uniform stacking and weight distribution so the load stays put,
regardless of the form of transportation.
Corrugated can be designed to contain flowable, granular or loose bulk
products and even hazardous materials. It is also used to ship liquids and
fresh foods, with the addition of removable plastic or waxed liners which
serve as moisture barriers.
All this from a material that is lightweight, low-cost, reusable and
Corrugated containers and packaging are mobile billboards that create
product image wherever they travel. Corrugated displays are eye-catching
modular units that can be set up quickly and recycled at the end of a
Corrugated is a very flexible medium that accommodates a wide range of
printing options to support the end-use requirement:
Offset lithography and rotogravure (high-volume).
Flexography or letterpress (shorter runs)
Silk screening (displays)
Corrugated can be direct printed in plant or manufactured with
high-end process color graphics.
One of the least expensive containers ever developed, the overall cost of
corrugated shipping containers is usually between one percent and four
percent of the value of the goods they carry.
The cost of labor and tools required to produce, fill, and move the container
is low. The cost of shipping is low, due to lower weights and higher fill
densities than alternative packaging. The trend toward lightweighting will
continue to drive down shipping costs. Low raw material costs and mass
production of corrugated containers makes them particularly cost-efficient.
The ultimate contribution to cost reduction is when corrugated is used as an
all-in-one shipping, storage, advertising and display medium - a growing
trend both in warehouse and other retail stores.
Corrugated, made from a natural renewable resource, has a great
environmental record. Corrugated is frequently manufactured using high
percentages of secondary fiber (including old corrugated containers, kraft,
old newspapers and even straw), thereby diverting these materials from the
municipal solid waste stream.
In 2005, 24.7 million tons of corrugated were recovered and recycled in the
U.S. -- that's 76.6 percent of all containerboard produced in the same year.
Corrugated has the best recycling rate of any packaging material used today.
And that's what happens after the corrugated box has been used and reused
time and time again to store and move items around the home, store and
In addition, the use of corrugated constructions with high-performance
linerboard has led to a significant overall reduction in basis weight and a
significant source reduction of raw materials.
Water-based inks are now used almost exclusively for printing graphics on
corrugated containers, avoiding the use of lead-based inks and solvents
which pollute the air and the water used to wash down printing equipment
between color changes.
1 Craft paper: Craft paper used is recycled paper. The quality of the craft
paper depends upon the burst factor( BF). This burst factor is of A, B and
semi A grade. A grade is the best quality paper made of wood pulp. It is
also called virgin quality paper. But since it is not environment friendly,
it is not used. B grade is indigenous recycled paper of 12 BF while semi
A grade is imported recycled paper between 16- 25 BF. These two types
are called non virgin quality papers. Customers order craft papers from
these two grades and the BF entirely depends upon the customers and so,
no specific quality craft paper is recommended. Also the papers are
ordered according to the cut size or the deckal as we know it in the
corrugation industry. It varies according to customers requirements. He
can order accordingly. Also gram per sq.m. (GSM) also varies in craft
paper. GSM varies from 80-200. what the customer wants depends
entirely on his choice.
2 Gum: Gum is basically used for corrugating and pasting machine. There
are two different gum used for these machines. One is corrugation gum
for corrugating machine and another one is pasting gum for pasting
machine. Both are starch based. Silicate based gum is also available, but
it is hazardous to workers’ hands as it contains pieces of glass.
Corrugating gum used in corrugation machine is half cooked. The reason
for this is when it goes through the heater, it gets completely cooked and
fully effective. Pasting gum is completely cooked and contains 18- 20%
3 Pins: for pinning machine, pins are required. There are two types of
pins- aluminium and rust proof pins. Basically, rust proof pins are
recommended as it is cost effective and also because it does not rust.
Aluminium pins cost Rs. 50/ kg. while rust proof pins cost Rs. 38/ kg.
and 1 kg. contains around 2000 pins. Also the wires used for these pins is
MS Galvanised. The thickness of the pin is around 16 guage.
4 Binding cloth and fevicol are other raw materials used. These are not the
main raw materials but value adding materials. Binding cloth required in
a day is 20 m.
These are some of the basic raw materials used for the manufacture of
the corrugated packaging.
Corrugated Box Structure
All About Corrugated Cardboard Boxes
Design of Corrugated Boxes
• Corrugated boxes are made of corrugated paperboard.
• Corrugated paperboard has a sequence of air columns, parallel to
each other, running across the surface of the box. The air columns
serve as cushioning and the series of paper columns is what makes the
• The design of the box varies depending on the purpose of its use. A
manufacturer might choose to design corrugated boxes to be sized
and/or shaped to best suit the purpose it will be used for.
Structure of Corrugated Boxes
There are two basic components of c Fiberboard, also known as Combined
Cardboard, those components are:
These two components are made of a unique type of heavy paper, referred to
as container board.
What is Linerboard? Linerboard is the flat cardboard surface that adheres
to the medium and acts as liners.
What is Medium? The medium is the grooved corrugated paper channels in between the liners.
The images below illustrate four kinds of
A medium is glued to a linerboard.
Similarly referred to as, “Double Face”.
A medium is glued between two linerboards.
Designed like a double cheeseburger, with a linerboard glued above and
below each of two mediums
Designed like a triple cheeseburger, a linerboard is glued above and below
each of the three mediums.
The purpose of FLUTES
The concept of an arch is that if shaped properly, it maximizes the strength
of the area it spans. The design of FLUTES, when attached to linerboards in a cardboard box,
adheres to this concept by being shaped in such a manner as to allow it to withstand immense force and extreme
The layers of flutes combine together to form an abundant series of arched
columns that act as a stabilizer in supporting heavy loads. At the same time,
the space beneath the arches of flutes serves its purpose by acting as
cushioning for whatever is placed in the cardboard box. The linerboard
attached is essential to the upkeep of the flutes for the purpose of protecting
it from damage as well as adding to its strength.
Interestingly enough, the flutes also provide some level of protection from
abrupt temperature adjustments in its surroundings area.
Please note, to the right, the diagrams indications of the various flute sizes
currently manufactured on the market:
F – is the smallest flute size shown.
E – is the second to smallest flute size.
C – is considered the medium flute size.
B – is smaller than the “C” size and bigger than the “E” size.
A – is the largest flute size and most commonly used on the market.
While there are a number of new specialized flute sizes currently being
worked on for production, the ones listed above are the most common ones
available and as noted above, already on the market for purchase. The
largest and larger flutes tend to be used for handling boxes since it can
handle more pressure on top of it and the smaller flutes are used mostly for
smaller retail cardboard box purposes.
Depending on the purpose the cardboard box is used for, various sizes of
flutes can be combined in creating the particular box in such a manner as to
cause the box to adjust its handling ability as a result of the particular
combination of different sizes of flutes attached to the linerboard in creating
the cardboard box.
Dimensions are given in the sequence of length,
width and depth. Internationally, the words
length, breadth and height may be used to
express these dimensions. The dimensions of a
box are described based on the opening of an
assembled box, which can be located on the top or the side, depending on
how it is to be filled. The opening of a box is a rectangle; that is, it has two
sets of parallel sides. The longer of the two sides is considered its length, the
shorter of the two sides is considered its width. The side perpendicular to
length and width is considered the depth of the box.
Dimensions can be specified for either the inside or the outside of the box.
Accurate inside dimensions must be
determined to ensure the proper fit for
the product being shipped or stored. At
the same time, palletizing and
distributing the boxes depends on the
outside dimensions. The box
manufacturer should be informed as to which dimension is most important
to the customer.
Production Process of Corrugated
Paper for Corrugated Board
Made from recycled paper. The fibre content, quality and hygiene is vary.
With certain process this recycled paper could match the semi-chemical
fluting it is more abrasive. (b)Semi-Chemical:
Made from virgin fibre hardwood & mixed with recycled paper (<35%).
More expensive than recycled fluting, but higher quality.All recycled paper
is recommended to be used within 7 days - 6 months. While Kraft Liner &
Semi Chemical Fluting is recommended to be used within 11 days - 12
Made from recycled paper and processed with water sothat it become pulp.
Afterward cleaned and process again. The fibre than mixed with chemical
and starch - glued become new paper, such as:
a)Brown Test b)Brown Liner c)Coated Test d)White Top Test
Made from pine trees with long and strong fibre and heated ntil become
soft.Then rinse. Aferward process become paper with smoother surface,such
a)Brown Kraft b)White Kraft c)White Top Kraft d)Coated Kraft
The details of the production process along with diagrammatic
representation are followed on the next page.
Wet End :
1. Mill Roll Stand - liner
3. Single Facer
5. Mill Roll Stand - medium
7. Mill Roll Stand - based liner
8. Web Break
9. Web Guide
10. Triplex pre-heater
11. Glue Machine
12. Double Face / Double
Backer with :
13. steam chest
14. top belt
15. bottom belt
16. driving drum
Dry End :
Converting Process :
1. Flexo Printing
2. Slotting / Die Cutting (Rotary & Flat Bed)
3. Folding, Gluing / Stitching
1. Flexo Printing
a. Printing can be made with Top or Bottom Printing
b. Printing Plate could be rubber or Photopolymer
c. Printing unit depend on the needs, from 2 to 6 colors
Flexo printing process
Conventional Flexo Printing Modern Flexo Printing
Most of simple job using only 2 solid colors, but for the high quality printing
they have used up to 6 colors - though it is rare in this region.
a) Printing Machine
Most of the printing machine always combine with Slotter to make RSC
Boxes (Regular Slotted Container).
Printer slotter with folder gluer
• Printing Unit
2. Folder Gluer
• Inline wuth Flexo Printer Slotter
• Topfold & Bottomfold
Die cut is used for Wrap around boxes, There are 2 kind of die cutting
• Rotary and
• Flat Bed
Rotary die cutter operation
More accurate, higher investment but cheaper die
Tying the box either from folder gluer / diecutter.
• Semi automatic & fully automatic strapping
Corrugated Sheet Type :
Types Of Corrugated Boxes
Following is the diagramatic representation of different types of boxes.
Inside Glue Flap Outside Glue Flap
Taped or Stapled Flaps Telescope Boxes
Overlap Slotted Containers
Regular Slotted Container (RSC) Folders
Many other styles of corrugated boxes and structures are available
A Full Overlap Box is similar to an RSC except the major flaps fully
A Five Panel Folder is shipped flat without a manufacturer's joint and
is often used for long items. The box has five long panels, one of
which fully overlaps. The ends also fully overlap.
A Full Telescope Box has two fully telescoping sections. The sections
may be formed by staples, die-cut locks, adhesive, etc.
A Partial Telescope Box has two sections. The top telescopes partially
over the bottom.
A corrugated tray is often used for display purposes or used with a
Corrugated corner pads can be used for product support and
Special die-cut shapes have almost endless designs and uses.
Corrugated Recycling Process
Corrugated is a highly useful, cost-efficient, versatile packaging material
that is used to ship just about every product under the sun, all around the
world. But it doesn't stop there: corrugated is also the most-recycled
packaging material on earth, with a recovery rate of about 73 percent.
Businesses, retailers and consumers at home collect and return their used
corrugated containers to be recycled into new ones. While almost
everyone contributes to corrugated's recycling success, fewer people may
know where those boxes go from the collection point, or how they are
processed to produce new corrugated material.
Here's how corrugated is recycled:
1. Clean, old corrugated containers (OCC) are collected, in many
instances as part of a mixed recyclables stream. To optimize
recyclability, containers should be free of contaminants such as food,
metal foil, wax, etc.
2. The collected OCC is sorted, compacted and baled for space-efficient
storage and handling, either at the point of end-use (store or business)
or at the recycling center.
3. Bales are transported to the paper mill.
4. Bales are broken open, and OCC is put into a repulper (a huge tub that
looks something like a blender) with water. It is agitated to form a
slushy pulp (slurry) of fiber and water.
5. a. A big "ragger" chain or rope hangs down into the swirling tub of
material. Some contaminants such as long pieces of rope, string or
tape, plastic and metal bands will wrap around the ragger and can then
be pulled out of the repulper.
b. The remaining pulp slurry goes through different types of
equipment such as towers where the metal falls to the bottom for
removal, screens, cyclones, and even big tanks where the
contaminants float to the top and can be scraped off. The cleaned
pulp is then sent to the paper machine.
6. The highly diluted fiber solution is poured out onto a moving screen
which allows water to drain away, forming a continuous fiber mat,
which is pressed between rollers to remove more water.
7. The wet, continuous fiber web is then wound through the dryer
section where the top and bottom of the web allternately contact the
heated surfaces of the drying cylinders, removing the remaining
moisture from the paper.
8. At the end of the paper machine, paper is rolled up on a large reel
spool which can weigh 10-60 tons.
9. The reel is then slit and rewound into individual rolls. The recycling
process is complete; the new paper rolls are shipped to box
manufacturers to begin the next stage in life to become new
Changes In The Industry
Decades of Change
Improvements in raw materials and manufacturing processes and new
uses for corrugated boxes have been numerous.The paperboard used for
early corrugated containers was made from straw. About 100 years ago, the
kraft process was developed to make pulp from wood. Kraft pulp is
generally stronger than that made with a any other process, and corrugated
box manufacturers quickly adopted the superior kraft process. Papermaking
improvements gradually extended the range of grades. Chemical additives
were developed to improve wet strength or impart other properties. More,
recently, higher-strength containerboard, for a given weight, has been
developed thorough either mechanical or chemical procedures. Corrugators
have increased their speeds. Flying splicers permit the change of
containerboard rolls without shutdown. Triplex cutoff units permit changing
order dimensions with little delay. Computers improve the control and
adjustment of many machine functions. Printing has undergone dramatic
change. The development of rotary presses, and of flexography using water-
based inks, improved speed and reduced crush damage. Preprint and labeling
techniques coincide with, and provide new opportunities in, America's
changing retailing practices. Developments in adhesives, inks, waxes and
other coatings have contributed to an array of new uses for corrugated. Many
would not have been possible without the concurrent development of new
chemicals. The most, dynamic packaging developments came from simple
adaptations. Giant corrugated boxes for furniture, appliances, and bulk
products. Coatings that permit the use of corrugated for fresh fruits and
vegetables, meat, poultry and fish and bag-in-box to replace glass containers
for liquids are concepts that were never conceived by the pioneers of the
industry. Today, corrugated containers are the largest segment of the
• Increasing demand and high volumes will trigger consolidation and
setting up of large automatic plants.
• Inline Automatic Board and Box making plants will ease out the
present semi automatic production processes.
• Deployment of Folder Gluers, Rotary Diecutters will be on the
• Use of corrugated for display/promotional packs, POPs and
• Advances in multicolour, flexo printing will facilitate in-house flexo
printing and do away with screen printing, contract printing on offset
• The emergence of e-commerce, reverse bidding, concept of First Pak
will give large scale units the advantage of competitiveness and the
concept of locating corrugated box units nearer to user locations will
• Large Corporates and Bulk users of corrugated boxes looking for
single/multiple alternative vendors – capable of meeting stringent
specifications, offering alternative designs, test-in-time deliveries at
• Growing interest in machines made in China, Taiwan and other Asian
Name: Akshar Pack
Location: 119/c, Bombay talkies compound, Malad(w), Mumbai 400 064.
Hours of Operation: 9am -6pm
Line of operation:
Akshar pack is a proprietary concern who manufactures corrugated
boxes. The corrugated boxes manufactured are made to order and
customized on the basis of the specifications drawn by the customer.
The company is growing in leaps and bounds due to its steady policies of
operation and constant effort to achieve customer satisfaction.
Akshar pack was incorporated in 1987 and now it has become one of
the leading producers of Cardboard Packaging to Commercial &
Akshar pack is an independent manufacturer and converter of
corrugated cardboard, cardboard boxes and packaging. In order to
meet any corrugated cardboard packaging and cardboard box
requirements, Akshar pack’s commitments are as follows:
Reliable, on time supply
Superior, consistent quality
The best possible price
Responsiveness and fast turn-around of your order
Extensive design and production capabilities to a diverse range of
customers. With extensive production capabilities, incorporating in-
house structural and graphic design facilities, Akshar Pack offers a
quality finished cardboard and corrugated packaging products to a
diverse range of customers in the commercial, industrial, and
agricultural markets. Such industries include;
Fruit & Vegetable
Meat, Poultry & Seafood
Wine & Beverage
Clothing & Textile
Akshar Pack makes their own corrugated board and can supply high
volume customers. Akshar pack is experienced in supplying a range
of different customers with individual and special requirements. This
ranges from high volume - name brand customers to smaller lower
volume users. It can tailor a no obligation quotation for your current
packaging requirements, taking into account such factors as
frequency of deliveries, short lead times and long term contract
Extensive range of corrugated board, printed boxes, Trays, die cut &
waxed cartons. The range of cardboard & corrugated products is very
diverse. Akshar Pack can manufacture corrugated board for sale to
box converting plants, a complete range of printed boxes, with
various finishes and styles. Trays for hand erect and machine
erecting, die cut cartons for counters and display stands for the
retailers. It also can produce waxed cartons and functional coated
cartons to be used in the produce and seafood industries. It has a
comprehensive range of existing designs to choose from or we can
design a custom made carton to suit your particular requirements.
No customer is more or less important to Akshar Pack. It understands
the crucial role that product packaging plays in any business. It
ensures that the products are packaged correctly, of the right quality,
consistently delivered in the right quantity, at the right time, and at
the right price delivering 100% satisfaction.
1] Shipping Watermelons in Corrugated Bulk Bins Offers
The Corrugated Packaging Alliance (CPA) today released a cost-comparison
study that concludes shipping watermelons in bulk bin corrugated containers
saves nearly 20 percent of annual,
total supply-chain/distribution costs, compared with shipping in bulk bin,
reusable plastic containers (RPCs). The study also showed that the retailer
saves over 10 percent, while the grower/shipper saves 45 percent of its cost
to package and ship the watermelons. The study used actual cost data
provided by a large grower/shipper of watermelons in south-central Arizona
to perform a real-world cost comparison. Total supply chain costs (including
the bulk container rental, trucking and handling, and pool maintenance of the
RPCs) came to $7 million annually in
corrugated, compared to $9.7 million in RPCs - a cost advantage of $2.7
million for using corrugated bins. Most of the difference, as in other case
scenarios previously released by the CPA, is caused by higher costs
associated with trucking and handling for RPCs. These additional costs are
primarily incurred in the
backhaul trip, when the bins must be sorted, cleaned, maintained and
shipped back for re-use. In contrast, the corrugated bins are frequently
reused right in the same store that received the watermelons, and when they
can no longer be used, they are recycled to generate additional revenue for
The new study is the fourth in a series of cost comparisons sponsored by the
CPA and conducted by Heads Up Systems, Inc. (West Linn, Ore.). The
research was conducted using Full Disclosure(SM), a sophisticated, activity-
based cost-modeling tool to evaluate total annual costs for shipping
2,000 miles (approximately the distance from Red Bluff, Ariz., to
Cincinnati, Ohio). Costs were examined for shipping in bulk bin corrugated
(triple-wall, 800-pound capacity) and in injection-molded bulk bin RPCs
(800-pound capacity with integrated pallets). The comparative weight of
each container - 112 pounds for RPCs versus 51.5 pounds for corrugated
and wooden pallets - contributed significantly to $1.5 million higher
trucking costs for RPCs. According to the analysis, the retailer paid
$699,000 more, approximately $6.34 more per container, to ship the
watermelons in RPCs. But the grower inherits the heaviest burden in
additional costs for RPCs, owing
mainly to the $14 per container bulk RPC rental cost (vs. $8.30 per
corrugated bin and pallet). Expanding corrugated's cost advantage even
further, the pool operator's economics also provide significant insight: in this
scenario, it is estimated that the pooler sustained a loss of more than $1.2
million per year to operate this float of RPCs. Stakeholders should consider
this reality in evaluating the package alternatives regarding how long the
rental rate can be sustained. "This study demonstrates a huge cost advantage
for sticking with corrugated bulk bins to ship watermelons, and a caution to
growers and retailers who might consider switching to bulk bin RPCs. Once
more, for yet another commodity, and even more dramatically than ever
before, scrupulous analysis
of all the system costs for packaging and distribution proves that corrugated
simply makes the most economic sense, as well as providing excellent
protection and the merchandising power of high-end graphics," said Dwight
Schmidt, Executive Director of the CPA. For more information on the
Arizona Watermelons and other Full Disclosure studies, including all of the
study parameters and cost comparison details, visit the Corrugated
Packaging Alliance at www.corrugated.org.
The Corrugated Packaging Alliance (www.corrugated.org) is a corrugated
industry initiative jointly sponsored by the American Forest & Paper
Association (AF&PA) (www.afandpa.org) and the Fibre Box Association
(FBA) (www.fibrebox.org). Its mission is to foster growth and profitability
of corrugated in applications where it can be demonstrated, based on
credible and persuasive evidence, that corrugated should be the packaging
material of choice; and to provide a coordinated industry focus that
acts on industry matters that cannot be accomplished by individual member
Source : Internet