corrugated packaging


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corrugated packaging

  1. 1. Corrugated Packaging Objective of study The objective behind the study of this topic was the hunger of knowledge about a completely new industry viz Corrugated Packaging. There are studies been made on packaging industry but the corrugation sector was not given so much importance, I wanted to bring it to everyone’s notice that an industry known as corrugated packaging not only exists but also yields great returns and has a lot of scope for development. 1
  2. 2. Corrugated Packaging Chapter I Packaging Industry • Packaging overview • History of packaging • Factors to consider when making packaging decision 2
  3. 3. Corrugated Packaging Packaging – an overview Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Package labelling (BrE) or labeling (AmE) is any written, electronic, or graphic communications on the packaging or on a separate but associated label. Packaging is heavily integrated into our daily lives, we see it all around us, on everyday items such as chocolate bars and potato chip (crisp) packets- As explained below, the main use for packaging is protection of the goods inside, but packaging also provides us with a recognisable logo, or packaging, we instantly know what the goods are inside A Brief History of Packaging Introduction From the very earliest times, humans consumed food where it was found. Families and villages made or caught what they used. They were also self- sufficient, so there was little need for packaging of goods, either for storage or transportation. When containers were needed, nature provided gourds, shells, and leaves. Later, containers were fashioned from natural materials, such as hollowed logs, woven grasses and animal organs. As ores and chemical compounds were discovered, metals and pottery were developed, leading to other packaging forms. 3
  4. 4. Corrugated Packaging Packaging is used for several purposes: • Contain products, defining the amount the consumer will purchase. • Protects products from contamination, from environmental damage and from theft. • Facilitate transportation and storing of products. • Carry information and colorful designs that make attractive displays. For each product's needs, there are good packaging solutions. Though packages are often taken for granted, they are the result of many years of innovation -- in some cases accidental. A brief review of the more popular packaging developments are included in this fact sheet.  Paper and Paper Products One way of placing packages into categories is to describe them as flexible, semi-flexible, or rigid. Flexible packaging includes the paper sacks that dog food comes in, the plastic bags that hold potato chips, and the paper or plastic sacks in which we carry home our purchases. An example of semi- flexible packaging is the paperboard boxes that cereal, many other food products, small household items, and many toys are packaged in. For many non-food items, the packaging is made more rigid by formed packing materials that slip inside the box and hold the product and its accessories or components in place. Forms of rigid packaging include crates, glass bottles, and metal cans. Cloth or paper may be the oldest forms of flexible packaging. Flexible packaging is the most "source-reduced" form of packaging, that means that a flexible package has the least amount of material compared to other forms of 4
  5. 5. Corrugated Packaging packages that would hold the product. This also means that flexible packaging adds very little weight to the overall product, and there is very little to discard when the package is empty. The use of flexible packaging materials began with the Chinese, They used sheets of treated mulberry bark to wrap foods as early as the first or second century B.C. During the following centuries, the Chinese also developed and refined the techniques of paper making. Knowledge of how to make paper gradually moved west across Asia and into Europe. In 1310, paper making was introduced to England. The technique arrived in America in Germantown, Pennsylvania, in 1690. Paper is basically a thin sheet of cellulose. Cellulose is a fibrous material derived from plants. Early paper was made from cellulose fibers derived from flax, the plant that also gives fibers for linen cloth. As demand for paper grew, old linen rags were sought as a source of fiber. In 1867, the process for deriving useful cellulose fiber from wood pulp was developed. Because wood was so cheap and plentiful, this fiber source rapidly replaced cloth fibers as the primary source of paper fiber. Today, virtually all paper has wood pulp as the source of cellulose fiber. An important step for the use of paper in packaging came with the development of paper bags. Commercial paper bags were first manufactured in Bristol, England, in 1844. Shortly thereafter, in 1852, Francis Wolle invented the bag-making machine in the United States. Further advancements during the 1870s included glued paper sacks and the gusset 5
  6. 6. Corrugated Packaging design, producing the types of paper bags used today. In 1905, machinery was invented to automatically produce in-line printed paper bags. With the development of the glued paper sack, the more expensive cotton flour sacks could be replaced. But a sturdier multiwalled paper sack for larger quantities did not replace cloth until 1925, when a means of sewing the ends was finally invented. Another important use of paper in packaging came with the development of paperboard -- the kind of paper that packages a box of cereal. The first paperboard carton -- often called a cardboard box -- was produced in England in 1817, more than two hundred years after the Chinese invented cardboard or paperboard. Another common form of "cardboard" based on corrugated paper appeared in the 1850s. Basically, this form of cardboard is made from thin sheets of paperboard that are molded into a wavy shape and then "faced" or sandwiched between two flat sheets of paperboard. The strength, lightness, and cheapness of this material make it very useful for shipping and storing. However, replacing wooden crates with the new paper alternative would prove to be something of a battle. Nevertheless, about 1910, after much litigation between manufacturers and the railroads, shipping cartons of faced corrugated paperboard began to replace self-made wooden crates and boxes used for trade. Today, cardboard boxes -- more accurately called "C-flute corrugated paperboard cartons" -- are used almost universally for product shipping. 6
  7. 7. Corrugated Packaging As with many innovations, the development of the carton was accidental. Robert Gair was a Brooklyn printer and paper-bag maker during the 1870s. While he was printing an order of seed bags, a metal rule normally used to crease bags shifted in position and cut the bag. Gair concluded that cutting and creasing paperboard in one operation would have advantages; the first automatically made carton, now referred to as "semi-flexible packaging," was created. Such folding cartons or "tubular cartons" dominate the dried, processed food market. The development of flaked cereals advanced the use of paperboard cartons. The Kellogg brothers were first to use cereal cartons. The Kelloggs operated a sanatorium at Battle Creek, Michigan. They developed flaked cereals as a health food for their patients, but soon began marketing this new food product on a mass scale. Their original packaging was a waxed, heat-sealed bag of Waxtite wrapped around the outside of a plain box. The outer wrapper was printed with the brand name and advertising copy. Today, of course, a plastic liner protects cereals and other products within the printed carton. Some cereal manufacturers have attempted to sell cereal in flexible pouches, like snack foods. However, U.S. consumers have only marginally accepted cereals in a pouch only, so we continue to see a bag-in-box format for cereals. Paper and paperboard packaging increased in popularity throughout much of the 20th century. Then with the advent of plastics as a significant player in packaging (late 1970s and early 1980s), paper and its related products were replaced in many uses. Lately that trend has slowed as designers have tried to respond to the perception that plastic is environmentally unfriendly. The fact is that decreasing that amount of material in packaging is usually more 7
  8. 8. Corrugated Packaging important than the composition of the package to get the most environmentally friendly form of packaging.  Glass Although glass-making began in 7000 B.C. as an offshoot of pottery, it was first industrialized in Egypt in 1500 B.C. Made from base materials (limestone, soda, sand and silica), which were in plentiful supply, all ingredients were simply melted together and molded while hot. Since that early discovery, the mixing process and the ingredients have changed very little, but the molding techniques have progressed dramatically. At first, ropes of molten glass were coiled into shapes and fused together. By 1200 B.C., glass was pressed into molds to make cups and bowls. When the blowpipe was invented by the Phoenicians in 300 B.C., it not only speeded production but allowed for round containers. Colors were available from the beginning, but clear, transparent glass was not discovered until the start of the Christian Era. During the next 1000 years, the process spread steadily, but slowly, across Europe. The split mold, which was developed in the 17th and 18th centuries, further provided for irregular shapes and raised decorations. The identification of the maker and the product name could then be molded into the glass container as it was manufactured. As techniques were further refined in the 18th and 19th centuries, prices of glass containers continued to decrease. Owens invented the first automatic rotary bottle-making machine, patented in 1889. Suddenly, glass containers of all shapes and sizes became economically attractive for consumer products, and from the early 1900s 8
  9. 9. Corrugated Packaging until the late 1960s glass containers dominated the market for liquid products. A typical modern bottle-making machine automatically produces 20,000 bottles per day. While other packaging products, such as metals and plastics, were gaining popularity in the 1970s, packaging in glass tended to be reserved for high- value products. As a type of "rigid packaging," glass has many uses today. High weight, fragility and cost have reduced the glass markets in favor of metal and plastic containers. Still, for products that have a high quality image and a desire for high flavor or aroma protection, glass is an effective packaging material. The packaging glass used today is the only type of glass accepted in US recycling programs.  Metals Ancient boxes and cups, made from silver and gold, were much too valuable for common use. Metal did not become a common packaging material until other metals, stronger alloys, thinner gauges and coatings were eventually developed. One of the "new metals' that allowed metal to be used in packaging was tin. Tin is a corrosion-resistant metal, and ounce-for-ounce, its value is comparable to silver. However, tin can be "plated" in very thin layers over cheaper metals, and this process made it economical for containers. The process of tin plating was discovered in Bohemia in 1200 A.D., and cans of iron coated with tin were known in Bavaria as early as the 14th century. However, the plating process was a closely guarded secret until the 1600s. Thanks to the Duke of Saxony, who stole the technique, it progressed 9
  10. 10. Corrugated Packaging across Europe to France and the United Kingdom by the early 19th century. After William Underwood transferred the process to the United States via Boston, steel replaced iron, which improved both output and quality. The term 'tin can' referred to a tin-plated iron or steel can and was considered a cheap item. Tin foil also was made long before aluminum foil. Today many still refer to metal cans as 'tin cans' and aluminum foil as 'tin foil', a carryover from times well past. In 1764, London tobacconists began selling snuff in metal canisters, another type of today's "rigid packaging." But no one was willing to use metal for food since it was considered poisonous. The safe preservation of foods in metal containers was finally realized in France in the early 1800s. In 1809, General Napoleon Bonaparte offered 12,000 francs to anyone who could preserve food for his army. Nicholas Appert, a Parisian chef and confectioner, found that food sealed in tin containers and sterilized by boiling could be preserved for long periods. A year later (1810), Peter Durand of Britain received a patent for tinplate after devising the sealed cylindrical can. Since food was now safe within metal packaging, other products were made available in metal boxes. In the 1830s, cookies and matches were sold in tins and by 1866 the first printed metal boxes were made in the United States for cakes of Dr. Lyon's tooth powder. The first cans produced were lead-soldered by hand, leaving a 1 1/2-inch hole in the top to force in the food. A patch was then soldered in place but a small air hole remained during the cooking process. Another small drop of 10
  11. 11. Corrugated Packaging solder then closed the air hole. At this rate, only 60 cans per day could be manufactured. In 1868, interior enamels for cans were developed, but double seam closures using a sealing compound were not available until 1888. Aluminum particles were first extracted from bauxite ore in 1825 at the high price of $545 per pound. When the development of better processes began in 1852, the prices steadily declined until 1942, when the price of a pound of aluminum was $14. Although commercial foils entered the market in 1910, the first aluminum foil containers were designed in the early 1950s while the aluminum can appeared in 1959. The invention of cans also required the invention of the can opener! Initially, a hammer and chisel was the only method of opening cans. Then in 1866, the keywind metal tear-strip was developed. Nine years later (1875), the can opener was invented. Further developments modernized the mechanism and added electricity, but the can opener has remained, for more than 100 years, the most efficient method of retrieving the contents of a can. In the 1950s, the pop top/tear tab can lid appeared and now tear tapes that open and reseal are popular. Collapsible, soft metal tubes, today known as "flexible packaging," were first used for artists paints in 1841. Toothpaste was invented in the 1890s and started to appear in collapsible metal tubes. But food products really did not make use of this packaging form until the 1960s. Later, aluminum was changed to plastic for such food items as sandwich pastes, cake icings and pudding toppings. 11
  12. 12. Corrugated Packaging  Plastics Plastic is the newest packaging material in comparison with metal, glass, and paper. Although discovered in the 19th century, most plastics were reserved for military and wartime use. Plastics have become very important materials and a wide variety of plastics have been developed over the past 170 years. Several plastics were discovered in the nineteenth century: styrene in 1831, vinyl chloride in 1835, and celluloid in the late 1860s. However, none of these materials became practical for packaging until the twentieth century. Styrene was first distilled from a balsam tree in 1831, but the early products were brittle and shattered easily. Germany refined the process in 1933 and by the 1950s styrofoam was available worldwide. Insulation and cushioning materials as well as foam boxes, cups and meat trays for the food industry became popular. Vinyl chloride, discovered in 1835, provided for the further development of rubber chemistry. For packaging, molded deodorant squeeze bottles were introduced in 1947 and in 1958, heat shrinkable films were developed from blending styrene with synthetic rubber. Today some water and vegetable oil containers are made from vinyl chloride. Celluloid was invented during the American Civil War. Due to a shortage of ivory, a United States manufacturer of billiard balls offered a $10,000 reward for an ivory substitute. A New York engineer, John Wesley Hyatt, with his brother Isaiah Smith Hyatt, experimented several years before 12
  13. 13. Corrugated Packaging creating the new material. Patented in 1870, "celluloid" could not be molded, but rather carved and shaped, just like ivory. Cellulose acetate was first derived from wood pulp in 1900 and developed for photographic uses in 1909. Although DuPont manufactured cellophane in New York in 1924, it wasn't commercially used for packaging until the late 1950s and early 1960s. In the interim, polyethylene film wraps were reserved for the military. In 1933, films protected submarine telephone cables and later were important for World War II radar cables and drug tablet packaging. Other cellophanes and transparent films have been refined as outer wrappings that maintain their shape when folded. Originally clear, such films can now be made opaque, colored or embossed with patterns. One of the most commonly used plastics is polyethylene terephthalate (PETE). This material only became available for containers during the last two decades with its use for beverages entering the market in 1977. By 1980, foods and other hot-fill products such as jams could also be packaged in PETE. Current packaging designs are beginning to incorporate recyclable and recycled plastics but the search for reuse functions continues.  Labels and Trademarks It now seems obvious that product containers will bear the identification of the maker alongside pictures, nutritional information, ingredients, etc. However, this seeminlgy obvious feature of packaging has its own history. 13
  14. 14. Corrugated Packaging In the 1660s, imports into England often cheated the public and the phrase "let the buyer beware" became popular. Inferior quality and impure products were disguised and sold to uninformed customers. Honest merchants, unhappy with this deception, began to mark their wares with their identification to alert potential buyers. Official trademarks were pioneered in 1866 by Smith Brothers for their cough drops marketed in large glass jars. This was a new idea - using the package to "brand" a product for the benefit of the consumer. In 1870, the first registered U.S. trademark was awarded to the Eagle-Arwill Chemical Paint Company. Today, there are nearly three-quarters of a million (750,000) registered trademarks in the United States alone. Labels now contain a great deal of information intended to protect and instruct the public.  A Review From containers provided by nature to the use of complex materials and processes, packaging has certainly changed. Various factors contributed to this growth: the needs and concerns of people, competition in the marketplace, unusual events (such as wars), shifting lifestyles, as well as discoveries and inventions. Just as no single cause influenced past development, a variety of forces will be required to create the packages of the future, but a very important factor will always be consumer choice. Ultimately, only the packaging that our society demands is produced. We choose by the products we purchase. 14
  15. 15. Corrugated Packaging Factors to Consider When Making Packaging Decision Packaging decisions are important for several reasons including: •Protection – Packaging is used to protect the product from damage during shipping and handling, and to lessen spoilage if the protect is exposed to air or other elements. •Visibility – Packaging design is used to capture customers’ attention as they are shopping or glancing through a catalog or website. This is particularly important for customers who are not familiar with the product and in situations, such as those found in grocery stores, where a product must stand out among thousands of other products. Packaging designs that standout are more likely to be remembered on future shopping trips. •Added Value – Packaging design and structure can add value to a product. For instance, benefits can be obtained from package structures that make the product easier to use while stylistic designs can make the product more attractive to display in the customer’s home. •Distributor Acceptance – Packaging decisions must not only be accepted by the final customer, they may also have to be accepted by distributors who sell the product for the supplier. For instance, a 15
  16. 16. Corrugated Packaging retailer may not accept packages unless they conform to requirements they have for storing products on their shelves. •Cost – Packaging can represent a significant portion of a product’s selling price. For example, it is estimated that in the cosmetics industry the packaging cost of some products may be as high as 40% of a product’s selling price. Smart packaging decisions can help reduce costs and possibly lead to higher profits. •Expensive to Create - Developing new packaging can be extremely expensive. The costs involved in creating new packaging include: graphic and structural design, production, customer testing, possible destruction of leftover old packaging, and possible advertising to inform customer of the new packaging. •Long Term Decision – When companies create a new package it is most often with the intention of having the design on the market for an extended period of time. In fact, changing a product’s packaging too frequently can have negative effects since customers become conditioned to locate the product based on its package and may be confused if the design is altered. •Environmental or Legal Issues – Packaging decisions must also include an assessment of its environmental impact especially for products with packages that are frequently discarded. Packages that are not easily bio-degradable could draw customer and possibly governmental concern. Also, caution must be exercised in order to create packages that do not infringe on intellectual property, such as copyrights, trademarks or patents, held by others. 16
  17. 17. Corrugated Packaging Chapter II Corrugated Packaging Industry • Corrugated Packaging overview • Industry Info 17
  18. 18. Corrugated Packaging Corrugated packaging industry overview  125 Years of the Corrugated Packaging Industry The booming Indian economy and a flourishing organised retail have raised the expectations that consumption of corrugated packaging will begin to expand again as the number and volume of goods packaged in corrugated increases. MNCs are demanding corrugated boxes of international standards and the pattern of buying the packaging is changing. Prices of corrugated sheet and converted boxes have remained low due to the over-capacity, manual operations and low productivity. Besides, transport constraints and high freight costs have meant that small to medium sized corrugated box plants are located near the customers. The over 4,000 corrugated board and sheet plants are highly labour- intensive, employing over half a million people – both directly and indirectly. The industry is converting about 2 million tons of Kraft paper into corrugated boxes. Factories are spreadout in all parts of India, even in the remote industrially backward areas. This present scenario is already being challenged by the sweeping changes that are beginning to take shape. More and more in-line automatic plants are being set up, as corrugated box makers gear up to meet the new demands for 18
  19. 19. Corrugated Packaging high precision boxes with attractive graphics and large integrated production capacities. Corrugation Industry . Corrugated boxes industry is a packaging industry. Corrugated boxes are manufactured from paper. Initially the paper used for manufacturing was obtained from wood pulp which is known as virgin paper. Now a days, in order to reduce the wastage and make optimum utilization of resources, recycled quality paper is also used which is known as non- virgin paper. Boxes were also made from bagasse (by product of sugar cane), but it was not environment friendly. Thus, due to the above reasons recycled paper is being largely used by the industries today to manufacture corrugated boxes. Corrugated boxes are required by all types of industries no matter whether it is a large/small/medium-scale industry. They are required by the wholesalers and retailers. Corrugated boxes are even used by Movers and Packers. Therefore, there is a huge market for corrugated boxes. 19
  20. 20. Corrugated Packaging Chapter III History of Corrugated Packaging Industry 20
  21. 21. Corrugated Packaging History of Corrugated 950 BC The ancient Egyptians produced the first writing material by pasting together thin layers of plant stems.. 100 BC The Chinese created the first authentic paper from bamboo and mulberry fibers. 1400s AD Paper mills appeared in Spain, Italy, Germany and France 1690 The first sheet paper mill in North America was built near Philadelphia. 1767 England wanted to regain their loss of colonial paper exports. They imposed the Stamp Act, which included a tax on all paper made in the colonies. Many consider this fuel for the American Revolution. 1803 The first continuous papermaking machine was patented. 1854 In England, the first pulp from wood was manufactured 1856 The first known corrugated material was patented for sweatband lining in tall hats of Victorian Englishmen. 21
  22. 22. Corrugated Packaging 1871 Unlined corrugated first appeared as a packaging material for glass and kerosene lamp chimneys 1874 A liner was added to one side of the corrugated material to prevent the flutes from stretching. 1894 Corrugated was slotted and cut to make the first boxes. Wells Fargo began using corrugated boxes for small freight shipments. 1903 Corrugated was first approved as a valid shipping material and was used to ship cereals. 1909 Rubber printing plates were developed which allowed for greater design creativity. 1914 Tariffs imposed on corrugated shipping containers were ruled discriminatory. 1957 Flexographic printing virtually replaced letterpress and oil-based ink. 1960s The flexo folder-gluer was invented. Early 1980s Preprinted linerboard emerged. Late 1980s New developments in the anilox roll, plate and press design drove the industry into short-run, high-graphic products. 1991 The edge crush test was added to Item 222 and Rule41 as an alternative to burst strength and basis weight, allowing the manufacture of lighter weight liners. 22
  23. 23. Corrugated Packaging Chapter IV Corrugated Packaging • What is Corrugated packaging • Why Corrugated Packaging 23
  24. 24. Corrugated Packaging Corrugation  An introduction Corrugated board is essentially a paper sandwich consisting of corrugated medium layered between inside and outside linerboard. On the production side, corrugated is a sub-category of the paperboard industry, which is a sub- category of the paper industry, which is a sub-category of the forest products industry. Traditionally, corrugated is best known for its structural strength that offers protection to packaged products throughout the transportation cycle. However, it has evolved over the course of time and today it is a much more versatile product. It can be easily cut to any shape and creased to fold in any direction. Thus, corrugated boards can be further converted to produce cartons, boxes, cases, containers, inherent fitments/ accessories such as interlockers, partitions, dividers, pads, plates, supporters, fillers etc. which provide internal cushioning and restrict movements. The various shapes and forms described above are referred to as corrugated boxes for sake of brevity. Packaging done by corrugation helps in the movement of goods from the manufacturer to the seller to the buyer without any hassles of breakages, 24
  25. 25. Corrugated Packaging pilferage etc. Therefore the importance of corrugation is not only to the seller but also to the buyer as it gives a form of safety satisfaction to both. Corrugated boxes are easy to recognize. Corrugated is made of paper and has an arched layer, called "fluting," between smooth sheets, called "liner." The corrugated most commonly used to make boxes has one layer of fluting between two smooth sheets. But there are many types of corrugated available, each with different flute sizes and thicknesses. Corrugated is an extremely durable, versatile, economical and lightweight material used for custom-manufactured shipping containers, packaging and point-of-purchase displays, in addition to numerous non-traditional applications ranging from pallets to children's toys to furniture. Why Corrugated?  Corrugated. It's not just a brown box. Corrugated is a complete, high-performance material design, manufacturing and delivery system. Corrugated is the preferred packaging material because it is:  Versatile  Lightweight  Sustainable  Environmentally Responsible  Made from a Renewable Resource 25
  26. 26. Corrugated Packaging  Customizable  Protective and Durable  Graphically Appealing  Cost-Effective Chapter V Features Of Corrugated Packaging & Raw Materials Used 26
  27. 27. Corrugated Packaging Features of corrugated box  A High-Tech Engineered Material. What may come as a big surprise to many is that the ever-present corrugated "cardboard box" is high-tech:  Ongoing R&D programs continuously improve such characteristics as strength-to-weight ratios, printability, moisture barriers and recyclability.  Corrugated components, designs and end products are manufactured on sophisticated, automatic equipment that reduces costs and ensures consistent performance.  The vast majority of corrugated products are designed and prototyped with advanced, computer-aided design and manufacturing systems, providing customers with the best and most cost-effective solutions to their packaging challenges.  Infinitely Customizable. Corrugated offers thousands of possible combinations of board types, flute sizes (caliper), basis weight, adhesives, treatment and coatings, including flame retardant and static control protection. 27
  28. 28. Corrugated Packaging Corrugated is the only rigid shipping container and packaging medium that can be cut and folded into an infinite variety of shapes and sizes and direct- printed with high-resolution color graphics (including lithography, flexography and silk screening). And corrugated is not just for displays and boxes. Other uses include low-cost, one-way recyclable pallets, retail bulk bins, and lightweight castles that children can build themselves. There are hundreds of basic designs and thousands of adaptations, each chosen on the basis of proven experience and the proposed use of the product. Corrugated is routinely custom-designed to fit specific product protection, shelf space and shipping density requirements (including inner packaging that prevents shifting).  Tenaciously Protective. Corrugated combines structural rigidity with superior cushioning qualities. Containers, packages and pallets nest products in an optimally protective environment, so even heavy or fragile contents arrive undamaged. Corrugated offers excellent tear, tensile and burst strength to withstand shipping pressures. It resists impact, drop and vibration damage while offering uniform stacking and weight distribution so the load stays put, regardless of the form of transportation. Corrugated can be designed to contain flowable, granular or loose bulk products and even hazardous materials. It is also used to ship liquids and 28
  29. 29. Corrugated Packaging fresh foods, with the addition of removable plastic or waxed liners which serve as moisture barriers. All this from a material that is lightweight, low-cost, reusable and recyclable.  Graphically Appealing. Corrugated containers and packaging are mobile billboards that create product image wherever they travel. Corrugated displays are eye-catching modular units that can be set up quickly and recycled at the end of a promotion. Corrugated is a very flexible medium that accommodates a wide range of printing options to support the end-use requirement:  Offset lithography and rotogravure (high-volume).  Flexography or letterpress (shorter runs)  Silk screening (displays)  Corrugated can be direct printed in plant or manufactured with high-end process color graphics.  Preeminently Cost-Effective. One of the least expensive containers ever developed, the overall cost of corrugated shipping containers is usually between one percent and four percent of the value of the goods they carry. The cost of labor and tools required to produce, fill, and move the container is low. The cost of shipping is low, due to lower weights and higher fill 29
  30. 30. Corrugated Packaging densities than alternative packaging. The trend toward lightweighting will continue to drive down shipping costs. Low raw material costs and mass production of corrugated containers makes them particularly cost-efficient. The ultimate contribution to cost reduction is when corrugated is used as an all-in-one shipping, storage, advertising and display medium - a growing trend both in warehouse and other retail stores.  Environmentally Responsible. Corrugated, made from a natural renewable resource, has a great environmental record. Corrugated is frequently manufactured using high percentages of secondary fiber (including old corrugated containers, kraft, old newspapers and even straw), thereby diverting these materials from the municipal solid waste stream. In 2005, 24.7 million tons of corrugated were recovered and recycled in the U.S. -- that's 76.6 percent of all containerboard produced in the same year. Corrugated has the best recycling rate of any packaging material used today. And that's what happens after the corrugated box has been used and reused time and time again to store and move items around the home, store and office. In addition, the use of corrugated constructions with high-performance linerboard has led to a significant overall reduction in basis weight and a significant source reduction of raw materials. Water-based inks are now used almost exclusively for printing graphics on corrugated containers, avoiding the use of lead-based inks and solvents 30
  31. 31. Corrugated Packaging which pollute the air and the water used to wash down printing equipment between color changes. RAW MATERIALS 1 Craft paper: Craft paper used is recycled paper. The quality of the craft paper depends upon the burst factor( BF). This burst factor is of A, B and semi A grade. A grade is the best quality paper made of wood pulp. It is also called virgin quality paper. But since it is not environment friendly, it is not used. B grade is indigenous recycled paper of 12 BF while semi A grade is imported recycled paper between 16- 25 BF. These two types are called non virgin quality papers. Customers order craft papers from these two grades and the BF entirely depends upon the customers and so, no specific quality craft paper is recommended. Also the papers are ordered according to the cut size or the deckal as we know it in the corrugation industry. It varies according to customers requirements. He can order accordingly. Also gram per sq.m. (GSM) also varies in craft paper. GSM varies from 80-200. what the customer wants depends entirely on his choice. 2 Gum: Gum is basically used for corrugating and pasting machine. There are two different gum used for these machines. One is corrugation gum for corrugating machine and another one is pasting gum for pasting machine. Both are starch based. Silicate based gum is also available, but it is hazardous to workers’ hands as it contains pieces of glass. 31
  32. 32. Corrugated Packaging Corrugating gum used in corrugation machine is half cooked. The reason for this is when it goes through the heater, it gets completely cooked and fully effective. Pasting gum is completely cooked and contains 18- 20% starch. 3 Pins: for pinning machine, pins are required. There are two types of pins- aluminium and rust proof pins. Basically, rust proof pins are recommended as it is cost effective and also because it does not rust. Aluminium pins cost Rs. 50/ kg. while rust proof pins cost Rs. 38/ kg. and 1 kg. contains around 2000 pins. Also the wires used for these pins is MS Galvanised. The thickness of the pin is around 16 guage. 4 Binding cloth and fevicol are other raw materials used. These are not the main raw materials but value adding materials. Binding cloth required in a day is 20 m. These are some of the basic raw materials used for the manufacture of the corrugated packaging. 32
  33. 33. Corrugated Packaging Chapter VI Corrugated Box Structure 33
  34. 34. Corrugated Packaging All About Corrugated Cardboard Boxes  Design of Corrugated Boxes • Corrugated boxes are made of corrugated paperboard. • Corrugated paperboard has a sequence of air columns, parallel to each other, running across the surface of the box. The air columns serve as cushioning and the series of paper columns is what makes the material durable. • The design of the box varies depending on the purpose of its use. A manufacturer might choose to design corrugated boxes to be sized and/or shaped to best suit the purpose it will be used for.  Structure of Corrugated Boxes There are two basic components of c Fiberboard, also known as Combined Cardboard, those components are: • Linerboard • Medium These two components are made of a unique type of heavy paper, referred to as container board. 34
  35. 35. Corrugated Packaging What is Linerboard? Linerboard is the flat cardboard surface that adheres to the medium and acts as liners. What is Medium? The medium is the grooved corrugated paper channels in between the liners.  The images below illustrate four kinds of COMBINED CARDBOARD:  Single Face: A medium is glued to a linerboard.  Single Wall: Similarly referred to as, “Double Face”. A medium is glued between two linerboards.  Double Wall: Designed like a double cheeseburger, with a linerboard glued above and below each of two mediums  Tripple wall: 35
  36. 36. Corrugated Packaging Designed like a triple cheeseburger, a linerboard is glued above and below each of the three mediums.  The purpose of FLUTES The concept of an arch is that if shaped properly, it maximizes the strength of the area it spans. The design of FLUTES, when attached to linerboards in a cardboard box, adheres to this concept by being shaped in such a manner as to allow it to withstand immense force and extreme pliability. The layers of flutes combine together to form an abundant series of arched columns that act as a stabilizer in supporting heavy loads. At the same time, the space beneath the arches of flutes serves its purpose by acting as cushioning for whatever is placed in the cardboard box. The linerboard attached is essential to the upkeep of the flutes for the purpose of protecting it from damage as well as adding to its strength. Interestingly enough, the flutes also provide some level of protection from abrupt temperature adjustments in its surroundings area. 36
  37. 37. Corrugated Packaging Please note, to the right, the diagrams indications of the various flute sizes currently manufactured on the market: F – is the smallest flute size shown. E – is the second to smallest flute size. C – is considered the medium flute size. B – is smaller than the “C” size and bigger than the “E” size. A – is the largest flute size and most commonly used on the market. While there are a number of new specialized flute sizes currently being worked on for production, the ones listed above are the most common ones available and as noted above, already on the market for purchase. The largest and larger flutes tend to be used for handling boxes since it can handle more pressure on top of it and the smaller flutes are used mostly for smaller retail cardboard box purposes. Depending on the purpose the cardboard box is used for, various sizes of flutes can be combined in creating the particular box in such a manner as to cause the box to adjust its handling ability as a result of the particular combination of different sizes of flutes attached to the linerboard in creating the cardboard box. 37
  38. 38. Corrugated Packaging  Box Dimensions Dimensions are given in the sequence of length, width and depth. Internationally, the words length, breadth and height may be used to express these dimensions. The dimensions of a box are described based on the opening of an assembled box, which can be located on the top or the side, depending on how it is to be filled. The opening of a box is a rectangle; that is, it has two sets of parallel sides. The longer of the two sides is considered its length, the shorter of the two sides is considered its width. The side perpendicular to length and width is considered the depth of the box. Dimensions can be specified for either the inside or the outside of the box. Accurate inside dimensions must be determined to ensure the proper fit for the product being shipped or stored. At the same time, palletizing and distributing the boxes depends on the outside dimensions. The box manufacturer should be informed as to which dimension is most important to the customer. 38
  39. 39. Corrugated Packaging Chapter VII Production Process of Corrugated Packaging 39
  40. 40. Corrugated Packaging Production Process  Paper for Corrugated Board Fluting Paper (a)Recycled: Made from recycled paper. The fibre content, quality and hygiene is vary. With certain process this recycled paper could match the semi-chemical fluting it is more abrasive. (b)Semi-Chemical: Made from virgin fibre hardwood & mixed with recycled paper (<35%). More expensive than recycled fluting, but higher quality.All recycled paper is recommended to be used within 7 days - 6 months. While Kraft Liner & Semi Chemical Fluting is recommended to be used within 11 days - 12 months LinerPaper TestLiner(Recycled): Made from recycled paper and processed with water sothat it become pulp. Afterward cleaned and process again. The fibre than mixed with chemical and starch - glued become new paper, such as: a)Brown Test b)Brown Liner c)Coated Test d)White Top Test Liner(Kraft): 40
  41. 41. Corrugated Packaging Made from pine trees with long and strong fibre and heated ntil become soft.Then rinse. Aferward process become paper with smoother surface,such as: a)Brown Kraft b)White Kraft c)White Top Kraft d)Coated Kraft The details of the production process along with diagrammatic representation are followed on the next page.  Corrugator Machine Wet End : 1. Mill Roll Stand - liner 2. Pre-heater 3. Single Facer 4. Preconditioner 5. Mill Roll Stand - medium 6. Bridge 7. Mill Roll Stand - based liner 8. Web Break 9. Web Guide 10. Triplex pre-heater 11. Glue Machine 12. Double Face / Double Backer with : 13. steam chest 14. top belt 15. bottom belt 16. driving drum 41
  42. 42. Corrugated Packaging Dry End :  Rotary Shear  Slitter Scorer  Cutoff  Stacker  Converting Process : 1. Flexo Printing 2. Slotting / Die Cutting (Rotary & Flat Bed) 3. Folding, Gluing / Stitching 4. Bundling 1. Flexo Printing a. Printing can be made with Top or Bottom Printing b. Printing Plate could be rubber or Photopolymer c. Printing unit depend on the needs, from 2 to 6 colors Flexo printing process Conventional Flexo Printing Modern Flexo Printing Most of simple job using only 2 solid colors, but for the high quality printing they have used up to 6 colors - though it is rare in this region. 42
  43. 43. Corrugated Packaging a) Printing Machine Most of the printing machine always combine with Slotter to make RSC Boxes (Regular Slotted Container). Printer slotter with folder gluer • Prefeeder • Printing Unit • Creaser/Slotter • Delivery/Stacker 43
  44. 44. Corrugated Packaging 2. Folder Gluer • Inline wuth Flexo Printer Slotter • Offline • Topfold & Bottomfold 3. Diecutting Die cut is used for Wrap around boxes, There are 2 kind of die cutting machine : • Rotary and • Flat Bed Rotary die cutter operation More accurate, higher investment but cheaper die 44
  45. 45. Corrugated Packaging 4. Bundling Tying the box either from folder gluer / diecutter. • Semi automatic & fully automatic strapping Corrugated Sheet Type : 45
  46. 46. Corrugated Packaging Flute Type : 46
  47. 47. Corrugated Packaging Chapter VIII Types Of Corrugated Boxes 47
  48. 48. Corrugated Packaging Following is the diagramatic representation of different types of boxes. Inside Glue Flap Outside Glue Flap Taped or Stapled Flaps Telescope Boxes Overlap Slotted Containers (OSC) Trays 48
  49. 49. Corrugated Packaging Regular Slotted Container (RSC) Folders Many other styles of corrugated boxes and structures are available  A Full Overlap Box is similar to an RSC except the major flaps fully overlap.  A Five Panel Folder is shipped flat without a manufacturer's joint and is often used for long items. The box has five long panels, one of which fully overlaps. The ends also fully overlap.  A Full Telescope Box has two fully telescoping sections. The sections may be formed by staples, die-cut locks, adhesive, etc.  A Partial Telescope Box has two sections. The top telescopes partially over the bottom.  A corrugated tray is often used for display purposes or used with a shrink wrap  Corrugated corner pads can be used for product support and cushioning  Special die-cut shapes have almost endless designs and uses. 49
  50. 50. Corrugated Packaging Chapter IX Corrugated Recycling Process 50
  51. 51. Corrugated Packaging Recycling Process  Corrugated is a highly useful, cost-efficient, versatile packaging material that is used to ship just about every product under the sun, all around the world. But it doesn't stop there: corrugated is also the most-recycled packaging material on earth, with a recovery rate of about 73 percent. Businesses, retailers and consumers at home collect and return their used corrugated containers to be recycled into new ones. While almost everyone contributes to corrugated's recycling success, fewer people may know where those boxes go from the collection point, or how they are processed to produce new corrugated material.  Here's how corrugated is recycled: 1. Clean, old corrugated containers (OCC) are collected, in many instances as part of a mixed recyclables stream. To optimize recyclability, containers should be free of contaminants such as food, metal foil, wax, etc. 2. The collected OCC is sorted, compacted and baled for space-efficient storage and handling, either at the point of end-use (store or business) or at the recycling center. 3. Bales are transported to the paper mill. 4. Bales are broken open, and OCC is put into a repulper (a huge tub that looks something like a blender) with water. It is agitated to form a slushy pulp (slurry) of fiber and water. 5. a. A big "ragger" chain or rope hangs down into the swirling tub of material. Some contaminants such as long pieces of rope, string or 51
  52. 52. Corrugated Packaging tape, plastic and metal bands will wrap around the ragger and can then be pulled out of the repulper. b. The remaining pulp slurry goes through different types of equipment such as towers where the metal falls to the bottom for removal, screens, cyclones, and even big tanks where the contaminants float to the top and can be scraped off. The cleaned pulp is then sent to the paper machine. 6. The highly diluted fiber solution is poured out onto a moving screen which allows water to drain away, forming a continuous fiber mat, which is pressed between rollers to remove more water. 7. The wet, continuous fiber web is then wound through the dryer section where the top and bottom of the web allternately contact the heated surfaces of the drying cylinders, removing the remaining moisture from the paper. 8. At the end of the paper machine, paper is rolled up on a large reel spool which can weigh 10-60 tons. 9. The reel is then slit and rewound into individual rolls. The recycling process is complete; the new paper rolls are shipped to box manufacturers to begin the next stage in life to become new corrugated boxes. 52
  53. 53. Corrugated Packaging Chapter X Changes In The Industry Decades of Change Improvements in raw materials and manufacturing processes and new uses for corrugated boxes have been numerous.The paperboard used for early corrugated containers was made from straw. About 100 years ago, the 53
  54. 54. Corrugated Packaging kraft process was developed to make pulp from wood. Kraft pulp is generally stronger than that made with a any other process, and corrugated box manufacturers quickly adopted the superior kraft process. Papermaking improvements gradually extended the range of grades. Chemical additives were developed to improve wet strength or impart other properties. More, recently, higher-strength containerboard, for a given weight, has been developed thorough either mechanical or chemical procedures. Corrugators have increased their speeds. Flying splicers permit the change of containerboard rolls without shutdown. Triplex cutoff units permit changing order dimensions with little delay. Computers improve the control and adjustment of many machine functions. Printing has undergone dramatic change. The development of rotary presses, and of flexography using water- based inks, improved speed and reduced crush damage. Preprint and labeling techniques coincide with, and provide new opportunities in, America's changing retailing practices. Developments in adhesives, inks, waxes and other coatings have contributed to an array of new uses for corrugated. Many would not have been possible without the concurrent development of new chemicals. The most, dynamic packaging developments came from simple adaptations. Giant corrugated boxes for furniture, appliances, and bulk products. Coatings that permit the use of corrugated for fresh fruits and vegetables, meat, poultry and fish and bag-in-box to replace glass containers for liquids are concepts that were never conceived by the pioneers of the industry. Today, corrugated containers are the largest segment of the packaging industry. Future Trends 54
  55. 55. Corrugated Packaging • Increasing demand and high volumes will trigger consolidation and setting up of large automatic plants. • Inline Automatic Board and Box making plants will ease out the present semi automatic production processes. • Deployment of Folder Gluers, Rotary Diecutters will be on the increase. • Use of corrugated for display/promotional packs, POPs and dispensers. • Advances in multicolour, flexo printing will facilitate in-house flexo printing and do away with screen printing, contract printing on offset presses. • The emergence of e-commerce, reverse bidding, concept of First Pak will give large scale units the advantage of competitiveness and the concept of locating corrugated box units nearer to user locations will become obsolete. • Large Corporates and Bulk users of corrugated boxes looking for single/multiple alternative vendors – capable of meeting stringent specifications, offering alternative designs, test-in-time deliveries at optimum cost. • Growing interest in machines made in China, Taiwan and other Asian countries. 55
  56. 56. Corrugated Packaging Chapter XI Company Profile COMPANY PROFILE Name: Akshar Pack Location: 119/c, Bombay talkies compound, Malad(w), Mumbai 400 064. 56
  57. 57. Corrugated Packaging Telephone: 022-28813326 Hours of Operation: 9am -6pm Line of operation: Akshar pack is a proprietary concern who manufactures corrugated boxes. The corrugated boxes manufactured are made to order and customized on the basis of the specifications drawn by the customer. The company is growing in leaps and bounds due to its steady policies of operation and constant effort to achieve customer satisfaction.  Akshar pack was incorporated in 1987 and now it has become one of the leading producers of Cardboard Packaging to Commercial & Agricultural Industries.  Akshar pack is an independent manufacturer and converter of corrugated cardboard, cardboard boxes and packaging. In order to meet any corrugated cardboard packaging and cardboard box requirements, Akshar pack’s commitments are as follows:  Reliable, on time supply  Superior, consistent quality  The best possible price  Responsiveness and fast turn-around of your order  Extensive design and production capabilities to a diverse range of customers. With extensive production capabilities, incorporating in- house structural and graphic design facilities, Akshar Pack offers a 57
  58. 58. Corrugated Packaging quality finished cardboard and corrugated packaging products to a diverse range of customers in the commercial, industrial, and agricultural markets. Such industries include;  Fruit & Vegetable  Meat, Poultry & Seafood  Dairy  Confectionery  Printers  Processed Foods  Wine & Beverage  Clothing & Textile  Electronics  Akshar Pack makes their own corrugated board and can supply high volume customers. Akshar pack is experienced in supplying a range of different customers with individual and special requirements. This ranges from high volume - name brand customers to smaller lower volume users. It can tailor a no obligation quotation for your current packaging requirements, taking into account such factors as frequency of deliveries, short lead times and long term contract pricing.  Extensive range of corrugated board, printed boxes, Trays, die cut & waxed cartons. The range of cardboard & corrugated products is very diverse. Akshar Pack can manufacture corrugated board for sale to 58
  59. 59. Corrugated Packaging box converting plants, a complete range of printed boxes, with various finishes and styles. Trays for hand erect and machine erecting, die cut cartons for counters and display stands for the retailers. It also can produce waxed cartons and functional coated cartons to be used in the produce and seafood industries. It has a comprehensive range of existing designs to choose from or we can design a custom made carton to suit your particular requirements.  No customer is more or less important to Akshar Pack. It understands the crucial role that product packaging plays in any business. It ensures that the products are packaged correctly, of the right quality, consistently delivered in the right quantity, at the right time, and at the right price delivering 100% satisfaction. Case study 59
  60. 60. Corrugated Packaging 1] Shipping Watermelons in Corrugated Bulk Bins Offers Dramatic Savings The Corrugated Packaging Alliance (CPA) today released a cost-comparison study that concludes shipping watermelons in bulk bin corrugated containers saves nearly 20 percent of annual, total supply-chain/distribution costs, compared with shipping in bulk bin, reusable plastic containers (RPCs). The study also showed that the retailer saves over 10 percent, while the grower/shipper saves 45 percent of its cost to package and ship the watermelons. The study used actual cost data provided by a large grower/shipper of watermelons in south-central Arizona to perform a real-world cost comparison. Total supply chain costs (including the bulk container rental, trucking and handling, and pool maintenance of the RPCs) came to $7 million annually in corrugated, compared to $9.7 million in RPCs - a cost advantage of $2.7 million for using corrugated bins. Most of the difference, as in other case scenarios previously released by the CPA, is caused by higher costs associated with trucking and handling for RPCs. These additional costs are primarily incurred in the backhaul trip, when the bins must be sorted, cleaned, maintained and shipped back for re-use. In contrast, the corrugated bins are frequently reused right in the same store that received the watermelons, and when they can no longer be used, they are recycled to generate additional revenue for the retailer. The new study is the fourth in a series of cost comparisons sponsored by the CPA and conducted by Heads Up Systems, Inc. (West Linn, Ore.). The 60
  61. 61. Corrugated Packaging research was conducted using Full Disclosure(SM), a sophisticated, activity- based cost-modeling tool to evaluate total annual costs for shipping watermelons 2,000 miles (approximately the distance from Red Bluff, Ariz., to Cincinnati, Ohio). Costs were examined for shipping in bulk bin corrugated (triple-wall, 800-pound capacity) and in injection-molded bulk bin RPCs (800-pound capacity with integrated pallets). The comparative weight of each container - 112 pounds for RPCs versus 51.5 pounds for corrugated bins and wooden pallets - contributed significantly to $1.5 million higher trucking costs for RPCs. According to the analysis, the retailer paid $699,000 more, approximately $6.34 more per container, to ship the watermelons in RPCs. But the grower inherits the heaviest burden in additional costs for RPCs, owing mainly to the $14 per container bulk RPC rental cost (vs. $8.30 per corrugated bin and pallet). Expanding corrugated's cost advantage even further, the pool operator's economics also provide significant insight: in this scenario, it is estimated that the pooler sustained a loss of more than $1.2 million per year to operate this float of RPCs. Stakeholders should consider this reality in evaluating the package alternatives regarding how long the rental rate can be sustained. "This study demonstrates a huge cost advantage for sticking with corrugated bulk bins to ship watermelons, and a caution to growers and retailers who might consider switching to bulk bin RPCs. Once more, for yet another commodity, and even more dramatically than ever before, scrupulous analysis of all the system costs for packaging and distribution proves that corrugated simply makes the most economic sense, as well as providing excellent 61
  62. 62. Corrugated Packaging protection and the merchandising power of high-end graphics," said Dwight Schmidt, Executive Director of the CPA. For more information on the Arizona Watermelons and other Full Disclosure studies, including all of the study parameters and cost comparison details, visit the Corrugated Packaging Alliance at The Corrugated Packaging Alliance ( is a corrugated industry initiative jointly sponsored by the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) ( and the Fibre Box Association (FBA) ( Its mission is to foster growth and profitability of corrugated in applications where it can be demonstrated, based on credible and persuasive evidence, that corrugated should be the packaging material of choice; and to provide a coordinated industry focus that effectively acts on industry matters that cannot be accomplished by individual member companies. Bibliography Source : Internet 62
  63. 63. Corrugated Packaging Websites visited : decisions/10.htm 63
  64. 64. Corrugated Packaging 64