The Professional Practice of Placement
Placement has been identified consistently as one of the fundamental functions of
rehabilitation counselors in public (Berven, 1979; Muthard & Salomone, 1969;
Parker & Szymanski, 1992; Rubin, Matkin, Ashley, Beardsley, May, Ontott, &
Puckett, 1984; Sink & Porter, 1978) and private for-profit (Collignon, Barker, &
Vencill, 1992; Gilbride, 1993; Lynch & Martin, 1982) organizations. Because of its
central role in the practice of rehabilitation counseling, placement is an important
knowledge base for professional development. The practice of placement generally
includes the following activities: contacting and developing ongoing relationships
with employers; educating consumers regarding job seeking, resume writing,
interviewing, and job selecting; collaborating with consumers and employers to
make workplace accommodations; and following consumers to ensure satisfaction
with placements. This chapter will discuss the history of placement, its role in the
rehabilitation process, current issues relevant to the profession, and future directions
The Impact of Legislation on Placement:
The initial delivery of placement services to people with disabilities can be traced to
two pieces of legislation: the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 (P.L. 64-347) and Soldier
Rehabilitation Act of 1918 (P.L. 65-178). These Acts, which supported vocational
education and rehabilitation, provided the legislative foundation for today's State-
Federal partnership. Early legislation mandated vocational education, vocational
guidance, occupational adjustment, and placement services. The goal of services
was employment: All services had to clearly relate to a feasible vocational goal and
an employment outcome.
There were clear social needs responsible for this vocational focus. Dislocated
workers were traveling from rural areas to cities without the necessary skills to enter
the labor force. Many wounded veterans survived, returning with significant
disabilities that limited their employment options. The legislation was not intended
to correct some societal wrong or please a vocal interest group. It was intended to
use the available human resources efficiently and move the nation into the
mainstream of the industrial revolution.
Vocational rehabilitation service providers formed a professional association, the
National Civilian Rehabilitation Conference (now the National Rehabilitation
Association), in 1924. Shortly after that, an interest group called the National
Vocational Guidance Association was formed within the American Personnel and
Guidance Association (now the American Couneling Association). It was not until
1954, with passage of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amendments (P.L. 83-
565), that these employees were recognized as professional rehabilitation
counselors. This Act provided money for training rehabilitation professionals,
including counselors. It also supported research and demonstration projects to
develop and extend new knowledge. Despite years of developing a professional
association and additional years working as rehabilitation providers, it took the 1954
Act to provide the foundation for the profession of vocational rehabilitation
Shortly after passage of the 1954 Act, debate over the professional role of
rehabilitation counselors entered the professional literature. Patterson (1957; 1966;
1967) argued that professional rehabilitation counselors should provide
psychological counseling while less-professional rehabilitation coordinators should
provide, among other things, placement services. This distinction had little effect on
the actual practice of vocational rehabilitation counseling in the public sector.
Studies of how VR counselors spent their time suggested they were generalists
rather than specialists (Muthard & Salomone, 1969) and performed all the functions
Patterson recommended for counselors and coordinators. But, as well as
professionalizing counselors, the Act professionalized the activity of counseling.
After the Act, face-to-face counseling assumed a more important role than other
activities until services directly related to placement consume only a fraction of
counselors' time (Vandergoot, 1987; Zadney & James, 1977). Placement is
recognized by practitioners as one of the most important areas of competency, but
counseling is considered the most important skill (Wright, Leahy, & Shapson,
1987). This leaves rehabilitation counseling and placement, as presently practiced,
separate skill domains.
The Act of 1954 also promoted the expansion of non-profit rehabilitation facilities
as community-based centers for work adjustment training. During the 1950s and
1960s, these facilities provided services to people with severe disabilities, especially
people with developmental and psychiatric disabilities. Facilities were more apt than
public agencies to employ specialists for specific tasks. Starr (1982) suggested that
is because they followed a hospital-type organizational structure for service delivery
and employed people in more diverse positions. While public vocational
rehabilitation counselors worked as generalists providing all things to all people,
facility personnel worked within more tightly defined job descriptions providing
only specialized services.
In terms of overall personnel, vocational rehabilitation in both the public and private
non-profit sectors grew tremendously through the 1950s and 1960s. Funding
increased, the types of disabilities approved for services increased, and the number
of rehabilitation professionals subsequently increased. A growing economy
provided more jobs than there were applicants, so the idea of equal employment was
widely accepted. People with disabilities came for services, counseling and training
were provided, and people found jobs. The one place this was not the case was
facilities where the majority of consumers had severe disabilities. For these people,
placement was more difficult. This may be why the movement for placement
specialization originated among facility personnel.
On October 9, 1963, Robert Eddy, the manager of handicapped placement services
for Goodwill Industries of Chicago brought together several people who worked as
job placement specialists to form a professional association. Participants in this
meeting agreed that placement specialists and the services they provided would be
better served by creating a professional division within the National Rehabilitation
Association. This meeting resulted in the formation of the Job Placement Division
(JPD) of NRA and recognition of job placement as a specialized profession
(Tooman, 1986). This group elected an ad hoc committee that worked to make the
division official within NRA. The division held its first organizational meeting on
November 10, 1964, at the NRA Annual Conference in Philadelphia. The first
president of JPD was Louis Ortale, who worked for the state Vocational
Rehabilitation agency in Des Moines, Iowa.
JPD sought to enhance it professionalism through several means. Members were
recruited and the role of the division was clarified. JPD established conferences and
training programs, including the Louis Ortale Memorial Lecture at the annual NRA
conference (he died in 1967 when he was immediate past-president). The forerunner
of the Journal of Job Placement began as an intra-divisional communication device.
Finally, the division sought to establish standards and competencies for placement
The initial professional competencies and standards were proposed by William
Usdane, who was employed by the Rehabilitation Services Administration, during
his presentation at the fourth Louis Ortale Memorial Lecture in 1973. The lecture
included a statement of scope of practice that said placement professionals should
be given responsibility for: job development, job solicitation, economic job
forecasting, labor market information, job engineering, job placement, and post-job
adjustment. From this description of the role of placement professionals, the
National Rehabilitation Job Placement/Job Development Institute at Drake
University was developed to design the competencies for a masters degree based on
Usdane's lecture. Howard Traxler, who was Director of that program, gave the
Ortale Lecture in 1978, laying out competencies and a training agenda for graduate
degree programs in placement and rehabilitation counseling.
These competencies remained central to the role of job placement specialists in
public and non-profit rehabilitation agencies through the 1970s and 1980s.
Rehabilitation counselor education programs, still driven by Federal funding to
prepare people for public sector jobs, included these competencies in their program
requirements, but did not emphasize them. Placement was important, there just were
not many people doing it. The people who were supposed to do it put a higher value
on providing counseling (Emener & Rubin, 1980; Neely, 1974).
In 1992, consumers sent a new message in the form of the Rehabilitation Act of
1973 as Amended (P.L. 102-569). The consumer involvement mandated by the
1973 Act was important, but employment outcomes needed to be re-emphasized.
With the 1992 Reauthorization, the initial focus of vocational rehabilitation--
employment--had returned to the central position it held at the beginning of the
century. Employment remained the fundamental purpose of disability services, but
consumers' expectations had changed over 70 years. Consumers expected to be
actively involved in a rehabilitation process that assisted them to achieve their own
personal and career goals. They also expected a high standard of quality in the
services and outcomes they received from vocational rehabilitation.
Placement as a cluster of professional activities evolved in a sector of the workforce
that, until recently, was separate from public and non-profit vocational
rehabilitation. This other sector is the private for-profit sector that serves industrially
injured workers. The increasing cost of medical care and workers compensation
insurance, gave rise to private (insurance) rehabilitation in the mid 1970s. Growick
(1993) stated that rehabilitation and workers' compensation were "made for each
other" because both viewed return to work for people with disabilities (albeit for
different reasons) as their primary goal.
Because private for-profit rehabilitation needed to meet the needs of both employers
and people with disabilities, it traditionally focused more on employment and return
to work than did public rehabilitation (Collignon, Barker, & Vencill, 1992; Gilbride,
1993; Gilbride, Connolly & Stensrud, 1990; Matkin, 1983; Matkin, 1987). During
the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was a movement toward state-legislated
rehabilitation as states viewed private rehabilitation as a cost-effective way to help
injured workers return to work.
In recent years, however, there has been a major reduction in mandatory
rehabilitation services for people with work related injuries (Lui, 1993). Spiraling
costs of workers' compensation insurance provided impetus for many state
legislatures to repeal the mandatory rehabilitation provisions of their workers'
compensation systems (e.g. Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota ) or to dramatically
constrain the provision of rehabilitation services (e.g. California). At least part of
this backlash was due to private rehabilitation providers' inadequate documentation
of their effectiveness in returning injured workers to employment (California
Workers' Compensation Institute, 1991; Washburn, 1992). However, the continued
use of rehabilitation in non-mandatory states and the limited extant empirical data
suggest that appropriate rehabilitation services often are successful at putting injured
workers back on the job while saving employers money (Collignon, Barker, &
Vencill, 1992; Growick 1993).
Private for-profit rehabilitation, like private non-profit rehabilitation, held placement
as a central component of the service delivery system. Structurally, for-profit
rehabilitation was more like public rehabilitation in that a single counselor managed
a single case (but much smaller total case load) from beginning to end. In the case
of for-profit rehabilitation, however, payment mechanisms made employment
outcomes more critical than in public rehabilitation and careful documenting of
activities less important (Growick, 1993).
Public rehabilitation agencies provided involvement-oriented counseling to people
with disabilities but offered few placement services. Private non-profit rehabilitation
agencies provided a specific focus on placement services primarily to people with
severe disabilities but low compensation limited the professionalization of the
industry. Private for-profit rehabilitation companies focused on placement but the
intense outcome orientation resulted in limited documentation of effectiveness. Each
sector evolved somewhat separately and with its own strengths and weaknesses. The
question became: How do we attain the focus of private non-profit rehabilitation,
the documentation capabilities of public rehabilitation, and the outcome orientation
of private for-profit rehabilitation? No one asked this question because there were
no incentives to do so until recently
In the mid 1990s, Federal budget deficits, concern over the size and influence of the
Federal government, and questions about the effectiveness of the State-Federal
Vocational Rehabilitation program (GAO, 1993), led to a general re-thinking
regarding the manner in which public Vocational Rehabilitation services were
delivered. While the Rehabilitation Act amendments of 1992 (P.L. 102-569) again
underscored the centrality of employment outcomes and RSA directives discussed
"quality placements," many consumer groups and policy makers remained skeptical.
Their input to state plans and Federal legislation focused on having these concerns
addressed by rehabilitation providers. In response, new service delivery models such
as "block grants" and "one stop shopping" for employment services were explored.
The current policy debate over block grants and one stop shopping reflects three
current policy themes: states' rights (devolution), market forces (vouchers), and
workforce development areas (service integration). From the beginning of civilian
rehabilitation tension existed between states and the Federal government regarding
roles and responsibilities for assisting people with disabilities. Over the past 75
years the Federal government has increasingly assumed a greater percentage of the
cost for rehabilitation services while concurrently exerting more control over how
those services were delivered. The current trend toward block grants and one stop
shopping clearly reflects an attempt to rebalance the state/Federal relationship.
The second issue, vouchers, represents a profound break with the entire history of
public rehabilitation. Vouchers promise to offer maximal consumer choice because
people would be allowed to go to any qualified provider and purchase services.
Proponents of vouchers assert that market forces will improve services and enhance
outcomes. The envisioned outcomes are to "render the individuals employable and
achieve an employment outcome." (Sec 104, i, Proposed Careers Act ). If passed,
this law will again solidify placement as the raison d'être for the vocational
rehabilitation profession but, for the first time, services will be provided within a
competitive, market driven environment. Public rehabilitation counselors would be
required to compete with other providers for vouchers.
The third factor, integrated workforce development areas, offers rehabilitation
professionals the opportunity to reclaim the original mandate of the profession. It
does so by addressing many of the same needs identified in 1918, and by weaving
together all the government agencies that address the same concerns. The mandate:
understanding, collaborating with, and integrating people with disabilities into the
workforce, has remained much the same for 80 years, but the way each era shaped
service delivery system has varied. Rehabilitation counseling in its present form
developed because the new industrialized labor market was complex and not readily
negotiated by a person with a disability without extensive assistance. Despite this,
the accepted knowledge base of the rehabilitation profession developed
asymmetrically. While knowledge about people with disabilities and the services
they require has improved, little growth or evolution has occurred in the profession's
understanding of labor market trends and the needs of employers. This has resulted
in rehabilitation plans often being unresponsive to labor market data and employer
needs (Gilbride & Burr, 1993). Further, rehabilitation professionals have been
unable to document that they actually improve the financial status of even their
successful clients (General Accounting Office, 1993). Beyond this, employers tend
to view rehabilitation agencies as not "cost effective" (Gilbride & Stensrud, 1993).
The current situation necessitates some form of change within the rehabilitation
profession, especially as it pertains to placement. The profession, however, has
neglected placement and there are no clear standards of performance or
empirically-derived guides to effective practice. In a time when the profession's
existence is challenged because it does not deliver adequate employment
outcomes, little is know about how to improve this situation. What is known is
that various models of placement have been developed and applied by
practitioners. The utility of these models is untested. Current events may make
many of them obsolete before they are allowed to demonstrate their
Recruitment and placement
Meaning: - Recruitment is a process of getting potential employees willing to
apply for job/jobs into an organization. Its aim is to develop and maintain adequate
manpower resources upon which an organization can depend when it needs
SOURCES OF MANPOWER; - Before an organization actively begins recruiting
applicants, it should consider the most likely sources of the type of` employees it
needs. Some companies try to develop new sources, while most only try to tackle
the existing sources they have. These sources, accordingly, may be termed as
external and internal.
Internal Sources: Internal sources are the most obvious sources. These include
Already on the pay roll of an organization, i.e. its present working force. Whenever
any vacancy occurs, some body from within the organization is upgraded, promoted
or sometimes demoted. This source also includes personnel who were once on the
pay roll of the company but who plan to return or whom the company would like to
re-hire, such as those on leave of absence, those who quit voluntarily, or those in
Merits: The use of internal sources has some merits:
I) It improves the morale of employees, for they are assured of the fact that they
would be preferred over outsiders when vacancies occur.
II) The employer is in a better position to evaluate those presently employed than
outside candidates. This is because the company maintains a record of the progress,
experience and service of its employees.
III) It promotes loyalty among the employees, for it gives them a sense of job
security and opportunities for advancement.
IV) As the persons in the employment of the company are fully aware of, and well
acquainted with, its policies and know its operating procedures, they require little
training, and the chances are that they would stay longer in the employment of the
organization than a new outsider would.
Demerits: However, this system suffers from certain defects as well.
I) It often leads to inbreeding, and discourages new blood from entering an
II) There are possibilities that internal sources may “dry up”, and it may be
difficult to find the requisite personnel from within an organization.
III) Since the learner does not know more than the lecturer, no invocations
worth the name can be made. Therefore, on jobs, which require original
thinking (such as advertising, style, designing and basic research), this
practice is not followed.
IV) As promotion is based on seniority, the danger is that really capable
hands may not be chosen. The likes and dislikes of the management may
also play an important role in the selection of personnel.
This source is used by many organizations; but a surprisingly large number
ignore this source, especially for middle management jobs. In other words,
this source is the lode that is rarely mined. It is not only reasonable but wise
to use this source, if the vacancies to be filled are within the capacity of the
present employees; if adequate employee records have been maintained; an
if opportunities are provided in advanced for them to prepare themselves for
promotions from “blue-collar” to “white-collar” jobs.
EXTERNAL SOURCES: These sources lie outside the organization. They usually
1. New entrants to the labour force, i.e. young, mostly inexperienced potential
employees --- the college students;
2. The unemployed—with a wide range of skills and abilities;
3. Retired experienced persons such as mechanics machinists, welders,
4. Others not in the labour force, such as married women and person form
Merits: External sources provide the requisite type of personnel for an
organization, having skill, training an education up to the required standard. Since
persons are recruited from a large market, the best selection can be made without
any distinctions of caste, sex or colour. In the long run, this source proves
economical because potential employees do not need extra training for their jobs.
Demerits: However, this system suffers from what is called “brain drain,”
especially when experienced person are raided or hunted by sister concern
METHODS OF RECRUITMENT
An author summarizes the possible recruiting methods into three categories:
direct, indirect and third party.
Direct Methods; These include sending recruiters to educational and professional
institutions, employees’ contacts with the public, and manned exhibits. One of the
most widely used direct methods is that of sending recruiters to college and
technical schools. Most college recruiting is done in cooperation with the placement
office of a college. The placement office usually provides help in attracting students,
arranging interviews, furnishing space, and providing student resumes. For
managerial, professional and sales personnel’s, campus recruiting is an extensive
operation. Persons reading for M.B.A. or other technical diplomas are picked up in
this manner. For this purpose, carefully prepared brochures, describing the
organization and the jobs it offers, are distributed amongst students, before the
interviewer arrives. The DCM, TATAs, and other enlightened firms maintain
continuing contacts with institutions’ placement officials with a view of recruiting
staffs regularly for different responsible position.
Sometimes, firms directly solicit information from the concerned professors
about students with an outstanding record.
Many companies have found employees’ contacts with the public a very
Other direct methods include sending recruiters to conventions and seminars,
setting up exhibits at fairs, and using mobile offices to go to the desired centers.
Indirect Methods: Indirect methods generally involve advertising in newspapers,
on the radio, in trade and professional journals, technical magazines and brochures.
Advertising in newspapers andor trade journal and magazines is most
frequently used methods, when qualified or experience personnel are not available
from other sources. Senior post are largely filled by such methods when they cannot
be filled by promotions from within. The classified advertisement section on daily
newspapers or the Sunday weekly editions of the Hindustan Times, Times of India,
The Tribune, The National Herald, Free Press Journal, The Pioneer, Amrit Bazar
Patrika, Economic Times, The Hindu, The Indian Expressed. Carry advertisement
for all types of positions. Such advertisement enable prospective candidates to
screen themselves in order to find out whether they are fit for the jobs for which the
advertisement has been issued. In order to be successful, an advertisement should be
carefully written. If it is not properly written, it may not draw the write type of
applicants or it may attract to many applicants who are not qualified for the job. It
should be so framed as to attract attention---- for example, by the use of different
sizes and types of print. The first line should limit the audience somewhat and the
next few lines should further screen out the readers who do not posses the necessary
qualifications. It should provide specific information on job requirement and
opportunities for advancement, the benefits to be enjoyed by working in the
company; and to its professional aspects. “Frilly advertisements, containing
exaggerated claims and gimmicky appeals, are to be avoided.” Advertising can be
very effective if its media are properly chosen.
According to Advertisement Tactics and Strategy in Personnel Recruitment,
there points need to be borne in mind before an advertisement is inserted. First, to
visualize the type of applicant one is trying to recruit. Second, to write out a list of
the advantages a company offers; in other words, why the reader should work for
the company. Third, to decide where to run the advertisement, not only in which
area but in which newspaper, having local, state or nation-wide circulation.
Other methods include advertising in publications, such as trade and
professional journals, and radio or televisions announcements, as is done by many
Indian manufacturers. Professional journals are read by people with specialized
backgrounds and interests. Therefore, advertisements in these are generally
selective. For example advertisement for the services of engineers are generally
inserted in publications meant for engineers.
Third Party Method: These include the use of commercial or private employment
agencies, state agencies, placement offices of schools, colleges and professional
associations, recruiting firms, management consulting firms, indoctrination seminars
for college professors, and friends and relatives.
Private Employment Agencies are widely used. They charge a small fee from an
applicant. They specialize in specific occupation; general office help, salesman,
technical workers, accountants, computer staff, engineers and executives. These
private agencies are brokers who bring employers and employees together. The
specialization of these agencies enhances their capacity to interpret the need of their
clients, to seek out particular types of persons and to develop proficiency in
recognizing the talent of specialized personnel.
State or public employment agencies, also known as Employment or Labour
Exchanges, are the main agencies of public employment. They provide a
clearinghouse for jobs and job information. Employers inform them of their
personnel requirements, while jobs-seekers get information from them about the
types of jobs that are referred to them by employers. These agencies provide a wide
range of services-canceling, assistance in getting jobs information about the labour
market, labour and wage rates.
Schools, colleges and professional associations, also provide a useful service to
employers. They maintain registers giving the bio-data and other particular about
their students. The companies that need employees maintain contact with the
guidance counselors of Employment Bureaus and teachers of business and
vocational subjects. Work-study programmes provide an opportunity for students to
work part time while they finish their school. After they finish their education, they
may be absorbed by the companies concerned.
Recruiting firms or executive recruiters maintain complete information
records about employed executives. These firms are looked upon as headhunters,
raiders and pirates by organizations, which lose personnel through their efforts.
However, these same organizations may employ “executive search firms” to help
them find executive talent. These consulting firms recommend persons of high
caliber for managerial, marketing, and production engineers’ posts.
Indoctrination seminars for college professors are arranged to discuss the
problems of companies and employees. Professors are invited to take part in these
seminars. Visits to plants and banquets are arranged so that the participant’s
professors may be favorably impressed. They may later speak well of a company
and help it in getting the required personnel.
Friends and relative – of present employees are also a good source from which
employees may be drawn. When the labour market is very tight, large employees
frequent offer their employees’ bonuses or price for any referrals that are hired with
the company for a specific length of time. Some companies maintain a register of
former employees whose record was good to contact them when there are new job
opening for which they are qualified. This method of recruitment, how ever suffer
from a defect in that it encouraged nepotisms, i.e. person of one community or casts
are employed, who may or may not be fit for the job.
Trade data banks- when a company desires a particular type of employee, job
speciation and requirement are fed into a computer; here they are matches against
the resume data stored therein. The output is a set resume for individual who meet
the requirement. This method is very useful for identifying candidates for hard-to-
fill position, which call for a usual combination for skill.
Casual labour source: Most industrial unit relies to some extent on the casual
labour which presents its self-daily at the factory gate or employment office.
However this source is uncertain and the candidates cover a wide range of abilities.
Ever than many of our industry make use do this source to fill up the casual
Which particularly source is to be taped will depend on the policy of the
firm, the position of labour supply, government regulation and agreement with the
labour organization. However, the personnel manager must be in a close touch with
these different sources and use them in accordance with this need. The management
policy regarding recruitments is to look first within the organization. If that source
fails external recruitments must be tackled.
Sr.no Degree of tightness in
the labour Market
1. Most loose Direct hiring Immediate
2. Intermediate Unions, friends
Part of an urban
3. Tight Advertising,
4. Most tight Labour scouting Regional and
PREQUISITE OF A GOOD RECRUITMENT POLICY; The recruitment policy
of an organization must satisfy the following conditions;
1. It should be in conformity with its general personnel policies;
2. It should be flexible enough to meet the changing needs of an
3. It should be so designed as to ensure employment opportunities for its
employees on a long term basis so that the goals of the organization should
be achievable; and it should develop the potentialities of employees;
4. It should match the qualities of employees with the requirements of the
work for which they are employed; and
5. It should highlight the necessity of establishing job analysis
The nature and extent of the recruitment programmed depends on a
number of factors, including the skills required, the state of the labour market,
general economic conditions, and the image of the employer. Accompany which
has a reputation for paying fair wages, providing good employee benefits and
taking interest in employee welfare activities would attract a larger number of
applicants than it needs without making any extra recruiting efforts. Small
companies which hire only a few persons each year may not need to do more
than spread the word around the plant or office that a vacancy exists. However,
as a result of regulations and pressures from society and the government, the
recruitment programmed now requires the employers to go out and actively seek
job applicants from groups of those who may not otherwise apply for
Employment office organization: There is no general procedure for hiring new
personnel which are applicable to all business enterprises. Each enterprise has its
“tailor-made” procedure which brings it the desired quantity and quality of
manpower at the minimum possible cost. The most commonly adopted practice
is to centralize the recruitment and selection function in a single office .All
employment activity should be centralized if the policies of the top management
are to be implemented consistently and efficiently. Only when personnel
requisitions go through one central source and all employment records are kept –
up to- date is there a possibility of maximum efficiency and success in hiring.
The advantages of centralization recruitment and selection are:
1.It reduces the administrative cost associated with selection by
consolidating all activity in a single office;
2. It relieves line officers of the details involved in hiring workers, which is
common under a decentralized plan;
3. It tends to make the selection of workers scientific;
4. It makes possible the development of a centralized manpower pool in a
5. It provides a wider opportunity for placing an applicant in several
departments of the company;
6. It tends to reduce favoritism as a basis for selection.
This centralized department is generally known as the Employee office,
or the Recruitment Section. The personnel staff is attached to it. This
enables specialists to concentrate on the recruitment function; and soon
they become very efficient in the use of various recruitment techniques.
This office should be properly equipped with furniture. Its waiting room
should be roomy, clean and well ventilated.
Recruitment forms the stage in the process which continues with
selection and ceases with the placement of the candidate. It is the next step in the
procurement function, the first being the manpower planning. Recruiting makes it
possible to acquire the number and types of people necessary to ensure the
continued operation of the organization. Recruiting is the discovering of potential
applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. In other words, it is a
linking activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs.
As Yoder and other point out “Recruitment is a process to discover
the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to
employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to
facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.” Accordingly, the purpose
of recruitment is to locate sources of manpower to meet job requirements and job
Recruitment has been regarded as the most important function of personnel
administration, because unless the right types of people are hired, even the best
plans, organization charts and control systems would not do much good. Flippo
views recruitment both as “positive” and “negative” activity. He says, “It is a
process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging
them to apply for jobs to increase the ‘hiring ratio’, i.e., the number of applicants for
a job. Selection, on the other hand tends to be negative because it rejects a good
member of those who apply, leaving only the best to be hired.”
FACTORS AFFECTING RECURITMENT
All organizations, whether large or small, do engage in recruiting
activity, though not to the same extent. This differs with:
(i) The size of the organization;
(ii) The employment conditions in the community where the
organization is located;
(iii) The effects of the past recruiting efforts which show the
organization’s ability to locate and keep good performing
(iv) Working conditions and salary and benefit packages offered by
the organization---which may influence turnover and necessitate
(v) The rate of growth of organization;
(vi) The level of seasonality of operations and future expansion and
production programmers; and
(vii) Culture, economic and legal factors, etc.
Factors governing recruitment may broadly be divided as internal and
The internal factors are:
(i) Recruiting policy of the origination;
(ii) Human resource planning strategy of the company;
(iii) Size of the origination and the number of employees employed;
(iv) Cost involved in recruiting employees, and finally;
(v) Growth and expansion plans of the origination.
The external factors are:
(i) Supply and demand of specific skills in the labor market;
(ii) Political and legal consideration such as reservation of jobs for
Sacs, Sets, and so on.
(iii) Company’s image-perception of the job seekers about the
THEORIES REGARDING RECRUITING
Recruiting is a two-way street: it takes a recruiter and a recruitee. Just as the
recruiter has a choice whom to recruit and whom not, so also the prospective
employee has to make the decision if he should apply for that origination’s job. The
individual makes this decision usually on three different bases, the objective factor,
critical contact, and subjective factor.4
“The objective factor theory views the process of organitional choice as
being one of weighing and evaluating a set of measurable characteristics of
employment offers, such as pay, benefits, location, opportunity for advancement,
the nature of the work to be performed, and educational opportunities.”
“The critical contact theory suggests that the typical candidate is unable
to make a meaningful differentiation of organization’s offer in terms of objective or
subjective factors, because of his limited or very short contact with the organization.
Choices can be made only when the applicant can readily perceive the factors such
as the behavior of the recruiter, the nature of the physical facilities, and the
efficiency in processing paper work associated with the application.”
“The subjective factor theory emphasizes the congruence between
personality pattern and the ‘image’ of the organization, i.e., choices is made on a
highly personal and emotional basis.”
CONSTRAINT LIMIT THE FREEDOM OF MANAGER TO RECRUIT
No employer could ever freely choose the “best” candidate because various
forces impinge upon such selection. Such constraints are:
1. The Image of the Organization: The prospective candidate may not be
interested in getting job in the particular organization either because its reputation or
goodwill is not good in the community, or because the condition of work are unsafe
or it is indifferent to the personnel available
2. The Unattractive Job: If the job is regarded as boring, hazardous, anxiety
creating or lacking in promotion potential, people would not be attracted to such an
3. Internal Organizational Policies: If the policy aims at providing promotion to
its employee from within, people would be attracted to it, because such a policy
enjoys several advantages such as that of creating good public relations, building
high moral, encouraging good people who are ambitious and improving the
probability of a good selection.
4. Union Requirements can also Restrict Recruiting Sources: Some unions
emphasize on recruitment to member of the unions only. Where such situation
occurs, management has to recruit from a restricted supply.
5. Government Influence: An employer cannot distinguish any individual, on the
basis of physical appearance, sex or religious background, for purpose of
STEPS ON RECRUITMENT PROCESS
As was mentioned earlier, recruitment refers to the process of identifying
and attracting job seekers so as to build a pool of qualified applicants. The
process comprises five-inter-related stages, viz.,
2. Strategy development,
4. Screening and
5. Evaluation and control.
Place of Recruiting in selection system
According to Famulor, personnel recruitment process involves five
elements, viz., a recruitment policy, a recruitment organization, a forecast of
manpower, the development of sources of recruitment, and different techniques used
for utilizing these sources, and a method of assessing the recruitment programme.
Figure 9.1 shows the place of recruitment in the entire selection process.
Such a policy asserts the objective of the recruitment and provides a
framework of implementation of their recruitment programme in the form of
procedures. As Yoder and other observe:
“Such a policy may involve a commitment to broad principles such a filling
vacancies with best qualified individuals. It may embrace several issues such as
extent of promotion from within, attitudes of enterprising in recruiting its old
employees, handicaps, minority groups, women employees, part-time employees,
friends and relatives of present employees. It may also involve the organization
system to be developed for implementing recruitment programme and procedures to
Therefore, a well considered and pre-planned recruitment policy, based on
corporate goals, study of environment and the corporate needs, may avoid hasty or
ill-considered decision and may go a long way to man the organization with the
right type of personnel.
A good recruitment policy must contain these elements:
(a). Organization’s objectives –both in the short-term and long-term-must be taken
into consider as a basic parameter for recruitment decision and needs of the
(b). Identification of the recruitment needs to take decision regarding the balance of
the qualities dimensions of the would be recruits, i.e., the recruits should prepare
profiles for each category of workers and accordingly work out the main
specifications, decide the sections, departments or braches where they should be
placed and identify the particular responsibilities which may be immediately
assigned to them.
(c). Preferred sources of recruitment, which would be tapped by the organization,
e.g., for skilled or semi-skilled manual workers, internal sources and employment
exchanges may be preferred; for highly specialized categories and managerial
personnel, other sources besides the former, may be utilized.
(d). Criteria of selection and preference: These should be based on conscious
thought and serious deliberations. In some cases trade may be consulted in working
out the recruitment policy. In others, management may take the unilateral decision.
(e). the cost of recruitment and financial implications of the same.
A “recruitment policy,” in its broadest sense, “involves a commitment by the
employer to such general principles as:
(i) To find and employ the best qualified persons for each
(ii) To retain the best and most promising of those hired;
(iii) To offer promising opportunities for life-time working
(iv) To provide programmes and facilities for personal
growth on the job.”
According to Yoder, “the recruitment policy is concerned with quantity and
qualification (viz, and Q1 and Q2) it established broad guidelines for the staffing
process. Generally, the following factors are involved in a recruitment policy:
Recruitment and Selection Process
(i) To carefully observe the letter and spirit of the relevant
(ii) To provide individual employees with the maximum of
employment security, avoiding, frequent lay- off or lost
(iii) To provide each employee with an open road and
encouragement in the continuing development of his
talents and skills;
(iv) To assure each employees of fairness in all employment
relationships, including promotion and transfers;
(v) To assure each employee of the organisation interest in
his personal goals and employment objectives;
(vi) To avoid cliques which may develop when several
members of the same household or community are
employed in the organisation;
(vii) To provide employment in jobs which are engineered to
meet the qualifications of handicapped workers and
minority sections; and
(viii) To encourage one or more strong, effective, responsible
trade unions among the employees.
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
Before an organization activity begins recruiting applicants, it should
consider the most likely source of the type of employee it needs. Some companies
try to develop new sources, while most only they to tackle the existing sources they
have. These sources, accordingly, may be termed as internal and external.
Internal sources are the most obvious sources. These include personnel
already on the pay roll of an organization, i.e., its present working force. Whenever
any vacancy occurs, somebody from within the organisation is upgraded,
transferred, promoted or sometimes demote. This source also includes personnel
who were once on the pay roll of the company but who plan to return or whom the
company would like to rehire, such as those on leave of absence, those who quit
voluntarily, or those on production lay offs.
The use of an internal source has some merits:
(i) It improves the morale of employees, for they are assured of the
fact that they would be preferred over outsiders when vacancies
(ii) The employer is in a better position to evaluate those presently
employed than outside candidates. This is because the company
maintains a record of the progress, experience and service of its
(iii) It promoted loyalty among the employees, for it gives them a
sense of job security and opportunities for advancement.
(iv) As the persons in the employment of the company are fully aware
of, and well acquainted with, its policies and know its operating
procedures, they require little training, and the chances are they
would stay longer in the employment of the organisation than a
new outsider would.
(v) They are tried people and can, therefore, be relied upon.
(vi) It is less costly than going outside to recruit.
However, this system suffers from certain defects as well.
(i) It often leads to inbreeding, and discourages new blood from entering an
(ii) There are possibilities that internal sources may “dry up”, and it may be
difficult to find the requisite personnel from within an organisation.
(iii) Since the learner does not know more than the lecturer, no innovations
worth the name can be made. Therefore, on jobs, which require original
thinking (such as advertising, style, designing and basic research), this
practice is not followed.
(iv) As promotion is based on seniority, the danger is that really capable
hands may not be chosen. The likes and dislikes of the management may
also play an important role in the selection of personnel.
This source is used by many organizations; but a surprisingly large number
ignore this source, especially for middle management jobs. In other words, this
source is the lode that is rarely mined. It is not only reasonable but also wise to use
this source, if the vacancies to be filled are within the capacity of the present
employees; if adequate employee records have been maintained, and if opportunities
are provided in advance for them to prepare themselves for promotion from “blue-
collar” to “white-collar” jobs.
These sources lie outside the organisation. They usually include:
(i) New entrants to the labour force, i.e., young, mostly inexperienced
potential employees---the college students;
(ii) The unemployed---with a wide range of skills abilities;
(iii) Retired experienced persons such as mechanics, machinists, welders,
(iv) Others not in the labour force, such as married women and persons from
(i) External sources provide the requisite type of personnel for an
organization, having skill, training and education up to the required
(ii) Since persons are recruited from a large market, the best selection can be
made without any distinctions of caste, sex or colour.
(iii) In the long run, this source proves economical because potential
employees do not need extra training for their jobs.
However, this system suffers from what is called “brain drain”, especially when
experienced persons are raided or hunted by sister concerns.
RECRUITMENT PRACTICES IN INDIA
The different sources for recruitment in India have been classified thus:
i) Within the organisation;
ii) Badli or temporary workers;
iii) Employment agencies;
iv) Casual callers;
v) Applicants introduces by friends and relatives in the organisation;
vi) Advertisement; and
vii) Labour contractors.
According to a survey of public and private sector employers by prof. Basavaraj,
the following methods were used to recruit employees:
A) In the public sector (steel units), the major sources of recruitment in order of
i) Casual callers or employment seekers;
ii) Newspaper advertisements;
iii) Scheduled tribes and scheduled castes;
iv) Employment exchanges;
v) Other public undertakings;
vi) Internal advertisement;
vii) Displaced persons;
viii) Relative and friends;
ix) Employee recommendations; and
In the public sector (heavy engineering), the sources for non-supervisory staff are:
i) Employment exchanges;
ii) External advertisement:
iii) Internal advertisement;
iv) Central training institute;
v) Introduction by the liaison officer of a corporation;
vi) Deputation personnel; and
vii) Transfers from other public undertakings.
B) In the private sector, the survey disclosed that the procedures, though formulated,
were not institutionalized in character. In some organisations, preference was given
to sons and relatives of employees and to local people. In order of preference, the
major sources are:
ii) Employment exchanges;
iii) Relatives and friends;
iv) Casual callers; and
v) Employee recommendations.
THE PROBLEMS OF THE “SONS OF THE SOIL”
A controversy has arisen in recent years over giving preference in recruitment
to “Sons of the Soil”. In this connection the National Commission on Labour has
“The solution has to be sought in terms of the primacy of common citizenship,
geographical mobility and economic feasibility of locating industrial units, on the
one hand, and local aspiration on the other”. It has suggested that:
a) Young persons from families whose lands are acquired for industrial use should
be provided training opportunities for employment in jobs, which are likely to be
created in new units set up on these lands;
b) To remove unjustified apprehensions among local candidates, the following steps
should be taken to supervise the implementation of the directives of the Government
of India on recruitment for public sector projects;
i) While recruiting unskilled employees, first preference should be given to persons
displaced from the areas required for the projects. The next to be preferred should
be those who have been living in the same vicinity.
ii) The selection of persons to posts in lower scales should not be left entirely to the
head of the unit. It should be made through a recruitment committee, with a
nominee of the government of the state in which the unit is located.
iii) In the case of middle level technicians whose recruitment has to be on an all-
India basis, a member of the State Public service Commission should be associated
in making selections in addition to the State Government official on the Board of
iv) Apart from the report sent to the concerned Ministry at the Center, the
undertaking should send a statement to the statement to the State Government at
regular intervals, preferably every quarter, about the latest employment and
Although the Commission has suggested these steps for employment in the
public sector, it is of the opinion that they should apply equally to recruitment in the
private sector, though the mechanism to regulate this recruitment would necessarily
differ from that in the public sector. In India, for recruitment of industrial labour,
traditional methods (casual or badli workers on lists maintained by the factory; the
use of jobbers, sarders, mukadams, etc., employees’ relatives and dependents and
undertaking’s own labour force, etc., and contract labour) are still used for getting
labour in textile industry, for building and construction industry, digging of canals,
building of roads and dams, etc.
Besides these, large industrial complexes have developed a more
‘committed’ labour force. For supplying skilled operators there are a number Crafts
Training Schools (Industrial training Institutes; Advanced Vocational Training
Institutes at Mumbai, Calcutta, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Ludhiana and Chennai; Seven
Craft Instructors Training Schools; And an Institute for training of Foreman at
RECRUITMENT PRACTICES IN INDIA AND ELSEWHERE
All public sector enterprises are required to consider candidates sponsored
by the Employment Exchanges (over 535) and, in most cases, confine the selection
to these candidates. However, the private sector is not under any such formal
Under the Apprentices Act, 1961, young craftsmen having received pre-
employment training in Industrial Institutes have to be employed by ‘specialized’
industries during their training period as a percentage of the total number of regular
employees. Reservation of 25% of vacancies fro Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes candidates and preferential treatment of displaced persons is a part of
statutory requirement of Government and public sector employment in India.
The recruitment of supervisory personnel in all orgainsed industries is
generally by promotion from within the organisation. Some industries first recruit a
number of young persons as management trainees and after 2 or 3 years absorb
them completely. Executives too are mostly promoted from within. Sometimes good
persons are also recruited from Indian Institutes of Technology, All-India Institutes
of Management at Calcutta, Institutes of Technology, All-India Institutes of
Management at Calcutta, Ahmedabad and Banglore; from universities offering
MBA courses, etc.
Retired military and police personnel also provide an important source of
recruitment particularly for security jobs, and for personnel jobs.
In the U.S.A.four sources of applicants are most used in obtaining hourly
workers---direct applications at the company office, public employment sources,
recommendations by employees, and newspaper advertising. In the case of blue-
collar workers, the sources most successfully used are newspaper advertising, direct
application, public employment offices, employee’s recommendations, and private
employment agencies. In the case of scientific, professional and technical
employees, the most productive sources are advertising, on-campus recruiting and
Thus, it may be observed that there is virtually no definite work that
develops employers’ reasons for selecting various methods of recruitment. No
single method is predominant and that recruitment practices are adopted to fill
vacancies, employment rates, and other circumstances faced by the employer.
ASSESSMENT OF THE RECRUITMENT PROGRAMME
Sources for recruiting should be periodically evaluated. For this purpose, the
criteria may be the cost per applicant, the applicanthiring ratio, tenure, and
performance appraisals, etc. The Organisation should first identify how an applicant
was attracted to the firm. A simple way of securing this information is to include in
the application blank a question: “How did you learn of the job vacancy for which
you have applied?” The next step is to determine whether any one method
consistently attracts better applicants. The last step is to use this information to
improve the recruiting process. Recruiting should take into consideration ethical
practices, such as use of “truth in hiring,” i.e., telling an applicant all about the firm
and its position, both good and bad, to enable him to decide whether or not to join
the firm, if selected.
A successful and effective recruitment programme necessitates a well-
defined recruitment policy, a proper organizational structure, and procedure for
locating sources of manpower resources, suitable methods and techniques for
utilizing these and a constant assessment and consequent improvement.
The selection procedure is concerned with securing relevant information about
an applicant. This information is secure in a number of steps or stages. The
objective of selection process is to predetermine whether an applicant meets the
qualifications for a specific job and to choose the applicant who is most likely to
perform well in that job.
Selection is a long process, commencing from the preliminary interview of
the applicants and ending with the contract of employment.
The hiring procedure is not a single act but it is essentially a series of
methods or steps or stages by which additional information is secured about the
applicant. At each stage, facts may come to light, which may lead to the rejection to
the applicant. A procedure may be compared to a series of successive hurdles or
barriers which an applicant must cross. These are intended as screens, and they are
designed to eliminate an unqualified applicant at any point in the process. This
technique is known as the successive hurdles technique. Not all selection processes
include all these hurdles. The complexity of a process usually increases with the
level and responsibility of the position to be filled.
According to Yoder, “the hiring process is of one or many a ‘go, no-go’
gauge. Candidates are screened by the application of these tools. Qualifies
applicants go on to the next hurdle, while the unqualified are eliminated”. Thus, an
effective selection programme is a non-random process because those selected have
been chosen on the basis of the assumption that they are more likely to be “better”
employees than those who have been rejected.
Sr.no Types of Qualifications or
Sr.no Types of Gauges
1. Arbitrary i. Application blank
Security ii. Security check
Sex iii. Police records
Age iv. Personal records
2. Physical health and adequacy Physical examination
3. Skills (including specialized
i Application blank
ii Education, training,
iv Employment records
vi Trade tests
4. Experience i Application blank
iii Employment records
5. Aptitude (including intelligence) i Employment records
ii Personnel appraisals
6. Interests i Application blank
iv Test in
7 Emotional maturity, moods,
ii Employment records
8. Attitudes i Interviews
iii Personnel appraisals
iv Attitude-morale scales.
Selection processes or activity or activities typically follow a standard pattern,
beginning with an initial screening interview and concluding with the final
employment decision. The traditional selection process includes: preliminary
screening interview; completion of application form; employment tests;
comprehensive interview; background investigations, physical examination and
final employment decision to hire.
While formulating a selection policy, due consideration should be given to
organizational requirement as well as technical and professional dimensions of
selection procedures. Yoder and others have suggested goals, technological issues,
cost factors, extent of formality, etc. in other words, an effective policy must assert
the “why” and “what” aspects of the organizational objectives.
ESSENTIALS OF SELECTION PROCEDURE
The selection procedure adopted by an organisation is mostly tailor made to
meet its particular needs. The thoroughness of the procedure depends upon three
First, the nature of selection, whether faulty or safe, because faulty selection affects
not only the training period that may be needed, but also results in heavy
expenditure on the new employee and the loss that may be incurred by the
organisation in case the job-occupant fails on his job.
Second, the policy of the company and the attitude of the management. As a
practice some companies usually hire more than the actual number needed with a
view to removing the unfit persons from the jobs.
Third, the length of the probationary or the trial period. The longer the period, the
greater the uncertainty in the minds of the selected candidate about his future.
The hiring process can be successful, if the following preliminary
requirements are satisfied:
i) Some one should have the authority to hire. This authority comes from the
employment requisition, as developed by an analysis of the workload and work
ii) There must be some standard or personnel, with which a prospective employee
may be compared, i.e., there should be available, beforehand, a comprehensive job
description and job specifications as developed by a job analysis.
iii) There must be a sufficient number of applicants from whom the required number
of employees may be selected.
STEPS IN SELECTION PROCEDURE
There is no shortcut to an accurate evaluation of a candidate. The hiring
procedures are, therefore, generally long and complicated. Many employers make
use of such techniques and pseudo-sciences as phrenology, physiognomy, astrology,
graphology etc., while coming to hiring decisions. However, in modern times, these
are considered to be unreliable measures.
The following is a popular procedure though it may be modified to suit individual
i) Reception or preliminary interview or screening
ii) Application blank—a fact-finder which helps one in learning about an applicant’s
background and life history;
iii) A well conducted interview to explore the facts and get at the attitudes of the
applicant and his family to the jobs;
iv) A physical examination—health and stamina are vital factors in success;
v) Physiological testing to explore the surface area and get an objective look at a
candidate’s suitability for a job;
vi) A reference check;
Vii) Final selection approval by manager; and communication of the decision to the
RECEPTION, INITIAL OR PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW OR SCREENING
A special interviewer or a high caliber receptionist in the
employment office usually conducts the initial screening. When a large number of
applicants are available, the preliminary interview is desirable both from the
company’s point of view and that of the applicant seeking employment. This
interview is essentially a sorting process in which perspective applicants are given
the necessary information about the nature of the jobs in the organisation. The
necessary information, then, is elicited from the candidates relating to their
education, experience, skill, salary demanded, the reasons for leaving their present
jobs, their job interests and whether they are available for the jobs, their physical
appearance, age, “drive” and facility in speech. If a candidate meets with the
requirements of the organisation, he may be selected for further action. If he does
not fit into the organizational structure (because of lack of requisite qualifications,
physical disability, weak sight, or poor physique), he is eliminated at the
preliminary stage. Such interviews are usually short and may be conducted at a
desk, across a counter or railing and they are known as stand-up interviews. The
main objective of such interviews is to screen out undesirableunqualified
candidates at the very outset. Such interviews should be conducted by someone who
inspires confidence, who is genuinely interested in people, and who judgment in the
“sizing up” of applicants is fairly reliable. Care is taken to ensure that the “weeding
out” process does not lead to the elimination of desirable workers.
Sometimes, applicants are eliminates because of some feature in the
organisation which cannot be adjusted satisfactorily at this stage. Six biographical
items have been suggested as knock-out factors in the preliminary screening
programme for salesmen. They include instability of residence, failure in business
within two years, divorce or separation within two years, excessive personal indebt
ness, too high a standard of living and unexplained gaps in the employment record.
The organization may fit a job to the person who available, as when a girl is
appointed as stenographer, telephone operator, secretary or saleswomen. Or jobs
may be provided for the blind, the firms or other handicapped persons. Working
hours may be so adjusted as to make an intelligent match possible between them.
Since the preliminary interview brings about one of the first personal
contacts of an individual with a company and since it is the stage at which some
candidates must be rejected, it is desirable that the interviewer should be courteous,
kind receptive and informal. Despite the pressure under which he frequently works,
he should avoid appearing brusque or impatient. Further, privacy must be
maintained in holding interviews.
Model Procedure for Effective Personnel Selection
Resume Management system (RMS)
The user of RMS is broadly classified into two main categories.
1) Employer ( within the organization)
2) Candidates (outside the organization)
i) Post Vacancies i) View vacancies
Final selection by
ii) View Vacancies. ii) Apply online &
iii) Vacancy Ordering
iv) View Resume
v) Quick Search
vi) Text Based Search
The employer is again divided into three main categories. The category is said to be
the actors. There are three actors and the role played by them is as follows:
Actors Role Played
Admin (1) Creating, Updating, Deleting Job Opening.
(2) Deleting & updating records of candidates.
(3) Creating, Updating, Deleting login information.
(4) Creating, Updating, Deleting Category.
(5) Creating, Updating, Deleting Evaluation Form.
Team Leaders (1) (1) Search the candidates against the job opening.
(2) Short listing of Candidates.
(3) Send mail to Admin (HR Manager).
(4) View the Job Opening.
Data Entry Operators(5) (1) Creating candidate entry.
Whenever there are certain requirements for the candidates in the organization the
manager of that particular department informs the Admin (HR Manager) about the
vacancies plus the total number of vacant position available.
After getting the information the Admin notes down the Job Requirements and then
posted the data on the net. Since company is also maintaining one data bank that is
used within the organization (for Intranet), the same copy of the Job Opening must
also available on their data bank so that search can be done in the later.
Once the data about Job Opening becomes available online on the company website
then the next role is played by the Candidates. The candidate visits the web site and
clicks on the career link. After clicking the link the system will take the user to the
Job Opening Page i.e the brief listing of all the job opens. This page wouldn’t
display a full description of all the jobs. If the user doesn’t want to see the full detail
of a particular job then he can directly click on the Application Form button or if
he wants to see the detail then clicking on the button (View Job) attached to each
job will show him the individual detail.
Once he moves to Application Form page, he has to enter the necessary details and
uploads the Resume. After uploading the resume and clicking on the Submit button
submits the record in the database. After submission the system sends an e-mail
known as acknowledgement stating the successful submission of the record in the
database, it also sends a password so that user can modify his/her profile later.
Now since the company is also maintaining data bank the record must be added to
their database as well. Once the submission is done the system notifies the Team
Leaders about the arrival of candidate and detail of the job opening with which his
Now go back one step back when the admin has posted the data then he informs the
TL (Team Leaders) that there is a job opening and these are the requirements. After
getting the job requirements the next job of TL is to search the suitable candidates
for the job in the database and then shortlist those candidates who are going through
the selection process. This means from the search result not all candidates are going
through the selection process. Only few are going through the process and that
decision is taken by the TL. Once the candidates are short listed TL informs the
Admin through the mail and sends a list of short listed candidates so that they can
be communicating for the selection process or to inform them.
The short listed candidates are informed through either the mail or through the
phone and give them the date and timing of interview.
Now the next comes the Selection Process. In the Selection Process there are
minimum two stages and maximum three stages.
Stage 1 – First Interview (Taken by the admin only)
In this interview session the candidate is interviewed by the admin and then admin
makes the decision about whether the candidate is selected or rejected. It might
possible that no decision is taken at all and decision is still pending but the
candidate is put forward to the next stage which is the stage 2. The admin may put
certain comments about the candidate which is required while making any
Stage 2 – Second Interview (taken by the Team Leaders)
In this interview session the candidate is interviewed by the Team Leader. This
interview is a kind of review of marks that is scored by the candidate during the first
stage. The TL also put certain comments.
Stage 3- Final Decision
Here in this stage the decision about the candidate is taken by the admin depending
on the previous score secured by the candidate and the comments given by admin as
well as TL.
Remarks- It may possible that candidate doesn’t have to go through all the stages
described above, since the admin can take the decision early about the selection of
the candidate. This implies that the candidate may skip certain stages also.
The decision taken by the admin is final. There are three decisions that are to be
(1) Considered – This means that the candidate is selected for the particular job.
(2) Rejected – this means that the candidate is rejected.
(3) Pending – the decision is still not taken.
(4) None- doesn’t go through any of the stages.
Once the candidate has gone through all the stages, he is informed through the e-
mail or by post about the result.
The very first page contains the Login Page. This Login Page determines the type of
the user and accordingly sends the user to that area. Here in this case we have three
types of user.
(b) Team Leader
(c) Data Entry Operator
1. Name of the company
2. Person interviewed
3. Company’s deal
4. How do you’ll advertise
5. What are the terms and conditions of payment to the company
6. Do you take the interview, select and send them or you just train and send
7. BPO' are booming today and there are so many placement agencies, how do
you cope with the competition?
8. What do you think why are placement agencies needed today
9. What is role of each person in hierarchy
10. How do you’ll conduct training and do you’ll charge for training
ANALYSATION OF INTERVIEW (POWERTALK)
The name of the company is “Power Talk Human Resource”. I interviewed Mr.
Jude (The Vice President)-handles operations. They deal with JP Morgan’s Chase,
Intelenet, Sutherland, ICICI one source, 3G. Their different form of advertising
includes newspapers and pamphlets not only this, they give cold calls as well as
taking the data of the existing employees of one of company and shifting them to
another by offering them better packages as well as other favorable working
conditions and better incentives. The payments are done on commission basis. The
percentage was not disclosed as it was confidential. The agency trains the candidate
for their interviews to the company the candidate wish to join. They personally
approach the companies for the contract, where they give presentations and the most
effective ones’ are selected. The company’s time and efforts are saved since the
appointment of candidates is handled by different placement agencies which in a
way are effective and economical. The telecallers have to call the candidates for
interviews. The team leader above him guides and directs him and then there is an
operation manager who gives the plans and sets the target for team leader and above
him is the Vice President who just monitors the work and approves everything.
Training is absolutely free and it’s done on individual basis as well as in groups.
ANALYSATION OF (K10)
K-10 is the leading HR Solutions, Training, Marketing & Technology
Consulting Company, to offer complete Business Solutions.
K-10 penetrates the world of consulting in the areas of Convergence
Contact Centers, Business Process Outsourcing
[BPO] and Web Technologies.
They are able to achieve this by being a Total Service Provider of e-
Business solutions and Contact Center system integration services
MISSION: To revolutionize the way people interact at the interface of customer
VISION: Train with Kaizer and work with global giants in the Customer Service
VICE PRESIDENT OPERATIONS
HUMAN RESOURCE CONSULTANT
Placement agencies from an organizational and rupee standpoint is a
significant investment in training and infrastructure. The infrastructure needed to
support the placement agency’s environment varies. The evidences strongly suggest
that for large companies the benefits out weighs the cost
Placement agencies itself is anew concept that has been introduced to reduce
time, efforts of the companies in hiring the employees Placement agencies have
been regarded as the most important agencies because unless the right types of
people are hired, even the best plans, organization charts and control system would
not do much good. The recruitment is viewed both as positive and negative activity.
It is process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and
encouraging them to apply for jobs to increase the hiring ratio. Selection on other
hand tends to be negative because it rejects good under of those who apply, leaving
only the best to be hired.
It reduces the administrative cost associated with selection by consolidating
all activity in a single office it relives line offices of the detail involved in hiring
people which is common under a decentralize plan. It tends to make the selection of
Name: Job Opening Form
Description: Job Opening Form is used to enter detailed information on any Job
in principal India
Actor/s: Recruiting Staff
1. System displays the following set of fields:
Under the General Information section
a. Job Title
Under the Job Condition section
g. Trial Period
h. Job Type
i. Working Day
j. Work Schedule
k. Minimum Salary
l. Maximum Salary
m. Over a Time
Under the Job Duties section
n. Job Duties
Under the Job Requirements Section, five rows of
t. Trait Type
u. Trait Name
Under the Requisition section
v. Requisition Number
w. Requisition Date
x. Needed By
ee. Hiring Manger
Under the Information of HR Department section
ff. Responsible Expert
gg. Start Recruitment Date
hh. Finish Recruitment Date
ii. Duration of Recruitment
2. Recruiting Staff fills up the necessary fields.
3. Staff clicks on the Submit button.
4. System validates if mandatory fields are specified.
5. System displays a message stating that record has been added successfu
6. System stores the record in the database
Candidate Application Form
Name: Candidate Application Form
Description: The Application Form is for inputting detailed information on an
Actor/s: Recruiting staff
1. 1. System displays the following set of fields
Under the General Information Section
a. First Name
b. Last Name
c. Middle Name
Under the Contact Information Section
h. ZIP Code
j. Home Phone
k. Work Phone
Under the Source of Applicant Section
m. Source Type
n. Date of Application
Under the Job Expectation Section
o. Job Title
p. Minimum Salary
q. Job Type
r. Period (appears only when temporary is selected in Job
s. Working Day
Under the Education Section, five rows of
w. Distinction, If any
Under the Work Experience Section, five rows of
Applicant Source Form
Name: Applicant Source Form
Description: The Applicant Source Form is for inputting and editing the
main information on an applicant source.
Actor/s: Recruiting Staff
Main Scenario: 1. System displays the following set of fields:
d. ZIP Code
2. Staff fills up the fields (a) to (j)
3. Staff clicks on the ‘Submit’
4. System validates if the mandatory fields are specified
5. System stores the record in the database
Selection Round Form
Name: Selection Round Form
Description: The Selection Round Form is for showing the ways applicants are
evaluated during each selection round.
Actor/s: Recruiting Staff
1. System displays the following set of fields:
a. Round Name
b. Round Type
Under Evaluated Traits, five rows of
Name: Evaluation Form
Description: Each selection round has an Evaluation Form corresponding to it.
It includes the selection round requisites and the results of it
Main Scenario: 1. System displays the following set of fields:
a. Applicant (First Name, Last Name, Middle Name)
b. Job Opening
c. Hiring Manager
e. Advanced Date
f. Approved Date
g. Round Date
Under Evaluated Traits Section, five rows of
After Evaluated Traits Section
Applicant Rejection Form Use Case
Name: Applicant Rejection Form
Description: The Applicant Rejection Form includes general information on an
System Displays the following set of fields:
a. First Name
b. Last name
c. Middle Name
d. Job Title
Applicant Hiring Form
Name: Applicant Hiring Form
Description: The Applicant Hiring Form includes general information on the
conditions of hiring the applicant
Main Scenario: System displays the following set of fields:
a. Hired Date
b. Date of Starting work
c. Trial Period Until
d. First Name
e. Last Name
f. Middle Name
g. Job Title
h. Hiring Manager
=> http://www.powertalk .com
1. Professional practice of placement 1-9
*merits and demerits
3. Methods of Recruitment
4. Perquisite of a good recruitment Policy
*advantages of centralization recruitment
*factors affecting recruitment
5 Theories regarding recruitment 22-24
6 Recruitment policy 25-27
7 Sources of Recruitment
8 Recruitment practice in India 31-33
9 Recruitment practice in India and Elsewhere 34-35
10 Assessment of the recruitment programme 36
11 Selection procedure
12 Selection policy
*essentials of selection procedure
*steps in selection procedure
*reception, initial or preliminary interview
13 Model procedure for effective personnel
14 Resume management system 46-49
*analysation of powertalk
*analysation of k10
16 Annexure 55-61
17 Bibliography 62
I am deeply indebted towards people who have guided me in preparing this
project. I would firstly like to express my gratitude towards my guide prof.Dipti
Soni for having shown so much flexibility, guidance as well as supporting me in all
possible ways whenever I needed help. She has motivated me through out and
helped me to understand the topic in a very effective manner.
I would also like to thank our BMS coordinator Prof.Bhanu Krishnan for an
indirect support throughout.
I am sincerely thankful to Mr. Jade the mangers of PowerTalk for his valuable
time and those out looks through which I would understand various things and
concepts related to this topic
I acknowledge my indebtedness and express my great appreciation to all behind
This project introduces the basics of recruitment methodology, including the frame
work, approaches that have been used by the placement agencies to increase
employer and employee satisfaction
This project on management of placement agencies is a precise
methodology to measure and improve a company’s operational performance by
identifying and eliminating ‘defects’ in the working and service related process. The
Management of Placement agencies are most often associated with the management
concepts. The techniques are also being applied extensively to transactional and
administrative process. Like most change initiative the placement agencies require
unwavering and consistent ownership and leadership by top management. The goal
of most of the companies is to increase customer satisfaction through reduction of
Placement agencies have now evolved as a way to do business for
employee satisfaction and to increase productivity in the work. These agencies have
come up to reduce time, money, manual work, solve many technical problems and
employ most efficient work force.
Human Resource managers can also use Six Sigma for hiring employees
which can reduce the cycle time. Many companies have adopted hiring placement
agencies and have benefited to a great extent.
MANAGEMENT OF PLACEMENT OF PLACEMENT AGENCIES
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
PROF: DIPTI SONI
GHANSHYAMDAS SARAF GIRL’S COLLEGE
S.V. ROAD MALAD (WEST)