Transfection : Introduction of foreign DNA into
eukaryotic cells usually animal cells.
Transfectants: Cells that have incorporated foreign
Stable : Integrated foreign DNA.
Transient: Does not integrate foreign DNA, but genes
are expressed briefly.
Cloning (uptake of genetic material) Cancer
Transformation Transfection Transformation
Advancement of a
cell from being non-
VIRUSES IN USE
Viral Vector DNA Insert
Retro viral 8 kb Stable Random insertion site
Lenti viral 9 kb Stable Random insertion site
Adeno Virus 8 kb Transient Highly immunogenic
5 kb Stable, site
Requires helper virus
and difficult to remove
30-40 kb Transient No gene expression
during latent infection
Vaccina Virus 25 kb Transient Potential cytopathic
Strong immune response
Untargeted integration of genes
Complexity of generating recombinant viruses
Limited packaging capabilities
In vivo DNA delivery
VIRUS LIKE PARTICLES(VLP)
Alternative approach to classical methods
Viral capsid- without viral genetic information.
Eg: Pappilloma viruses: L1 and L2 proteins
Predominantly use – vaccination
Gene delivery – human polymo JC virus, murine
polymovirus, pappilomaviruses and AAV- based VLPs.
stored at -80 0C
DNA or siRNA
inside empty viral
SINGLE WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES –
Unidimensional layer of carbon-hexagons form a
Functionalized- amino or carboxyl group
Covalent or non-covalent bond with biomolecules.
Diameter: 1-5nm; Length: 50-200nm
Success: In vivo siRNA delivery.
Chemical methods : system needs to be adapted to
the cargo to be delivered.
No separate genetic protocols for siRNA and
plasmid DNA delivery.
Physical methods : cytotoxicity, cellular uptake
What is needed?
Specific tailor-made DNA and siRNA delivery systems
Nucleic acid-based therapeutics : individualized medicines for
specific disease variation.