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  1. 1. Lecture TwoCommunications theory and marketing University of Glamorgan 1
  2. 2. Communications theory A definition of ‘communications’ transmitting giving or exchange of information a means of communicating the science of transmitting information University of Glamorgan 2
  3. 3. Communications theory Communications is not a one-way flow of information it only occurs when a receiver actually receives the message that the sender intended to send message rejection, misinterpretation and misunderstanding are the opposite of effective communication University of Glamorgan 3
  4. 4. Communications theory Good communication = good business helps an organization to thrive focused and cost effective Poor communications = bad business can cost market share, jobs and survival can damage reputation and image University of Glamorgan 4
  5. 5. University of Glamorgan 5
  6. 6. The Two-step communication model (Katz & Lazerfeld, 1955) Receivers Receivers Opinion Media Media Leaders Receivers Receivers Receivers Receivers Opinion Formers Receivers Receivers Receivers ReceiversSender or Messages Sender or Messages Source Source Receivers Receivers Receivers Receivers Opinion Formers Receivers Receivers Receivers Receivers Opinion Leaders Receivers Receivers 6
  7. 7. The mechanics of themarketing communications process Sender’s Frame of Reference Sender Sender Requirements RequirementsSender or Encoded Decoded Receivers Sender or Media Receivers Source Source Message Media Message Receiver Receiver’s Receiver Requirements Frame of Requirements Reference Distortion Noise Distortion Feedback Feedback 7
  8. 8. Communications theory Multi-step communication model: proposes that the communication process involves interaction between all potential consumers Web communications models: online communications allows customers to firstly talk to one another (C2C), and secondly, back to the company (C2B). The flow of communications becomes similar to a spider’s web whereby all parties are joined together through the process of communication University of Glamorgan 8
  9. 9. Communications theory Linear communication model assumes: sender is active receiver is inactive or passive message is comprehended University of Glamorgan 9
  10. 10. Communications theory Typical models assume communications process to involve encoding, transmitting and decoding a message through some medium. The decoding and reception of the message may be affected by various types of ‘noise’ or clutter The response (feedback) influences future communications University of Glamorgan 10
  11. 11. The mechanics of the marketing communications process Post -Purchase Post -Purchase Purchase Purchase Reinforcement Reinforcement Action Adoption Action Adoption Conviction Purchase Conviction Purchase Trial Trial Trial Preference Trial Preference Desire Evaluation of Desire Evaluation of Alternatives Alternatives Liking Liking Evaluation Evaluation Information Search Information Search Knowledge Knowledge Interest Interest Interest Interest Awareness Awareness Problem Awareness Problem Awareness Recognition Recognition Attention Ignorance Attention Ignorance Ehrenberg and Engel, BlackwellRogers (1962) Goodhardt Blythe and Miniard Strong (1925) (2000) 11
  12. 12. Communications theory  Word of mouth (W-O-M) W-O-M is the most powerful of all communication tools - particularly in it’s negative form Customers use W-O-M recommendations to provide information and to support and reinforce their purchasing decisions University of Glamorgan 12
  13. 13. Sources of communication by typeLeast credible Most credible ABSENCE of COMMUNICATIONPLANNED PRODUCT SERVICE UNPLANNEDMESSAGES MESSAGES MESSAGES MESSAGESMass Appearance Interaction with Word of MouthCommunications service processes referrals No information orBrochures Design Deliveries References feedback when anDirect Response Usefulness Invoicing News stories unexpected delay orSales Product Ingredients Claims handling GossipWebsites Eco-content of After Sales Service Unreported service failure has product complaints occurred, or in any situation when the customer feels he is out of control of the situation. Source: Duncan, T. and Moriarty, S. (1997) 13
  14. 14. Semiotics The scientific discipline of studying the meanings associated with signs, symbols and brands Every message comprises: object (= product) sign (= advert content) interpretant (= meaning) University of Glamorgan 14
  15. 15. Semiotics An icon resembles the object (product) in some way (e.g. Apple computers) An index is a sign that is connected to an object (product) because they share some property e.g. pine tree on cleaning product indicates it shares the property of fresh, natural scent A symbol is a sign that is related to an object (product) through association - e.g. Mercedes star associated with Mercedes-Benz company and German industrial quality University of Glamorgan 15