Porous Pavement in Cold Climates Part 2

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Porous Pavement in Cold Climates Part 2: Costs and Performance. Robert Roseen and Thomas Ballestero, UNH Stormwater Center (presented March 17, 2011)

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Porous Pavement in Cold Climates Part 2

  1. 1. Porous Pavement in Cold ClimatesPorous Pavement in Cold Climates Part: Performance and CostPart: Performance and Cost Onondaga Environmental InstituteOnondaga Environmental Institute 17 March 201117 March 2011 Thomas Ballestero, PhD, PE, PH, CGWP, PG,Thomas Ballestero, PhD, PE, PH, CGWP, PG, Robert Roseen, PE, PhD, D.WRE,Robert Roseen, PE, PhD, D.WRE, James Houle, CPSWQJames Houle, CPSWQ University of New Hampshire Stormwater CenterUniversity of New Hampshire Stormwater Center Department of Civil Engineering, University of New HampshireDepartment of Civil Engineering, University of New Hampshire
  2. 2. OverviewOverview 1.1. Hydrology of Permeable PavementsHydrology of Permeable Pavements 2.2. Water Quality PerformanceWater Quality Performance 3.3. Hydraulic PerformanceHydraulic Performance 4.4. Cold Climate FunctionalityCold Climate Functionality 5.5. Normal MaintenanceNormal Maintenance 6.6. Winter MaintenanceWinter Maintenance 22
  3. 3. State of the PracticeState of the Practice Water quality performance is strong toWater quality performance is strong to excellent depending on designexcellent depending on design Hydraulic performance is excellentHydraulic performance is excellent Cold climate performance is strongCold climate performance is strong Winter maintenance has tremendousWinter maintenance has tremendous potential for salt reductionpotential for salt reduction 33
  4. 4. Concerns On PerformanceConcerns On Performance Little removal of nitrogenLittle removal of nitrogen No removal of many common ionic formsNo removal of many common ionic forms However, a large number of installationsHowever, a large number of installations STILL continue to be subSTILL continue to be sub--standardstandard 44
  5. 5. Porous Pavement Design OverviewPorous Pavement Design Overview  Porous pavements for new andPorous pavements for new and redevelopment are a watershedredevelopment are a watershed-- based strategy that can bothbased strategy that can both mitigate impacts for newmitigate impacts for new development and reverse impactsdevelopment and reverse impacts in areas with redevelopment.in areas with redevelopment.  Porous pavement (PP) systemsPorous pavement (PP) systems combine stormwater infiltration,combine stormwater infiltration, storage, and structural pavementstorage, and structural pavement in a single system.in a single system.  PP are a layer cake system, withPP are a layer cake system, with each layer possessing structuraleach layer possessing structural or water quality purposes.or water quality purposes. 55
  6. 6. 66 Porous Asphalt Path, Grey Towers National Historic Site, PA (Source: CH2M HILL) Porous Asphalt Commercial Parking Lot, Greenland Meadows, Greenland, NH (Source: UNHSC) Porous Asphalt Section of State Highway, South Portland, ME (Source: ME DOT) Porous Asphalt Basketball Court, Upper Darby, PA (Source: CH2M HILL) Porous Asphalt Residential Lane, Pelham, NH (Source: UNHSC) Parking Lot with Standard Aisle and Porous Asphalt Stalls, Morris Arboretum, Philadelphia, PA (Source: CH2M HILL)
  7. 7. Typical Porous Pavement SystemTypical Porous Pavement System SectionsSections 77 Typical Section for Storage and Infiltration
  8. 8. Typical Porous PavementTypical Porous Pavement System SectionsSystem Sections 88 Choker Course: 4”-8” (10 – 20 cm) minimum Pervious pavement: 4-6” (10 - 15 cm) of porous asphalt Filter Course: 8” - 12” (20 - 30 cm) minimum thickness of subbase (aka. bank run gravel or modified 304.1) Native materials Filter Blanket: intermediate setting bed: 3” (8 cm) thickness of 3 /8” (1 cm) pea gravel Reservoir Course: 4” (10 cm) minimum thickness of 3 /4” (2 cm) crushed stone for frost protection, 4-6” (10-15 cm) diameter perforated subdrains with 2” cover Optional-Liner for land uses where infiltration is undesirable (e.g., hazardous materials handling, sole-source aquifer protection) Section with Filter Course for Water Quality
  9. 9. Water QualityWater Quality Performance ResultsPerformance Results
  10. 10. 1010 Porous Pavements and Pond WaterPorous Pavements and Pond Water QualityQuality 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 %RemovalEfficiency TSS TPH-D Zn DIN TP Porous Asphalt Pervious Concrete Retention Pond ‘
  11. 11. TSS Removal PerformanceTSS Removal Performance
  12. 12. 1212
  13. 13. 1313
  14. 14. 1414
  15. 15. 1515
  16. 16. HydrologicHydrologic Performance ResultsPerformance Results
  17. 17. 1717 Hydrologic Performance ofHydrologic Performance of Porous PavementsPorous Pavements Pervious Concrete (HSGPervious Concrete (HSG--B)B)Porous Asphalt (HSGPorous Asphalt (HSG--C)C)
  18. 18. 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 Time (min) Flow(gpm) 0 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15 5-MinPrecip(in) D-Box Flow Effluent Flow Precip 0.6 in depth 1818 Flow AttenuationFlow Attenuation 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 Time (min) Flow(gpm) 0 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15 5-MinPrecip(in) D-Box Flow Effluent Flow Precip 2.96 in depth
  19. 19. 1919 Lag Time (kLag Time (kLL)) Peak Reduction (kPeak Reduction (kPP)) 55 22 11 0.50.5 0.10.1 Hydraulic PerformanceHydraulic Performance 3/23/20113/23/2011
  20. 20. Curve NumberCurve Number 2020
  21. 21. 2121
  22. 22. RESULTSRESULTSRESULTS 2222 Method 1 Q-P Method 3 Q p Method 3 Q p Tbase Tpeak Tcentroid NRCS Folmar 88 7 1 1 1 28 90 1 1 1 1 5 10 15 2 2 2 37 Method 2 Lag Mean Median Standar Deviation
  23. 23. 2323 Porous Asphalt Surface Infiltration RatesPorous Asphalt Surface Infiltration Rates  Low maintenance sensitivity due to excess infiltration capacityLow maintenance sensitivity due to excess infiltration capacity  Clogged areas can drain to adjacent unclogged areasClogged areas can drain to adjacent unclogged areas Even with 99% clogging the IR=10 in/hr > most sands & soils  Worst case scenario, no maintenanceWorst case scenario, no maintenance performed forperformed for 3 yrs3 yrs  Certain areas have reduced IC (drive lanes) while parking areasCertain areas have reduced IC (drive lanes) while parking areas remain unchangedremain unchanged
  24. 24. New England SitesNew England Sites 2424
  25. 25. Infiltration Capacity by AgeInfiltration Capacity by Age 315 7,045 4,013 2,598 2,905 54 2,354 140 4,365 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 URI- PA-02 UNH- PA-04 URI- PA-04 Grswld- PC-05 Frpt- PA-06 Sski- PA-06 SlvrLk- PA-06 StoYo- PA-06 UNH- PC-07 ICviaSItest(cm/hr) 2525
  26. 26. How Do They Really Work?How Do They Really Work? 43 in rainfall event in 3 minutes!43 in rainfall event in 3 minutes!
  27. 27. Cold ClimateCold Climate Performance ResultsPerformance Results
  28. 28. 2828 Frost PenetrationFrost Penetration Can be related to pavement failureCan be related to pavement failure Measured with aMeasured with a ‘‘fieldfield--assembledassembled’’ frost gaugefrost gauge (Ricard et al., 1976)(Ricard et al., 1976) Show relationships betweenShow relationships between pavements and soilspavements and soils
  29. 29. 2929 Porous Asphalt Frost PenetrationPorous Asphalt Frost Penetration
  30. 30. 3030 Seasonal Performance EfficienciesSeasonal Performance Efficiencies 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% TSS TPH-D DIN Zn TP Retention Pond Summer Winter Annual
  31. 31. 3131 Winter Maintenance &Winter Maintenance & Salt ReductionSalt Reduction
  32. 32. Where should reductions occur?Where should reductions occur? Sources of Salt Loading From Vehicular Surface Deicing (Rockingham County, NH) (NHDES 2007) 50% 3% 27% 9% 11% Parking Lots Private Roads Municipal Roads State Roads Other
  33. 33. 3333 PA Study Area OrientationPA Study Area Orientation
  34. 34. 3434 Measuring Skid Resistance w/ BPTMeasuring Skid Resistance w/ BPT ASTM STANDARD E303‐93
  35. 35. 3535 Lots oneLots one--hour after plowing,hour after plowing, --4*C (11AM on 2/3/07)4*C (11AM on 2/3/07) PA/DMA Snow & Ice CoverPA/DMA Snow & Ice Cover PAPA DMADMA
  36. 36. 3636 Conditions after thawing and subsequent refreezing (9AM on 3/18/Conditions after thawing and subsequent refreezing (9AM on 3/18/07)07)  No black ice formation on PANo black ice formation on PA PA/DMA Snow & Ice CoverPA/DMA Snow & Ice Cover PAPA DMADMA
  37. 37. 3737 PC Snow & Ice CoverPC Snow & Ice Cover Conditions after thawing and subsequent refreezing (1PM on 2/16/Conditions after thawing and subsequent refreezing (1PM on 2/16/08)08)  No black ice formation on PCNo black ice formation on PC PCPC Stnd. Asphalt Ref. LotStnd. Asphalt Ref. Lot
  38. 38. 3838  Shading contributes to amount of cover on PCShading contributes to amount of cover on PC PC Snow & Ice CoverPC Snow & Ice Cover PC in sunPC in sun PC in partialPC in partial sunsunPC in shadePC in shade
  39. 39. Weighted Skid Resistance (BPN) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 100 50 25 0 %Salt Application SkidResistance(BPN) Dense Mix Asphalt Porous Asphalt 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 100 50 25 0 %IceCover % Salt Application % Ice Cover Dense Mix Asphalt Porous Asphalt Weighted Skid Resistance (BPN) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 100 50 25 0 %Salt Application SkidResistance(BPN) Dense Mix Asphalt Porous Asphalt PA after spring rain on snow eventPA after spring rain on snow event DMA after spring rain on snow eventDMA after spring rain on snow event
  40. 40. Effective Salt ReductionsEffective Salt Reductions PavementPavement TypeType 20062006--20072007 20072007--20082008 Reductions PossibleReductions Possible when compared towhen compared to DMA withDMA with 100% App. Rate100% App. Rate AntiAnti-- IcingIcing Apps.Apps. DeicingDeicing Apps.Apps. AntiAnti-- IcingIcing Apps.Apps. DeicingDeicing Apps.Apps. App.App. RateRate AverageAverage MassMass Reduction*Reduction* ((’’0606--’’08)08) DMADMA 1515 1414 2323 2222 100%100% 0%0% PAPA 1515 66 2323 2727 25%25% 75%75% PCPC -- shadeshade -- -- 2323 3131 100%100% --20%20% PCPC -- sunsun -- -- 2323 2323 100%100% --2%2% ** Reduction possible with no loss in skid resistance (safety)Reduction possible with no loss in skid resistance (safety)
  41. 41. Winter Maintenance GuidanceWinter Maintenance Guidance  Salt reduction potential will be site specific and varySalt reduction potential will be site specific and vary depending on shading and climate.depending on shading and climate.  Plow after every storm.Plow after every storm.  Apply antiApply anti--icing treatments prior to storms. Antiicing treatments prior to storms. Anti--icingicing has the potential to provide the benefit of increasedhas the potential to provide the benefit of increased traffic safety at the lowest cost and with lesstraffic safety at the lowest cost and with less environmental impact.environmental impact.  Deicing is NOT required for black ice development.Deicing is NOT required for black ice development.  Apply deicing treatments during, and after storms asApply deicing treatments during, and after storms as necessary to control compact snow and ice notnecessary to control compact snow and ice not removed by plowing. Excess may be required.removed by plowing. Excess may be required. 4141
  42. 42. Winter Maintenance GuidanceWinter Maintenance Guidance  Mixed precipitation and compact snow or ice isMixed precipitation and compact snow or ice is particularly problematic for porous surfaces. This isparticularly problematic for porous surfaces. This is prevented by appropriate plowing and corrected byprevented by appropriate plowing and corrected by application of excess deicing chemicals.application of excess deicing chemicals.  In certain instances of compact snow and ice,In certain instances of compact snow and ice, excess salt may be required, however loading isexcess salt may be required, however loading is offset by the overall reduced salt during routineoffset by the overall reduced salt during routine winter maintenance and salt reduction.winter maintenance and salt reduction.  With good sun exposure some porous asphaltWith good sun exposure some porous asphalt installations will require no deicing.installations will require no deicing.  Porous asphalt provides exceptional treatment forPorous asphalt provides exceptional treatment for rain on snow events which commonly result inrain on snow events which commonly result in dangerous refreezingdangerous refreezing 4242
  43. 43. Future Research NeededFuture Research Needed Additional research is needed to examineAdditional research is needed to examine salting loading at high loading ratessalting loading at high loading rates common to commercial applicationscommon to commercial applications MN Recommended application rates ofMN Recommended application rates of 3lbs per 1000 square feet appear to be3lbs per 1000 square feet appear to be exceptionally low in comparison toexceptionally low in comparison to commercial rates.commercial rates. Salt substitutes: water, viscous brineSalt substitutes: water, viscous brine 4343
  44. 44. 4444 Post Construction O&MPost Construction O&M Curing time needs are site specific but there should be at least 24-48 hrs of curing. Common sense clause may lead to lower threshold for small jobs with lighter loading such as when pavement surface is less than 100 F (one- time measurement). Problems occur when the surface temperature is greater than 120 F.
  45. 45. Cost of Porous MaterialsCost of Porous Materials 4545
  46. 46. 4646 Cost InformationCost Information  ~10-20% more for materials  2009, DMA $75-100/ton, PA $89-125/ton placed by machine for parking and residential road and driveways  Complicated jobs with handwork are more expensive  DMA $2.25/sf, PA $2.80/sf, not including subbase  Costs offset by lack of stormwater infrastructure  Cost break even is achieved when designing for quantity management ~Q10-Q25
  47. 47. MaintenanceMaintenance 4747
  48. 48. PrePre--Tx Extent of Debris/CloggingTx Extent of Debris/Clogging Infiltration capacity via the PreInfiltration capacity via the Pre--Tx DRI test varied from 0 to 53Tx DRI test varied from 0 to 53 cm/hr, all effectively clogged when slope is considered.cm/hr, all effectively clogged when slope is considered. 4848
  49. 49. PrePre--TxTx Infiltration atInfiltration at Grid LocationsGrid Locations 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 D E J G Q H A I F V S N K M W P L U R O B T C Test Location ICviaSITest(cm/hr) 4949
  50. 50. Treatment Effectiveness for CloggedTreatment Effectiveness for Clogged LocationsLocations 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 PW & Vac Soap, PW, & Vac Cleaning Treatment MeanIC(cm/hr) Pre-Tx IC Post-Tx IC 5050
  51. 51. Pervious Concrete SpallingPervious Concrete Spalling 5151
  52. 52. 5252
  53. 53. 5353
  54. 54. 5454
  55. 55. 5555
  56. 56. 5656
  57. 57. 5757
  58. 58. 5858
  59. 59. Boulder Hills, Pelham, NHBoulder Hills, Pelham, NH  2009 Installation of 9002009 Installation of 900’’ ofof first PA private residentialfirst PA private residential road in Northeastroad in Northeast  Site will be nearly ZeroSite will be nearly Zero dischargedischarge  LID subdivision 55+ ActiveLID subdivision 55+ Active Adult CommunityAdult Community  Large sand depositLarge sand deposit  Cost 25% greater per tonCost 25% greater per ton installedinstalled 3/23/20113/23/2011 5959
  60. 60. But there is moreBut there is more…… Salted twice, then never again (less salt to receivingSalted twice, then never again (less salt to receiving stream)stream)  Better traction than standard DMABetter traction than standard DMA  Fire fighting storage from rooftop captureFire fighting storage from rooftop capture  No concern about mosquitoes in the pondsNo concern about mosquitoes in the ponds  Very little site runoff (pollutant load to stream veryVery little site runoff (pollutant load to stream very small, no thermal pollution)small, no thermal pollution)  Receiving stream geomorphic equilibrium not taxedReceiving stream geomorphic equilibrium not taxed  The project sold 2 units in 2009, and 11 units sinceThe project sold 2 units in 2009, and 11 units since January 2010January 2010……much easier to sell GREENmuch easier to sell GREEN 6060
  61. 61. Questions?Questions?

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