Biomass based bio-energy program inBiomass based bio-energy program in
MadagascarMadagascar
Mainstreaming bio ethanol ener...
Presentation overviewPresentation overview
 Background
 Key concept of the project
◦ Links to poverty and natural resour...
BackgroundBackground
 Madagascar is one of the poorest countries worldwide,
 Madagascar is one of the Hotspot countries ...
The key concept which drives the project
Links to poverty and natural resources use
Poverty rate
NR Exploitation
How to reverse the trend for the benefit of theHow to reverse the trend for the benefit of the
growth?growth?
The followin...
Overall constraintsOverall constraints
Speed of degradation,
Cost of recovery,
Time to substitute the expected loss is
...
Institutional frameworkInstitutional framework
• Sectoral Policies exist
• Administration capacity weak
• Coordination amo...
Some Key baselinesSome Key baselines
Vulnerability of coral reefs
Sources : BD500/FTM
Edition : UCDD / DIE / ONE - Février 2005
CARTE DES RECIFS
Récifs
#Y
#Y
#...
Vulnerability of mangrove areas
CARTE DES MANGROVES
Source : BD500/FTM - IEFN/DGEF 1996
Edition : UCDD / DIE / ONE - Févri...
Vegetation fire MAP
Edition: UCDD/DIE/ONE, Novembre 2004
Source: DGEF, BD 500 FTM, USGS, PACT Madagascar, Novembre 2004
CO...
Vulnerability of soilsVulnerability of soils::
--70% of territory is
made up of relief
-200 T/ha/year is the
average erosi...
Socioeconomic Vulnerability
74 - 100
54 - 73
35 - 53
17 - 34
0 - 16
Indice de pauvreté
Edition: UCDD/DIE/ONE, Mars 2005
So...
Modelling Climate Change Impacts in Volta Basin 25Modelling Climate Change Impacts in Volta Basin 25thth
April, 2007April,...
Energy Source: 80% from woodEnergy Source: 80% from wood
Fuel wood
Other sources
Energy Consumption: 95% of population useEnergy Consumption: 95% of population use
wood as cooking fuelwood as cooking fue...
Proposed solution: substitution of biomass sourceProposed solution: substitution of biomass source
with sugar canewith sug...
Sugar cane commodities chartSugar cane commodities chart
It is a market based program with:
◦ 1 million ha plantation to ...
Bio ethanol
program
Household cooking
fuel/ stove
Fuel ethanol
Generation of
electricity from
biomass
S&M éthanol
processi...
Ethanol cooking stove modelsEthanol cooking stove models
Three models of ethanol cooking stoves
have been tested and poten...
Where we stand? Per componentWhere we stand? Per component
Component 1: Clean cooking fuel aiming at
reducing the use of ...
ExpectedExpected Impact on Forest managementImpact on Forest management
Illegal
logging
Number
of stoves
With respect to g...
ExpectedExpected Impact on Protected AreaImpact on Protected Area
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Case without
ethanolstove
P...
ExpectedExpected Impact onImpact on
biomass energy savingbiomass energy saving
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Case without
e...
Impact on household healthImpact on household health
People
affected by
pulmonary
infection
Number
of stoves
The developme...
Impact on job creationImpact on job creation
Number of stoves
Number of job created
It is expected that the entire value c...
Impact on new state fiscal itemImpact on new state fiscal item
Number of stoves
Rate of fiscal collection
The State at dif...
Scale up approach to poverty reductionScale up approach to poverty reduction
Some activities generated by the entire valu...
Poverty reduction simulation WB/Min of Economy andPoverty reduction simulation WB/Min of Economy and
PlanningPlanning
(WB ...
ConclusionsConclusions
Important investment is not necessarily required to
reverse the degradation trend of natural resou...
Thank you
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Presentation tedx final

1,189 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,189
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
85
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
17
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Presentation tedx final

  1. 1. Biomass based bio-energy program inBiomass based bio-energy program in MadagascarMadagascar Mainstreaming bio ethanol energy generation into environment and other sectors Bienvenu RAJAONSON Senior Environmental Specialist WORLD BANK November 27 , 2010
  2. 2. Presentation overviewPresentation overview  Background  Key concept of the project ◦ Links to poverty and natural resources  Overall constraints  Institutional framework  Key baselines  Biomass program (ethanol) ◦ Components ◦ Value chain analysis  Where we stand? Per component  Projections, environmental and poverty reduction expected impacts  Conclusions
  3. 3. BackgroundBackground  Madagascar is one of the poorest countries worldwide,  Madagascar is one of the Hotspot countries in terms of biodiversity  Madagascar is one of the most exposed countries worldwide in terms of natural disaster  These issues pose problems for economic stability.  We started this bio ethanol program in 2001
  4. 4. The key concept which drives the project Links to poverty and natural resources use Poverty rate NR Exploitation
  5. 5. How to reverse the trend for the benefit of theHow to reverse the trend for the benefit of the growth?growth? The following three models are appropriate Model 1: development for conservation Model 2: Conservation for development Model 3: Merging the two BECAUSE Prevention measures are more important than cure approach
  6. 6. Overall constraintsOverall constraints Speed of degradation, Cost of recovery, Time to substitute the expected loss is challenging as change of social patterns has to be considered and takes time, Institutional framework often doesn’t exist and Scale up is a big challenge
  7. 7. Institutional frameworkInstitutional framework • Sectoral Policies exist • Administration capacity weak • Coordination among project not enough • Decentralization of NR management is not fully effective • Legislation exist but law enforcement is lacking • Natural resources governance weak
  8. 8. Some Key baselinesSome Key baselines
  9. 9. Vulnerability of coral reefs Sources : BD500/FTM Edition : UCDD / DIE / ONE - Février 2005 CARTE DES RECIFS Récifs #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y TOLIARA MAHAJANGA TOAMASINA ANTSIRANANA FIANARANTSOA ANTANANARIVO N EW S Limite de la Province #Y Chef Lieu de Faritany 100 0 100 Kilomètres •Over 2000 km reefs for 5,000 km coasts •Pressures: anthropic activity ( fishery; taking materials; sedimentation ); •Absence of functional cartography •A monitoring program for reefs is in place ( regional context) I. Context
  10. 10. Vulnerability of mangrove areas CARTE DES MANGROVES Source : BD500/FTM - IEFN/DGEF 1996 Edition : UCDD / DIE / ONE - Février 2005 Mangroves 100 0 100 Kilometers LEGENDE N EW S #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y TOLIARA MAHAJANGA TOAMASINA ANTSIRANANA FIANARANTSOA ANTANANARIVO Limite de la Province #Y Chef lieu de Faritany I. Context •Current total area : 404,000 ha ( CI. 2001) •Degradation is 6% per year •Pressures are due to wood exploitation and to concentrated activities : salt production; aquaculture; tourism…
  11. 11. Vegetation fire MAP Edition: UCDD/DIE/ONE, Novembre 2004 Source: DGEF, BD 500 FTM, USGS, PACT Madagascar, Novembre 2004 COEFFICIENT D'ACTIVITES DE FEUX DE NUIT MADAGASCAR 2003 CAFN 2003 Faible Moyen Important #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y Antsiranana Mahajanga Antsohihy Sambava Maevatanana Maintirano Ambatondrazaka Fenoarivo Atsinanana Toamasina Morondava Tsiroanomandidy Miarinarivo Antananarivo Ihosy Fianarantsoa Ambovombe Tolagnaro (Fort-Dauphin) Toliara Farafangana Manakara Ambositra Antsirabe 100 0 100 200 Kilometres N EW S Limite des régions #Y Chef lieu de région The country is devastated by fires, at least one third per year ( 1/3);
  12. 12. Vulnerability of soilsVulnerability of soils:: --70% of territory is made up of relief -200 T/ha/year is the average erosion rate - Degradation costs about US$ 150 to 300 million (WB review 1988 ).). I. Context
  13. 13. Socioeconomic Vulnerability 74 - 100 54 - 73 35 - 53 17 - 34 0 - 16 Indice de pauvreté Edition: UCDD/DIE/ONE, Mars 2005 Source: Enquête Ilo 2001, BD 500 FTM, INDICE DE PAUVRETE MADAGASCAR 2001 #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y Antsiranana Mahajanga Antsohihy Sambava Maevatanana Maintirano Ambatondrazaka Fenoarivo Atsinanana Toamasina Morondava Tsiroanomandidy Miarinarivo Antananarivo Ihosy Fianarantsoa Ambovombe Tolagnaro (Fort-Dauphin) Toliara Farafangana Manakara Ambositra Antsirabe N EW S 100 0 100 200 Kilometres Limite des régions #Y Chef lieu de région •Poverty affects 74% of population with a daily income of $ 0,42 ( 2001) •MAP objective is to reduce poverty rate by 50% in 2015 •CAS recommends promoting policies favorable to income increase among poor people in the concentration sector, which will also express in GDP increase ( Pro-poor Policy )
  14. 14. Modelling Climate Change Impacts in Volta Basin 25Modelling Climate Change Impacts in Volta Basin 25thth April, 2007April, 2007Direction Générale de la Météorologie Tendance des Températures MAX à Madagascar 26,5 27,0 27,5 28,0 28,5 29,0 29,5 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 00 05 Année Températures(°C)  Temperature increases to 0.5 degree in 22 meteorological stations out of 27 over 40 years Climate ChangeClimate Change
  15. 15. Energy Source: 80% from woodEnergy Source: 80% from wood Fuel wood Other sources
  16. 16. Energy Consumption: 95% of population useEnergy Consumption: 95% of population use wood as cooking fuelwood as cooking fuel Fuel wood or mixed Gas-electricity
  17. 17. Proposed solution: substitution of biomass sourceProposed solution: substitution of biomass source with sugar canewith sugar cane Existing plantation, related to cultural tradition Easy to grow, fast growing and alcohol processing is existing nationwide Space to grow exist and forest areas to conserve are critical Resistant to cyclone
  18. 18. Sugar cane commodities chartSugar cane commodities chart It is a market based program with: ◦ 1 million ha plantation to be developed with landscape consideration ◦ 1 billion liters p.a. of cooking ethanol ◦ Plus carbon offset market ◦ And biomass waste conversion activities
  19. 19. Bio ethanol program Household cooking fuel/ stove Fuel ethanol Generation of electricity from biomass S&M éthanol processing plant unit : $20- $5,000 Industrial Unit Sugar cane juice Any local alcohol processed Bagasse Molasses from processing Rough sugar cane Large scale sugar cane plantation
  20. 20. Ethanol cooking stove modelsEthanol cooking stove models Three models of ethanol cooking stoves have been tested and potentially available for manufacturing and promotion to local consumers These models are innovative as using a range of ethanol going from 50% to 90% of alcohol
  21. 21. Where we stand? Per componentWhere we stand? Per component Component 1: Clean cooking fuel aiming at reducing the use of fuel wood and kerosene: studies and testing are completed and implementation of the programme has started such as manufacturing of stoves and setting up of micro distilleries. Component 2: reducing the use of fossil gasoline: the first ethanol plant has started its construction Component 3: contributing to electricity generation from biomass: new technologies and implementation plan have been completed
  22. 22. ExpectedExpected Impact on Forest managementImpact on Forest management Illegal logging Number of stoves With respect to greenhouse gas emissions over a period of 15 years the ethanol program will allow to avoid greenhouse gas emissions of 7.5 million tons CO2 equivalent which is more than US$ 27.5 millions based on a market price of US$ 3.5/t of CO2. (WB study 2010 for 240 000 households)
  23. 23. ExpectedExpected Impact on Protected AreaImpact on Protected Area 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Case without ethanolstove Projected case with ethanol stove case 1 case 2 Pressure rate Number of stoves If 10% of the urban households are using ethanol stoves this would allow substituting a total natural forest area of about 187,424 Ha (over a period of 15 years). (WB study 2010 for 240 000 households)
  24. 24. ExpectedExpected Impact onImpact on biomass energy savingbiomass energy saving 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Case without ethanolstove Projected case with ethanol stove case 1 case 2 Use of fuel wood Number of stoves If 10% of the urban households are using ethanol stoves this would allow substituting a total charcoal consumption of about 892,139 tons (over a period of 15 years). (WB study 2010 for 240 000 households)
  25. 25. Impact on household healthImpact on household health People affected by pulmonary infection Number of stoves The development of an ethanol program on 10% of the urban households using ethanol stoves will avoid costs of reduced working capacity and savings on health expenses for about 12 million US$, whereas the introduction of improved charcoal stoves will save approximately 9 million US$. (WB study 2010 for 240 000 households)
  26. 26. Impact on job creationImpact on job creation Number of stoves Number of job created It is expected that the entire value chain will create more than 3 millions jobs within 4 years of implementation mostly in rural area. (WB study 2005)
  27. 27. Impact on new state fiscal itemImpact on new state fiscal item Number of stoves Rate of fiscal collection The State at different level will benefit from this initiative for about 10% of fiscal revenue within the entire value chain .
  28. 28. Scale up approach to poverty reductionScale up approach to poverty reduction Some activities generated by the entire value chain:  Raw material cultivation?  Processing ethanol?  Packing finished product?  Collecting ?  Transporting?  Whole selling?  Retailing activities to consumers?  Supply of equipment and various materials?...  Set up engineering Simulation impact by 2015 (MDG)
  29. 29. Poverty reduction simulation WB/Min of Economy andPoverty reduction simulation WB/Min of Economy and PlanningPlanning (WB toolkit database reference 2008)(WB toolkit database reference 2008)  Base case without the project 2014 Poverty rate is reduced from 70% to 62% •With the project 2015 MDG Poverty rate is reduced from 70% to 40%
  30. 30. ConclusionsConclusions Important investment is not necessarily required to reverse the degradation trend of natural resources Full participation of the majority of the population in poverty reduction activities would significantly slow down pressure on PAs and common public goods. Scaling up such activities impacts on wealth creation and thus economical growth and would contribute to reach MDG’s goals for the country.
  31. 31. Thank you

×