Managing the Watershed- Reducing Nutrients in  Stormwater Runoff         Buzzards Bay Coalition    Decision-Makers Worksho...
Today’s Agenda • The basics of   stormwater and   watershed   management • The evolution of stormwater management   toward...
Stormwater/Watershed basicsWatershed Hydrology                                        What is a                           ...
Watershed Boundaries        Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Cape Cod Watersheds              Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Stormwater/Watershed basics               Urbanization results in              increased surface runoff  BEFORE           ...
Components of Impervious Cover in the Urban Landscape                                  Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Stormwater/Watershed basics               At ~10% impervious we               begin to see:               •Water quality i...
Stormwater/Watershed basics           8-10%  < 5%     % impervious          20%         > 65%     30%                     ...
Stormwater Evolution LID/GICommunity Planning                            Large Conventional                               ...
Stormwater Evolution LID/GITraditional controls             LID/GI controls• Goal: Get the water out     • Goal: Reduce th...
Stormwater basics                  Runoff Hydrograph                            Post-development                          ...
Low Impact Development (LID)                     Traditional                       LID/GI       Site DesignBMPs           ...
LID/GI Practice Library: Bioretention                        Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
LID/GI Practice Library: Bioretention                        Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
LID/GI Practice Library: Rain gardens                        Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
LID/GI Practice Library: Porous       Pavement/pavers                     Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
LID/GI Practice Library: Infiltration                        Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
LID/GI Practice Library: Green/blue               roofs                       Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
LID/GI Practice Library: Swales                     Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
LID/GI Practice Library: Sand Filters                        Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
LID/GI Practice Library: Gravel wetlands                          Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
LID/GI Practice Library: Hydrodynamic separators                  Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
LID Practice Library: Others• Downspout  disconnection• Pervious area  restoration/soil  amendments• Urban reforestation• ...
Pollutant Removal Capability                     Source: 2010 Rhode                     Island Stormwater                 ...
Pollutant Removal   (continued)                    Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
LID/GI Runoff Reduction PotentialPractice:            Runoff ReductionPonds and Wetlands   none to lowInfiltration        ...
Roger Williams Park, Providence, RI• Largest & Most  Important Open  Space in Providence• 435 Acres• 100+ Acres of Ponds• ...
Roger Williams Park Ponds                            Watershed Areas                                           South Water...
Roger Williams Park   Pond System      Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
The Ponds Are Part of the Park’s Historic Design and Character                     Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
The Roger Williams Park Ponds     are in trouble today                  Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Rooted Aquatics                  Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Shallow Ponds,generally less than   six feet deep     Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Lots of Resident Geese                Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Sedimentation                Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Invasive Species                   Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Upper Watershed            Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Upper Watershed            Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Upper Watershed            Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Preliminary Estimates of Annual Phosphorus LoadsComing into the Roger Williams Park Ponds (lbs/year)                      ...
Watershed Management PlanImplementation Recommendations• Structural Best Management Practices;• Non-structural measures (p...
ProposedStructural andNon-Structural       Sites  Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Rapid Retrofit Reconnaissance              (RRR)• Covered both Upper and Lower  Watersheds• Assessed potential retrofits, ...
Name this activity?               Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Site 3B – Carousel Parking Lot Bioretention (concept plan)                    Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Site 3B – Bioretention      Design Plan                Overflow/outlet               Bioretention               Planting B...
Site 3B – Bioretention Installation and Training Workshop (day 1)                       Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Site 3B – Bioretention Installation and Training Workshop (day 2)                       Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Site 3B – Nearly Complete                 Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Slope Stabilization and BufferPlanting              Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
GeeseManagement(not necessarily apopular activity)  Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Inflow Pipe from Upper Watershed                     Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
In-pipe or In-lake Management?                    Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Educational Banners/Signage                  Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Rhode Island Salt PondsWatershed Restoration Plan                  Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Scope of Project• Watershed Assessment  – Stormwater management inventory  – Existing wastewater management    programs/po...
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Nitrogen Thresholds and Water Quality            Classification Classification           Nitrogen (mg/L) Excellent Quality...
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Total Loading and target TN Reduction:Ninigret Pond:      71,237 #/year: Reduction needed = 0 #/yrGreen Hill Pond:    57,8...
Stormwater Management Design         Objectives• Runoff Reduction• Groundwater Recharge• Water Quality Mitigation         ...
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Wastewater Treatment Alternatives• Decentralized Treatment - Onsite  Individual Dwellings• Centralized Treatment/Small  Sc...
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
Other Pollutant Sources:• Waterfowl (Canadian Geese and Mute  Swans);• Other wildlife;• Pets;• Fertilizer from lawns/garde...
Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
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Managing the Watershed- Reducing Nutrients in Stormwater Runoff

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A presentation about reducing nutrients from stormwater runoff through low-impact development/green infrastructure techniques. Presented by Rich Claytor, engineer with Horsley Witten Group, during the Buzzards Bay Coalition's 2013 Decision Makers Workshop series. Learn more at www.savebuzzardsbay.org/DecisionMakers

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  • This slide illustrates how impervious cover can alter the geomorphology of a stream channel. In watersheds with less than 5% impervious cover, streams are typically stable and pristine, provide a variety of habitats, maintain a diverse aquatic population and have good tree coverage. While this stream at 8-10% Impervious Cover is still relatively stable signs of stream erosion are more apparent, and there is some loss of good habitat. The surrounding area of this stream is approximately 20% impervious cover. Stream erosion is much worse than in the previous slide due to an absence of vegetation to hold together bank structure. The amount of erosion has been so great that the drain pipe that once rested on the stream bottom is now 2 feet above the water. This stream has a surrounding area of approximately 30% impervious cover. The channel is deeply cut down, there is little to no bank vegetation to prevent erosion, and there is little habitat structure. Above 65% impervious cover, the stream geomorphology is typically completely destroys by channelization. Concrete or pipes provide little to no habitat and support little to no aquatic organisms.
  • What parts of the approach are currently being implemented? Let’s build on those and incorporate these additional parts of the approach.
  • Add photo of mall
  • For anyone out there who thinks mathematically, this is a runoff hydrograph. The y axis is flow (cfs) and the x axis is time. SO, over time during a storm, the flow rate increases until it hits a peak. Under pre-development conditions, the peak flow is much lower than under post-development conditions. But you will also notice that the area under the curve is larger under post-development conditions. That area is the runoff volume. Not only do we want to control the peak flows, but also the volume.
  • Explain that salt ponds are naturally nutrient rich environments and the resulting productivity provides an excellent nursery for fish and shellfish. However, above critical thresholds excess nutrients degrade water quality.
  • Managing the Watershed- Reducing Nutrients in Stormwater Runoff

    1. 1. Managing the Watershed- Reducing Nutrients in Stormwater Runoff Buzzards Bay Coalition Decision-Makers Workshop SeriesUMass Cranberry Station, E. Wareham, MA March 20, 2013 Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    2. 2. Today’s Agenda • The basics of stormwater and watershed management • The evolution of stormwater management towards Low Impact Development(LID)/ Green Infrastructure (GI) • 2 Examples of watershed planning efforts geared towards nutrient reduction Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    3. 3. Stormwater/Watershed basicsWatershed Hydrology What is a watershed? A: a building for water storage B: the land area that drains to a given water body C: a shack from which fishing occurs D: a moment in time when you cross into a new area E: a new way of organizinghttp://planetearth.nerc.ac.uk/features/story.aspx?id=668 environmental agencies Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    4. 4. Watershed Boundaries Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    5. 5. Cape Cod Watersheds Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    6. 6. Stormwater/Watershed basics Urbanization results in increased surface runoff BEFORE AFTER Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    7. 7. Components of Impervious Cover in the Urban Landscape Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    8. 8. Stormwater/Watershed basics At ~10% impervious we begin to see: •Water quality issues •Impacts to biological communities •Increased flooding •Stream erosion •Loss of recreational uses •Shellfish bed closures •Reduced baseflow and recharge Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    9. 9. Stormwater/Watershed basics 8-10% < 5% % impervious 20% > 65% 30% Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    10. 10. Stormwater Evolution LID/GICommunity Planning Large Conventional BMPs LID/GI BMPs LID Site Design Receiving Waters Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    11. 11. Stormwater Evolution LID/GITraditional controls LID/GI controls• Goal: Get the water out • Goal: Reduce the amount of of here as fast as possible surface runoff by reducing impervious cover and• Collect and storage in preserving natural areas big, “hole in ground” off- site • Rely on small, distributed on- site practices• Pipe discharge to a stream or wetland • Infiltrate or reuse as much as possible; filter before• Limited water quality discharge treatment and infiltration • Source controls to minimize• Stormwater is a waste pollution product • Stormwater is a resource Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    12. 12. Stormwater basics Runoff Hydrograph Post-development Pre-development Post-development (with traditional controls) Post-developmentRunoff (cfs) (with LID/GI) Adapted from David Nyman, ENSR Time (hrs) Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    13. 13. Low Impact Development (LID) Traditional LID/GI Site DesignBMPs Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    14. 14. LID/GI Practice Library: Bioretention Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    15. 15. LID/GI Practice Library: Bioretention Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    16. 16. LID/GI Practice Library: Rain gardens Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    17. 17. LID/GI Practice Library: Porous Pavement/pavers Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    18. 18. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    19. 19. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    20. 20. LID/GI Practice Library: Infiltration Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    21. 21. LID/GI Practice Library: Green/blue roofs Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    22. 22. LID/GI Practice Library: Swales Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    23. 23. LID/GI Practice Library: Sand Filters Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    24. 24. LID/GI Practice Library: Gravel wetlands Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    25. 25. LID/GI Practice Library: Hydrodynamic separators Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    26. 26. LID Practice Library: Others• Downspout disconnection• Pervious area restoration/soil amendments• Urban reforestation• Municipal pollution source control (street sweeping, catch basin cleaning, leaf litter pick-up, etc.) Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    27. 27. Pollutant Removal Capability Source: 2010 Rhode Island Stormwater Design and Installation Standards Manual WVTS = wet vegetative treatment system = constructed wetland Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    28. 28. Pollutant Removal (continued) Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    29. 29. LID/GI Runoff Reduction PotentialPractice: Runoff ReductionPonds and Wetlands none to lowInfiltration highestBioretention moderate to highSwales moderate to highPorous Pavements highGreen Roofs moderateHydro-Separators none Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    30. 30. Roger Williams Park, Providence, RI• Largest & Most Important Open Space in Providence• 435 Acres• 100+ Acres of Ponds• 1 Million visitors per year• Horace Cleveland (Olmstead School), 1874 Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    31. 31. Roger Williams Park Ponds Watershed Areas South WatershedNorth Watershed Watershed Areas North—977 acres South—649 acres Total—1,626 acres 50% Impervious Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    32. 32. Roger Williams Park Pond System Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    33. 33. The Ponds Are Part of the Park’s Historic Design and Character Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    34. 34. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    35. 35. The Roger Williams Park Ponds are in trouble today Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    36. 36. Rooted Aquatics Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    37. 37. Shallow Ponds,generally less than six feet deep Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    38. 38. Lots of Resident Geese Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    39. 39. Sedimentation Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    40. 40. Invasive Species Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    41. 41. Upper Watershed Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    42. 42. Upper Watershed Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    43. 43. Upper Watershed Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    44. 44. Preliminary Estimates of Annual Phosphorus LoadsComing into the Roger Williams Park Ponds (lbs/year) Total: 906 lbs/year * Some Uncertainty Here ~70% Reduction required by TMDL Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    45. 45. Watershed Management PlanImplementation Recommendations• Structural Best Management Practices;• Non-structural measures (pavement removal/shoreline vegetation);• Geese population management• In-pond treatment (water column, sediment);• Education and Outreach;• Water quality monitoring; and• Upper Watershed recommendations Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    46. 46. ProposedStructural andNon-Structural Sites Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    47. 47. Rapid Retrofit Reconnaissance (RRR)• Covered both Upper and Lower Watersheds• Assessed potential retrofits, shoreline restoration/slope stabilization sites, neighborhoods, hotspots, maintenance needs, and overall watershed boundaries• GIS maps, various existing design plans, manhole poppers, measuring tapes, etc. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    48. 48. Name this activity? Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    49. 49. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    50. 50. Site 3B – Carousel Parking Lot Bioretention (concept plan) Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    51. 51. Site 3B – Bioretention Design Plan Overflow/outlet Bioretention Planting Bed Forebay Diversion inlet/channel Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    52. 52. Site 3B – Bioretention Installation and Training Workshop (day 1) Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    53. 53. Site 3B – Bioretention Installation and Training Workshop (day 2) Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    54. 54. Site 3B – Nearly Complete Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    55. 55. Slope Stabilization and BufferPlanting Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    56. 56. GeeseManagement(not necessarily apopular activity) Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    57. 57. Inflow Pipe from Upper Watershed Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    58. 58. In-pipe or In-lake Management? Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    59. 59. Educational Banners/Signage Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    60. 60. Rhode Island Salt PondsWatershed Restoration Plan Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    61. 61. Scope of Project• Watershed Assessment – Stormwater management inventory – Existing wastewater management programs/policies – Alternative wastewater technologies, disposal & funding options• Watershed Management Plan – Stormwater/Wastewater Management Options – Outreach and education plan – Specific Implementation plan – Monitoring plan Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    62. 62. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    63. 63. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    64. 64. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    65. 65. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    66. 66. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    67. 67. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    68. 68. Nitrogen Thresholds and Water Quality Classification Classification Nitrogen (mg/L) Excellent Quality <0.30 Good Quality 0.3 - 0.39 Moderate Impairment 0.39 - 0.50 Significant Impairment 0.50 - 0.70 Severely Degraded >0.70 Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    69. 69. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    70. 70. Total Loading and target TN Reduction:Ninigret Pond: 71,237 #/year: Reduction needed = 0 #/yrGreen Hill Pond: 57,805 #/year: Reduction needed = 39,978 #/yr Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    71. 71. Stormwater Management Design Objectives• Runoff Reduction• Groundwater Recharge• Water Quality Mitigation Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    72. 72. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    73. 73. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    74. 74. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    75. 75. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    76. 76. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    77. 77. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    78. 78. Wastewater Treatment Alternatives• Decentralized Treatment - Onsite Individual Dwellings• Centralized Treatment/Small Scale/Cluster (multi-home) Treatment• Porous de-nitrification media Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    79. 79. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    80. 80. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    81. 81. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    82. 82. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    83. 83. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    84. 84. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    85. 85. Other Pollutant Sources:• Waterfowl (Canadian Geese and Mute Swans);• Other wildlife;• Pets;• Fertilizer from lawns/gardens;• Some agricultural loading; and• Atmospheric deposition. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.
    86. 86. Horsley Witten Group, Inc.

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