Brian Baumgaertel      Environmental Project Assistant                    Barnstable CountyDepartment of Health and Enviro...
Agenda  What are Innovative/Alternative (I/A) wastewater   treatment systems?  What we do at BCDHE.  Real-World I/A Sys...
What is an I/A System? Add-on or replacement for  standard onsite septic  components for enhanced  wastewater treatment....
Advanced treatment units manipulate thenitrogen cycle to return fixed nitrogen to theatmosphere                 Nitrogen r...
Diagram of a Septic System“Standard” Septic System           I/A Septic System     Incoming                            Inc...
What the Barnstable County Department of Health andEnvironment is doing in the world of onsite technology.
MASSTC – The MassachusettsSeptic System Test Center  Began in 2000 for the purpose of testing new and           innovative...
MASSTC Participants Amphidrome      PhosRID Bioclere        Piranha EcoPure         ReCip Geoflow Drip    RSF Mic...
I/A Monitoring and Compliance In 2005, BCDHE created a web-based database to  collect maintenance and sample reports for ...
The Benefit of Close Monitoring System maintenance is taken more seriously when  homeowners and operators know someone is...
Using real-world data to help clarify the question of the efficacyof I/A technologies in wastewater planning.
What is meant by “Performance”?   The ability of an I/A system to remove a particular contaminant.               Nitrogen ...
Why 19mg/l for Nitrogen?Assumptions:• 2.9kg nitrogen per person per year• 55 gallons water use per person per day         ...
Where Our Data Comes From                1,650             I/A Systems                                                    ...
Ways to Visualize I/A Data Histograms Cumulative Frequency Box-Whisker Plots  Generally focus on    the median.
Single Family System Performance                    50                                                                    ...
Box-Whisker Diagrams           Min/Max Value                         Min/Max Value     Box                                ...
Box-Whisker Diagram Examples                              60A – A “Good” System. Boxand whiskers are short and            ...
Single Family Technologies
Nitrogen RemovalSingle Family Systems  432 of 539 (78%)  meet 19 mg/l standard
Nitrogen RemovalMulti-Family Systems 56 of 79 (71%) meet 19 mg/l standard
Nitrogen RemovalCommercial Systems 40 of 53 (75%) meet 25 mg/l standard
More Data Online!www.barnstablecountyhealth.org/ia-systems/information-center/data-and-statistics  Interactive I/A Data D...
To Sum it Up                Nitrogen                                   Total Meeting   Percent MeetingBuilding Use    Remo...
Currently installed I/A technologiesremove about 50 percent of incomingnitrogen about 75 percent of the time*. *Assuming o...
Is 19mg/l Really 50% Removal?Is 2.9 kg nitrogen/person/year      a valid assumption? Regional variation? Cultural variat...
What About Water Use?   Is 55 gal/person/day a valid             assumption? Difficult to accurately measure  water use!...
Can you Validate Removal?        I/A Septic System                                                   Herein lies the rub! ...
So Now What is 50%?                    50                                                                                 ...
50% Reduction?  Water Use (gpd)  Mass Load (kg/p/y)    45      50      55      60      65  2.5                  20.11   18...
Ultimately it all Boils Down to aHomeowner and Their System.         Uncertainty in standard leads to compliance          ...
Can we “Shift the Curve”?                      Can new               technologies take us                 to the next level?
Up-and-coming technologies and where we are headed in theworld of innovative onsite technology.
Selected MASSTC Test Results
NitrexTM by Lombardo Associates “Upwell” Class. Presently available. Generally expect TN < 5 mg/l, but   this system re...
Membrane BioReactors (MBR)              Basic Concept    Submerse a hollow membrane inside an             aeration chamber...
MBR Micro Filtration        Increasing Size                          General size                          range of interest
More About MBRMBR Produces a high quality effluent   Potential Installationwith potential for reuse (very lowvalues for ba...
Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR)Generally TN<15.                       Amphidrome     Influent      EffluentPerformance exc...
Composting and Urine Diversion ToiletsComposting Toilets     Urine Diversion Toilets Remove solids from    Separates uri...
Improving I/A and Onsite Monitoring Developing next-generation tracking database to allow for enhanced I/A compliance tra...
In a Nutshell… Currently installed I/A technologies remove about 50  percent of incoming nitrogen about 75 percent of the...
More Information                     MASSTC                    www.masstc.org             BCDHE I/A Program    http://www....
Disclaimer: The presence of a product or service in the presentation is in no wayconstrued as an endorsement, advertisemen...
Brian Baumgaertel      Environmental Project Assistant                    Barnstable CountyDepartment of Health and Enviro...
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Innovations in Onsite Wastewater Treatment

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A presentation about innovative onsite wastewater treatment systems to remove nitrogen. Presented by Brian Baumgaertel, Environmental Project Assistant for the Barnstable County, Massachusetts, Department of Health and Environment, during the Buzzards Bay Coalition's 2013 Decision Makers Workshop series. Learn more at www.savebuzzardsbay.org/DecisionMakers

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  • Composting toilets“Black Boxes” – Bioclere, FAST, &amp;c.Leach field technologies – pressure dose, drip dispersal
  • Initial emphasis on systems purported to remove nitrogen from wastewater.Has become a premier research and development site for new ideas.
  • 90% -
  • Innovations in Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    1. 1. Brian Baumgaertel Environmental Project Assistant Barnstable CountyDepartment of Health and Environment
    2. 2. Agenda  What are Innovative/Alternative (I/A) wastewater treatment systems?  What we do at BCDHE.  Real-World I/A System Performance.  What’s On the Horizon for I/A technology?Disclaimer: The presence of a product or service in the presentation is in no wayconstrued as an endorsement, advertisement or otherwise of that product or service.
    3. 3. What is an I/A System? Add-on or replacement for standard onsite septic components for enhanced wastewater treatment. Typically includes mechanical components such as pumps, filters and bacterial growth media. In southeastern Massachusetts, typically installed to reduce nitrogen. A typical septic system.
    4. 4. Advanced treatment units manipulate thenitrogen cycle to return fixed nitrogen to theatmosphere Nitrogen returns to Nitrogen from the atmosphere atmosphere is fixed into tissue by plants Oxygen deprived bacteria convert nitrate We or animals eat the to nitrogen gas. plants Leachfield bacteria We digest the food and convert ammonium to eliminate excess nitrogen nitrate (70% as urea) Septic tank bacteria convert urea to ammonium
    5. 5. Diagram of a Septic System“Standard” Septic System I/A Septic System Incoming Incoming Wastewater Wastewater Septic Tank Septic Tank Recirculation “Black Box” Leach Field Leach Field Alternative Drainfield
    6. 6. What the Barnstable County Department of Health andEnvironment is doing in the world of onsite technology.
    7. 7. MASSTC – The MassachusettsSeptic System Test Center Began in 2000 for the purpose of testing new and innovative onsite technologies.
    8. 8. MASSTC Participants Amphidrome  PhosRID Bioclere  Piranha EcoPure  ReCip Geoflow Drip  RSF MicroFAST  SeptiTech MicroSepTec  Waterloo Biofilter Nitrex  Zabel Scat OAR  Drip Dispersal Systems Phosphex  And More…
    9. 9. I/A Monitoring and Compliance In 2005, BCDHE created a web-based database to collect maintenance and sample reports for I/A systems for 14 towns in Barnstable County. Provide the initial level of compliance on behalf of town Boards of Health. Analyze incoming data and provide reports to the public to help determine efficacy of various technologies and I/A in general.
    10. 10. The Benefit of Close Monitoring System maintenance is taken more seriously when homeowners and operators know someone is watching. We have seen a roughly 10% improvement in system performance (i.e. lower effluent nitrogen) since county program began.
    11. 11. Using real-world data to help clarify the question of the efficacyof I/A technologies in wastewater planning.
    12. 12. What is meant by “Performance”? The ability of an I/A system to remove a particular contaminant. Nitrogen 19 mg/l residential 25 mg/l commercial
    13. 13. Why 19mg/l for Nitrogen?Assumptions:• 2.9kg nitrogen per person per year• 55 gallons water use per person per day System Influent Concentration: ~38 mg/l Total Nitrogen 50 Percent Removal: 19 mg/l Total Nitrogen
    14. 14. Where Our Data Comes From 1,650 I/A Systems 13,500 Sample Reports 100,000+ Individual Water Quality DataHouse icon is ©2005-2007 Alexandre Moore used under LGPL-2.1 (http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl-2.1.html).Beaker icon is ©2005 Vignoni David used under CC-BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) Points.
    15. 15. Ways to Visualize I/A Data Histograms Cumulative Frequency Box-Whisker Plots Generally focus on the median.
    16. 16. Single Family System Performance 50 100.00% 48 45 45 45 90.00% 42 40 80.00% 76.9% 35 70.00% Cumulative Percentage of Systems 30 30 30 29 60.00%Number of Systems 25 24 24 50.00% 21 20 20 19 19 40.00% 15 14 30.00% 13 13 11 26.4% 10 10 10 10 10 9 20.00% 6 5 5 4 4 10.00% 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0.00% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Median Total Nitrogen (mg/l)
    17. 17. Box-Whisker Diagrams Min/Max Value Min/Max Value Box Median – Middle Value Whiskers 50% 25% 25% Probability Density Graph (“Bell Curve”)
    18. 18. Box-Whisker Diagram Examples 60A – A “Good” System. Boxand whiskers are short and 50compact.B – A “Bad” System. Resultsare all over the place. Box 40and whiskers are stretchedout. 30C – A “Consistently Bad”System. Compact but wellabove TN limit (19 mg/l) 20D – A “Usually PrettyGood” System. Compact 10but maybe a couple of highresults. 0 A B C D
    19. 19. Single Family Technologies
    20. 20. Nitrogen RemovalSingle Family Systems 432 of 539 (78%) meet 19 mg/l standard
    21. 21. Nitrogen RemovalMulti-Family Systems 56 of 79 (71%) meet 19 mg/l standard
    22. 22. Nitrogen RemovalCommercial Systems 40 of 53 (75%) meet 25 mg/l standard
    23. 23. More Data Online!www.barnstablecountyhealth.org/ia-systems/information-center/data-and-statistics Interactive I/A Data Drill down by  Town  Technology  Building Type Data is updated on a regular basis.
    24. 24. To Sum it Up Nitrogen Total Meeting Percent MeetingBuilding Use Removal Count Standard Standard StandardSingle Family 19 mg/l 549 432 78%Multi-Family 19 mg/l 79 56 71%Commercial 25 mg/l 53 40 75%Total 681 528 77%
    25. 25. Currently installed I/A technologiesremove about 50 percent of incomingnitrogen about 75 percent of the time*. *Assuming our set standards (i.e. 19mg/l) are representative of 50% removal!
    26. 26. Is 19mg/l Really 50% Removal?Is 2.9 kg nitrogen/person/year a valid assumption? Regional variation? Cultural variation?
    27. 27. What About Water Use? Is 55 gal/person/day a valid assumption? Difficult to accurately measure water use! Dilution, Dilution, Dilution
    28. 28. Can you Validate Removal? I/A Septic System Herein lies the rub! Incoming I/A systems typically include Wastewater some sort of effluent recirculation back into the septic tank, making it Septic Tank impossible to get a Recirculation representative sample of influent. “Black Box”Leach Field Alternative Drainfield
    29. 29. So Now What is 50%? 50 100.00% 48 45 45 45 42 90.00% 90% 40 80.00% 76.9% 35 70.00% Cumulative Percentage of Systems 30 30 30 29 60.00%Number of Systems 25 24 24 50.00% 50% 21 20 20 19 19 40.00% 15 14 30.00% 13 13 11 10 10 10 10 10 9 20.00% 6 5 5 4 4 10.00% 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0.00% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Median Total Nitrogen (mg/l)
    30. 30. 50% Reduction? Water Use (gpd) Mass Load (kg/p/y) 45 50 55 60 65 2.5 20.11 18.10 16.45 15.08 13.92 2.9 23.32 20.99 19.08 17.49 16.15 3.3 26.54 23.89 21.72 19.91 18.37
    31. 31. Ultimately it all Boils Down to aHomeowner and Their System. Uncertainty in standard leads to compliance enforcement difficulties! Example 1 Example 2A seasonal home typically occupied by A year-round home typically occupiedtwo environmentally-conscious retirees. by a family of four. They water the lawn,They don’t water the lawn, installed installed water-saving devices but takewater-saving devices, take short long showers, do lots of laundry, haveshowers, &c and have installed an I/A frequent guests and have installed ansystem. I/A system.Total Nitrogen numbers come back at Total Nitrogen numbers come back at28mg/l, well in exceedance of 19mg/l. 14mg/l, below 19mg/l, but their waterDo you press compliance on the use is through the roof. You’ll probablyowners? never follow up on this system!
    32. 32. Can we “Shift the Curve”? Can new technologies take us to the next level?
    33. 33. Up-and-coming technologies and where we are headed in theworld of innovative onsite technology.
    34. 34. Selected MASSTC Test Results
    35. 35. NitrexTM by Lombardo Associates “Upwell” Class. Presently available. Generally expect TN < 5 mg/l, but this system requires pretreatment ahead in the treatment train to nitrify ammonium.From Recirculating SandHouse Filter Nitrex Filter Septic Tank Pump Chamber Discharge
    36. 36. Membrane BioReactors (MBR) Basic Concept Submerse a hollow membrane inside an aeration chamber. Wastewater passes through membrane leaving solids behind MBR Players• BioMicrobics• Puraflo• Busse• SJ Rhombus Air scours the membrane and keeps it clean• Kubota (and supports micro-organisms)
    37. 37. MBR Micro Filtration Increasing Size General size range of interest
    38. 38. More About MBRMBR Produces a high quality effluent Potential Installationwith potential for reuse (very lowvalues for bacteria, BOD, and TSS)
    39. 39. Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR)Generally TN<15. Amphidrome Influent EffluentPerformance excursions Results TN (mg/l) TN (mg/l)related to sludge buildup in Mean 36.8 15.0primary tank. Median 37.0 14.3 Count 60 53 From House Amphidrome by F.R. Mahoney Associates Amphidrome Anoxic Tank Clear Unit Well Discharge
    40. 40. Composting and Urine Diversion ToiletsComposting Toilets Urine Diversion Toilets Remove solids from  Separates urine (and primary wastewater stream. source of nitrogen) from Still need to wastewater stream. safely dispose  Potential for recovery of of greywater. nitrogen for re-use
    41. 41. Improving I/A and Onsite Monitoring Developing next-generation tracking database to allow for enhanced I/A compliance tracking abilities. Expand database capability to capture data on non-I/A systems. Disseminate more information on onsite performance.
    42. 42. In a Nutshell… Currently installed I/A technologies remove about 50 percent of incoming nitrogen about 75 percent of the time. Careful monitoring can improve I/A performance. Number of new technologies coming down the pipe which may provide even better nitrogen reduction. MASSTC continues to test the “latest and greatest” in onsite technology.
    43. 43. More Information MASSTC www.masstc.org BCDHE I/A Program http://www.barnstablecountyhealth.org/ia-systems Comparison of Costs for Wastewater Management Systemshttp://www.ccwpc.org/images/educ_materials/wwreports/ca pe_cod_ww_costs--4-10.pdf
    44. 44. Disclaimer: The presence of a product or service in the presentation is in no wayconstrued as an endorsement, advertisement or otherwise of that product or service.
    45. 45. Brian Baumgaertel Environmental Project Assistant Barnstable CountyDepartment of Health and Environment

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