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Heat exchangers

heat exchanger discription

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Heat exchangers

  1. 1. Introduction to HEAT EXCHANGERS Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
  2. 2. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)2 Transfer of thermal energy between  two or more fluids  between a solid surface and a fluid  between solid particulates and a fluid
  3. 3. Classification of Heat Exchangers 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)3
  4. 4. Types of HE 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)4  Double-pipe exchanger  Shell and tube exchangers  Plate and frame exchangers  Plate-fin exchangers.  Spiral heat exchangers.  Air cooled heat exchangers  Agitated vessels.  Fired heaters.
  5. 5. Based on transfer process 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)5 Indirect Contact – Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers Direct Contact – Cooling Towers Gas-Liquid exchangers Liquid-Liquid exchangers Gas-Gas heat exchangers Based on phase of fluids
  6. 6. Based on construction 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)6  Tubular  Double pipe heat exchanger  Shell and tube heat exchangers  Spiral heat exchangers  Plate-type  Plate and frame heat exchangers  Spiral plate heat exchangers  Extended Surface  Plate-fin exchanger  Tube-fin exchanger
  7. 7. Based on flow arrangements 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)7 Parallel flow / Co-current flow Counter flow Cross flow
  8. 8. Heat Transfer Coefficient 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)8  Heat transfer rate, 𝑞 = 𝑈𝐴∆𝑇 𝑚 U = overall heat transfer coefficient, W/(m2C) A = heat transfer surface area, m2 ∆𝑇 𝑚 = mean temperature difference, oC  Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, Uo ho= outside fluid film coefficient, W/(m2.oC) hi= inside fluid film coefficient, W/(m2.oC) hod= outside dirt coefficient (fouling factor), W/(m2.oC) hid= inside dirt coefficient, W/(m2.oC) kw= thermal conductivity of the tube wall material, W/(m2.oC) di= tube inside diameter, m do= tube outside diameter, m
  9. 9. Temperature Profile: Co-current flow 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)9 Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)
  10. 10. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)10 Temperature Profile: Counter current flow Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)
  11. 11. Temperature Correction Factor (Ft) 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)11  Mean temperature difference, ∆𝑇 𝑚 ∆𝑇 𝑚 = 𝐹𝑡∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 Ft depends on R & S 𝑅 = 𝑇ℎ𝑖 − 𝑇ℎ𝑜 𝑇𝑐𝑜 − 𝑇𝑐𝑖 𝑆 = 𝑇𝑐𝑜 − 𝑇𝑐𝑖 𝑇ℎ𝑖 − 𝑇𝑐𝑖
  12. 12. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)12 Temperature correction factor: one shell pass; two or more even tube passes
  13. 13. SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
  14. 14. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)14
  15. 15. Components of a STHE 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)15  Shell  Shell cover  Tubes  Channel  Channel Cover  Tubesheet  Baffles  Floating-Head Cover  Nozzles  Tie-Rods & Spacers  Pass Partition Plates  Impingement Plates  Sealing Strips & Sealing Rods
  16. 16. Classification by Construction 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)16 Fixed-tubesheet heat exchanger Has straight tubes secured at both ends to tubesheets welded to the shell Low cost, simplest construction. Bundle is "fixed" to the shell so outside of the tubes cannot be cleaned mechanically. Application is limited to clean services on the shell side
  17. 17. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)17
  18. 18. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)18 U-tube heat exchanger Tubes are bent in the shape of a U Only one tubesheet Bending of tubes adds to the cost Tube bundle is removable, outside of tubes can be cleaned. Because of the U-bend, inside of the tubes can’t be cleaned mechanically Can’t be used for dirty fluids inside tubes.
  19. 19. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)19
  20. 20. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)20 Floating head exchanger Most versatile and costliest. One tubesheet is fixed relative to the shell, and the other is free to “float” within the shell. Cleaning of both the insides and outsides of the tubes Can be used for services where both the shell-side and the tube-side fluids are dirty Widely used in Petroleum Industry
  21. 21. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)21
  22. 22. U-Tube Heat Exchanger 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)22
  23. 23. Straight-Tube ( 1-Pass ) 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)23
  24. 24. Straight-Tube ( 2-Pass ) 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)24
  25. 25. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)25
  26. 26. TEMA Types 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)26
  27. 27. For dirty tube side For clean tube side For Hazardous fluid For horizontal thermosyphon reboilers For No Temp Cross Large temp difference between shell & tube fluids Allowable pressure drop on shell side is very low Fixed tube- sheet on the rear side of the shell TEMA Types 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)27
  28. 28. FLUID ALLOCATION Shell Side  Viscous Fluids  Lower Flow Rates  Cleaner Fluids Tube Side  Fluids which are prone to fouling  Corrosive fluids  Toxic fluids to increase containment  High pressure streams, since tubes are less expensive to build strong  Streams with low allowable pressure drop  Cooling water to be put on tube side only 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)28
  29. 29. Tubes 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)29 Tubes should be able to withstand:  Operating temperature and pressure on both sides  Thermal stresses due to the differential thermal expansion between the shell and the tube bundle  Corrosive nature of both the shell-side and the tube-side fluids  TUBE PITCH RATIO: Min 1.25 times of tube OD 1.333 times of tube OD 1.5 times of tube OD  TUBE PASS: Based on pressure drop & velocity limit on tube side
  30. 30. TUBE LAYOUT ANGLE 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)30 30o FLOW 90o FLOW 45o FLOW 60o FLOW 30o Triangular 60o Rotated Triangular 45o Rotated Square 90o Square Triangular layouts give more tubes in a given shell Square layouts give cleaning lanes with close pitch
  31. 31. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)31 Feature Tube Layout Pattern Lower ΔP on shell-side Square (effective only at low Re number) Shell-side fouling Square - easier cleaning Horizontal shell-side Boiling Square Smaller shell size Fit 15% more tubes if triangular pitch used
  32. 32. Tube pitch 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)32 Shortest distance between two adjacent tubes TEMA specifies a minimum tube pitch of 1.25*(OD) Minimum tube pitch leads to smallest shell diameter for a given number of tubes. To reduce shell-side pressure drop, the tube pitch may be increased to a higher value.
  33. 33. Tubesheet 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)33  Barrier between shell-side and tube-side fluids.  Mostly circular with uniform pattern of drilled holes.  Tubes are attached to tubesheet
  34. 34. Tie rods and spacers 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)34 Tie rods and spacers are used for:  holding the baffle assembly together maintaining the selected baffle spacing help the bundle to slide out from the shell Can also be used as tie rods to hold the bundle in position. Sliding strips
  35. 35. Sealing strips and Seal rods 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)35 Sealing strips prevent shell side fluid from bypassing the bundle. Sealing strips block the resulting large open area at top or bottom of the shell. Seal rods are also used to control the leakage streams.
  36. 36. TUBE PASS LAYOUT 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)36 Ribbon Quadrant H-Bend
  37. 37. TYPES OF BAFFLES 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)37 Segmental type;  Single – horizontal & vertical  Double  Triple  No-Tubes in Window (NTIW) Orifice type Disc and doughnut type Rod type Impingement type Longitudinal (pass partitions)
  38. 38. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)38
  39. 39. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)39  ORIENTATION:  Horizontal for heating or cooling with no phase change  Vertical for shell side condensation  CUT:  15 % to 45 % of shell ID for Single Segmental  25 % to 35 % of shell ID for Double Segmental
  40. 40. Baffle cut 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)40  Height of the segment that is cut in a baffle to permit the shell- side fluid to flow across the baffle.  Baffle cut should be set carefully because a baffle cut that is either too large or too small can increase the possibility of fouling in the shell, and moreover it would also lead in inefficient shell-side heat transfer  CUT:  15 % to 45 % of shell ID for Single Segmental  25 % to 35 % of shell ID for Double Segmental
  41. 41. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)41
  42. 42. Baffle/ Nozzle orientation 17-09-2015Design of HC Process Equipments42  The orientation of the baffle cut is important for heat exchanger installed horizontally.  When the shell side heat transfer is sensible heating or cooling with no phase change, the baffle cut should be horizontal.  For shell side condensation, the baffle cut for segmental baffles is vertical.  For shell side boiling, the baffle cut may be either vertical or horizontal depending on the service.  Positioning of inlet/ outlet nozzle is also important for the proper functioning of exchangers.  In cooling water services, the inlet nozzle should be at the bottom and outlet nozzle should be at the top.  For condensing services exit should be from the bottom nozzle.
  43. 43. Shellside Flow Out Tubeside Flow In Tubeside Flow Out Shell Tube Bundle Shellside Flow In SINGLE SEGMENTAL BAFFLES - Horizontal 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)43
  44. 44. Shell Outlet Channel Inlet Channel Outlet Shell Outlet SINGLE SEGMENTAL BAFFLES - Vertical 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)44
  45. 45. Shell Outlet Shell Inlet DOUBLE SEGMENTAL TRANSVERSE BAFFLES 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)45
  46. 46. DOUGHNUT AND DISC TYPE BAFFLES 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)46
  47. 47. Baffle Spacing 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)47 Baffle spacing is the longitudinal or centreline-to- centreline distance between adjacent baffles. According to TEMA, the minimum baffle spacing should be one-fifth of the shell inside diameter or 2 in., whichever is greater. The maximum baffle spacing is the shell inside diameter.
  48. 48. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)48
  49. 49. Impingement devices 17-09-2015Design of HC Process Equipments49  Impingement rod, Impingement plate, Nozzle Impingement baffle are the various devices used in heat exchangers to trim down the effects of high velocity at entry nozzles over tube bundle.
  50. 50. TUBE PROBLEMS 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)50 • Scaling of inside/outside of the tube surface • Blockage of tube passage • By passing across the baffle • Puncture in the tube • Leakage through the tube to tubesheet • Leakage through gasketted joint of floating head
  51. 51. Bypass & Leakage streams: TINKER FLOW MODEL 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)51  B stream: Main heat transfer stream, follows a path around baffles and through tube bundle  A stream: Leakage stream, flowing through clearance between tubes and holes in baffles  C stream: Tube bundle bypass stream in the gap between the tube bundle and shell wall  E stream: Leakage stream between baffle edge and shell wall  F stream: Bypass stream in flow channel partitions due to omissions of tubes in tube pass partitions.
  52. 52. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)52 FLOW FRACTIONS ALLOWABLE LIMITS A Stream < 10 % B Stream > 40 % C Stream < 10 % E Stream < 15 % F Stream < 10 %
  53. 53. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)53
  54. 54. Bypass & Leakage Streams 17-09-2015Design of HC Process Equipments54 Since the flow fractions depend strongly upon the path resistances, varying any of the following construction parameters will affect stream analysis and thereby the shell side performance of an exchanger:  Baffle spacing and baffle cut  Tube layout angle and tube pitch  Clearance between the tube and the baffle hole  Clearance between the shell I.D. and the baffle  Location & no. of sealing strips and sealing rods
  55. 55. Temperature Cross (Co-current) 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)55 Outlet temperature of cold stream cannot be greater than the outlet temperature of the hot stream. An F shell has 2 shell passes, so if there are 2 tube passes as well, it represents a pure counter-current flow
  56. 56. Air cooled heat exchanger 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)56
  57. 57. Plate and Frame heat exchanger 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)57
  58. 58. Spiral heat exchanger 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)58
  59. 59. Aims of Thermal Design 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)59 1. Achieve the specified duty at minimum overall cost 2. To achieve high heat transfer coefficient within allowable pressure drops. 3. 10-20 % Overdesign margin (design safety) 4. Pressure drops should be in limits 5. To keep fluid velocities in limit 6. To keep shell side flow fractions in limit
  60. 60. THERMAL DESIGN Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers
  61. 61. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)61 1. Calculate the heat duty. 2. Select cooling/heating medium 3. Calculate utility flow-rate. 4. Collect the fluid physical properties : density, viscosity, thermal conductivity. 5. Allocate the fluids on shell side and tube side. 6. Decide the exchanger type 7. Determine LMTD and MTD ΔTm 8. Select a trial value for the overall coefficient, U 9. Estimate the provisional area required. Steps in Design
  62. 62. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)62 10. Tube geometry : Number of tubes & number of tube passes etc. 11. Calculate the shell diameter. 12. Determine the shell side and tube side heat transfer coefficients. 13. Calculate the overall coefficient and compare with the trial value. 14. Find the area provided based on U value and then calculate % excess area. 15. Calculate the shell side and tube side pressure drop. 16. Optimize the design
  63. 63. Heat Duty 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)63 Heat Duty, Q (single phase) 𝑄 = 𝑚𝐶 𝑝∆𝑇(sensible heat) here, m = flow rate of process fluid Cp= specific heat of process fluid ∆𝑇 = temp diff for process fluid Heat Duty, Q (phase change) 𝑄 = 𝑚λ(latent heat) here, m = flow rate of process fluid λ= latent heat of process fluid
  64. 64. Selection of cooling/heating medium 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)64 Based on cost and availability Cooling medium • Cooling water (35-100 oC) • Chilled water (< 35 oC) • Air (> 60 oC) • Brine (< 8 oC) Heating medium • Steam (100-180 oC) • Oil (180-300 oC) • Dowtherm oils (180-400 oC) • Molten Salt (400-590 oC) • Na – K alloys (500-750 oC) • Flue gas or Hot air (750-1100 oC)
  65. 65. Utility Flow rate 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)65 Utility flow rate, mw 𝑚 𝑤 = 𝑄 𝐶 𝑝𝑤∆𝑇 𝑤 Here, m = flow rate of utility Cpw= specific heat of utility ∆𝑇 = temp diff for utility
  66. 66. LMTD & MTD Calculation 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)66 Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)
  67. 67. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)67 LMTD & MTD Calculation Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)
  68. 68. Temperature Correction Factor (Ft) 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)68  Mean temperature difference, ∆𝑇 𝑚 ∆𝑇 𝑚 = 𝐹𝑡∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 Ft depends on R & S 𝑅 = 𝑇ℎ𝑖 − 𝑇ℎ𝑜 𝑇𝑐𝑜 − 𝑇𝑐𝑖 𝑆 = 𝑇𝑐𝑜 − 𝑇𝑐𝑖 𝑇ℎ𝑖 − 𝑇𝑐𝑖
  69. 69. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)69 Temperature correction factor: one shell pass; two or more even tube passes
  70. 70. Overall Coefficient 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)70
  71. 71. Provisional area required 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)71 Heat transfer rate, Q = 𝑈𝐴∆𝑇 𝑚 U = overall heat transfer coefficient, W/(m2C) A = heat transfer surface area, m2 ∆𝑇 𝑚 = mean temperature difference, oC 𝐴 𝑝𝑟𝑜 = 𝑄 𝑈∆𝑇 𝑚
  72. 72. Number of tubes 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)72 𝐴 𝑝𝑟𝑜 = 𝑁𝑡 𝜋𝑑 𝑜 𝐿 Here, Nt= No. of tubes do= tube o.d. L= Tube length Decide the number of passes & tube layout, pitch
  73. 73.  Parametric study for 2, 4, 6 and 8 passes  To avoid fouling, tube velocity is kept between 1-2 m/s  At 2 and 4 passes, tube velocity is less than 1 m/s  At 8 passes, tube velocity is more than 2 m/s  Number of passes = 6 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 2 4 6 8 TubeSideVelocity,m/s No. of Passes Tube Passes vs Tube Side Velocity 1.35 m/s 17-09-201573 Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
  74. 74.  Parametric study for 2, 4, 6 and 8 passes  Allowable value of Tube side pressure drop is around 70 kPa  At 6 passes, optimum value of pressure drop is obtained, i.e. 45.06 kPa  Number of passes = 6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2 4 6 8 TubeSidePressuredrop,kPa No. of Passes Tube Passes vs Tube Side Pressure drop 45.06 kPa Allowable pressure drop = 70 kPa 17-09-201574 Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
  75. 75. 0 5 10 15 20 25 2 4 6 8 %Overdesign No. of Passes Tube Passes vs % Overdesign 16.03 %  Parametric study for 2, 4, 6 and 8 passes  % Overdesign should be between 10 to 20 %  At 6 passes, optimum value of % overdesign is obtained, i.e. 16.03 %  Number of passes = 6 17-09-201575 Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
  76. 76. Optimization of Baffle Spacing  Parametric study for 200, 250, 300 and 350 mm spacing  At 250 mm, B-stream flow fraction is optimum i.e. 87 %  Baffle spacing = 250mm 0.86 0.862 0.864 0.866 0.868 0.87 0.872 0.874 0.876 0.878 0.88 200 250 300 350 Bstreamflowfraction Baffle Spacing, mm Baffle Spacing vs B stream flow fraction 0.87 17-09-201576 Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
  77. 77. 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 200 250 300 350 ShellSidePressuredrop,kPa Baffle Spacing, mm Baffle Spacing vs Shell Side Pressure drop  Parametric study for 200, 250, 300 and 350 mm spacing  At 250 mm, , optimum value of shell side pressure drop is obtained, i.e. 1.391 kPa  Baffle spacing = 250 mm 17-09-201577 Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
  78. 78. 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 200 250 300 350 %Overdesign Baffle Spacing, mm Baffle Spacing vs % Overdesign 16.03 %  Parametric study for 200, 250, 300, 350 mm spacing  % Overdesign should be between 10 to 20 %  At 250 mm, optimum value of % overdesign is obtained, i.e. 16.03 %  Baffle spacing = 250 mm 17-09-201578 Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
  79. 79. 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 30 45 60 75 90 No.ofTubes Tube Layout Tube Layout vs No. of Tubes Selection of Tube Layout 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 30 45 60 75 90 %Overdesign Tube Layout Tube Layout vs % Overdesign  Parametric study for 30o, 45o,60o and 90o layout  If service requires continuous cleaning lanes choose square layout only  45o gives optimum number of tubes and optimum value of % overdesign  Tube Layout = 45o Square 17-09-201579 Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
  80. 80. Shell Diameter 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)80 Bundle diameter, Db
  81. 81. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)81 𝑫 𝒔 = 𝑫 𝒃 + 𝑪𝒍𝒆𝒂𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 Shell Diameter, Ds
  82. 82. Tube side coefficient 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)82 Mean utility temp, t Tube c/s area, At 𝐴 𝑡 = 𝑁𝑡 𝑁𝑝 × 𝜋 4 𝑑𝑖 2 Here, Np = No. of tube passes di = tube i.d.
  83. 83. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)83 Sieder-Tate Equation Re < 2000 Dittus-Bolter Equation Re > 4000 Generalized Equation Re = 10 to 106 For Water Service C = 0.021 for gases, C = 0.023 for non-viscous liquids, C = 0.027 for viscous liquids.
  84. 84. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)84 Here, de = Equivalent dia Fluid velocity 𝒖 𝒕 = 𝒎 𝒘/𝑨 𝒕
  85. 85. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)85 jh = tube side heat transfer factor
  86. 86. Shell Side Coefficient 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)86 Choose baffle spacing, lB and tube pitch, pt 1/5th of the shell dia or 2 in., whichever is greater Cross-flow area Here, lB is baffle spacing, m. Calculate mean temperature Decide baffle cut % (start with 25%)
  87. 87. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)87 Ws = shell side flow-rate, kg/s
  88. 88. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)88
  89. 89. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)89 Shell side heat transfer coefficient, hs jh = heat transfer factor
  90. 90. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)90 jh = shell side heat transfer factor
  91. 91. Overall Coefficient 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)91 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, Uo ho = outside fluid film coefficient, W/(m2.oC) hi = inside fluid film coefficient, W/(m2.oC) hod = outside dirt coefficient (fouling factor), W/(m2.oC) hid = inside dirt coefficient, W/(m2.oC) kw = thermal conductivity of the tube wall material, W/(m2.oC) di = tube inside diameter, m do = tube outside diameter, m
  92. 92. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)92 Dirt factor / Dirt coefficient /Fouling factor
  93. 93. Tube Side Pressure Drop 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)93 Tube pressure drop Here, jf = friction factor for tube side Range of tube pressure drop is Gases = 14 kPa Liquids = 30 to 70 kPa 𝑨 𝒕 = 𝑵 𝒕 𝑵 𝒑 × 𝝅 𝟒 𝒅𝒊 𝟐 Fluid velocity 𝒖 𝒕 = 𝒎 𝒘/𝑨 𝒕
  94. 94. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)94 jf = friction factor Tube side
  95. 95. Shell Side Pressure Drop 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)95 Shell Side Pressure Drop Here, jf = friction factor for shell side Range of shell pressure drop is Liquids 48 to 60 kPa Gases 4 to 20 kPa
  96. 96. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)96 jf = friction factor shell side
  97. 97. To Reduce Tube Side Pressure Drop 17-09-2015Design of HC Process Equipments97 Tube pressure drop Decrease number of tube passes Increase tube diameter Decrease tube length Increase number of tubes & hence increase shell diameter 𝑨 𝒕 = 𝑵 𝒕 𝑵 𝒑 × 𝝅 𝟒 𝒅𝒊 𝟐 Fluid velocity 𝒖 𝒕 = 𝒎 𝒘/𝑨 𝒕
  98. 98. To Reduce Shell Side Pressure Drop 17-09-2015Design of HC Process Equipments98 Shell Side Pressure Drop Increase the baffle cut Increase the baffle spacing Increase tube pitch Increase tube diameter Decrease shell diameter
  99. 99. 17-09-2015Design of HC Process Equipments99
  100. 100. 17-09-2015Design of HC Process Equipments100
  101. 101. 17-09-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)101

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heat exchanger discription

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