Understanding the Functions of Marketing and PR
Katie Torpey and Savannah Hardwick
Explain what market research is, how it can be carried out and why it could be
To sustain a successful business, marketing is very important when it comes to the
company. Market research is the method in which businesses undertake to identify specific
information about the audience, the competition, and the desires of the target market. If the
market research is carried out correctly the business will be able to determine the
challenges in which they might face. There are different methods in which market research
can be carried out however this is often split into two types of data, primary research and
secondary research. The business or individual person carries out primary research. By
conducting primary research this means that they will get a direct response. Examples of
the types of research, which could be carried out is questionnaires, interviews and online
surveys. Secondary research is data, which has already been collected, and available to
use. Some examples of secondary research include reports, statistics, newsletters and
trade publications; these are all very useful to undertake successful market research.
Market research is very important because it not only provides companies with relevant
information, which can increase sales however it also allows companies to identify
opportunities within the market, and it ensures that the progress of the product is focused
towards the desire of audience.
Explain market analysis. What is it done and who could carry it out for you?
Market analysis is the breakdown study of the characteristics of a target audience. Before
identifying the marketing objective often companies will carry out research about the current
market and the factors, which make up the target market. During carrying out market
analysis the main elements, which are analysed, is the market size, market trend, market
growth rate, market profitability, key success factors and key success details. When
markets are analysed all areas will be explored including strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats. Gathering data within market analysis will benefit the business by
creating a successful developed product suitable for the market. It is often business
managers, which undertake market analysis, as they will be able to identify key aspects to
the business, which could be developed.
Below is an example of a market analysis
that identifies the market size and trends.
By identifying the businesses market size
and trends the company is able to find out
the target for development of the company.
Explain marketing strategy using examples.
Marketing strategy is a process, which is more in depth and specific than market analysis. A
marketing strategy is a businesses approach, which combines all of its marketing intentions
in one arrangement and objective. To reach all targets set companies must consider all
opportunities within the business. An example of a marketing strategy is the Kellogg‟s
communication plan. Below is an example of a marketing strategy used by Kellogg‟s. They
have shown the objectives on one side and the target audience, which is on the other side.
By creating this table they have clearly shown what the intention of the business is and
what they want to achieve. They have also shown who the objectives are aimed at. The
second table explains how Kellogg‟s is going to achieve this and the ways of
communications, which they will use during the campaign. Kellogg‟s have also shown the
campaign activities, which is a specific list of actions, which the company is going to
undertake to achieve successful results.
Why is advertising so important to an organisation? Use examples to help you
Advertising is very vital for success in a company without advertising the company could be
affected and may not do as well. The reason why advertising is so important is because it
has been shown to increase sales and targets for companies. By advertising products to
the audience this allows the audience to be aware of the product, what it does and what it
looks like. Often companies use advertising agencies to organize their promotional work, as
they will be specialised in this subject. By using an advertising agency the advertising
campaign could benefit the company by increasing sales. An example of an advertising
campaign, which has had a positive effect on the company, is the Coca-Cola‟s World Cup
advertising campaign. In 2010 Coca-Cola used the FA cup between Chelsea and
Portsmouth to announce a large global advertising campaign in the coming months of the
FIFA 2010 World Cup. The campaign released in a television advertisement showed a tape
of the celebratory goal scored by Cameroon player, Roger Milla. The advertising campaign
was shown across the world. By carrying out this campaign Coca Cola benefitted from this
by seeing a huge increase in sales volume as well as worldwide recognition.
“A gauge of the campaign's effectiveness will come later this month when Coke reports
quarterly results, including sales volume. "The number-one question will be, are we selling
more product?" Chief Marketing and Commercial Officer Joe Tripodi said. "Time will tell." –
What is brand promotion and what methods could you use to promote a brand?
Brand promotion is a widespread strategy used over every company to increase customer
awareness and understanding of a brand or product. Similar to advertising brand promotion
is an effort to use communication techniques to get the message across to the public about
the product. There are many different methods which companies to use promote a brand.
One of these includes social media. Often companies use social media websites such as
twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Youtube and Myspace to communicate to the audience of the
brand. Sharing photographs, videos, offers and sales are a strong technique, which is used
by companies to convey messages with their audience and others who show interest.
Another technique, which is often used to promote a brand, is using celebrities. By using
famous and popular celebrities on advertisements can improve the interest from the
audience. As the audience will be inspired to buy the product as they have seen a celebrity
use the product. This is a successful and common technique, which is used towards the
audience to increase sales.
Explain the fields of Marketing & PR
Media, celebrities and entertainment – Across the nation celebrities have interaction and
communication with the public often through the media. Everyone enjoys and is interested
in knowing about celebrities, entertainment and the media. As the newspapers and
magazines are full of articles about celebrities they are under pressure all the time are often
in contact with the public. The difference between celebrity marketing and PR is that they
are much more involved in the public and if problems occur then the PR team must try to
prevent damage from happening and if they set a bad example by marketing then this is
pressured to be resolved. A recent example of a celebrity PR issue is Nigella Lawson. As
she has recently admitted to taking drugs with her ex husband. Nigella Lawson is in the
public eye with everyone interested in her story.
Businesses- Often businesses will use marketing and PR as a way to get a message
across to the public about the company. Careful planning and close management will be
needed during marketing and PR action incase something happens. An example of a where
a business might use marketing & PR is when they are organising events to promote the
business. By using this they will be able to advertise to their market and maybe their
potential audience and it will be a chance for them to increase the awareness and sales of
their businesses and company.
Government & public services- Government and public services may also use marketing
and PR as a way to broadcast messages to the their audience. Press conferences often
take place to announce a declaration from the government to arrange the press conference
the government will have to get in contact with a marketing and PR agency. An example is
if the government wanted to announce a political issue then they will arrange use Marketing
and PR to arrange for this to be broadcasted publically.
What are some of the key principals involved in managing the message?
There are eleven main principles of managing the message, these are;
-Communicate early, communicate often
-Communicate what you know when you know it
-Don‟t be afraid to say “I don‟t know” as long as you follow that up with “...but I‟ll find out and
get back to you as soon as I do.”
-Let everyone know what is happening, why, and what they can do to help
-Reinforce what is staying the same as you discuss what may be changing
-Create multiple, targeted approaches to reach your various audiences
-Communicate openly, honestly, and frequently as things continue to change
-Establish feedback mechanisms from those affected by the changes to those in leadership
to inform your ongoing decisions
-Communicate the initial results and early progress of your change efforts to everyone
-Acknowledge and thank everyone who helped contribute to your success
-Continue to communicate well after the changes occur and as long as the transition
What is positive publicity? Find an example of it to help explain.
Positive publicity is when the client, product or company does something that makes them
look good, and the PR team working for them makes it well known that this has happened,
helping to manage the publics perception of this even. Positive publicity Is often low cost
and is often credible. Many people in the media have been known to create positive
publicity after something bad has happened, to change the public view of them. An example
of good publicity is for the animal welfare group PETA. They used celebrities as a way to
attract people to the charity, by having the celebrities pose in various positions, naked. The
„id rather go naked than wear fur‟‟ campaign, to this date, remains one of the most effective.
PETA continued to use this campaign at the same time as doing controversial stunts, such
as throwing paint at public figures that wear fur. This PETA campaign is good publicity,
because even though PETA are known for doing controversial stunts, this campaign puts
the emphasis on the good that PETA do, and that celebrities want to be involved in this
How would charities and pressure groups use positive publicity?
Charities and pressure groups would use positive publicity as a way to earn more donations
and to help them better their work.
How would sports groups use positive publicity?
Sports teams would use positive publicity to sway votes when being picked for teams. An
example of this is when Joey Harrington had a picture of him pated up the wall of the
university of Oregon in the hopes that it would sway Heisman voters, it didn‟t, and he came
In public relations terms, what is spin? Find an example to help you with your
A spin is a term for propaganda, which relies on using deception as a method of
persuasion, or spinning the situation or events to make you look better than what you are. A
spin is a way of manipulating the meaning of something and to twist the truth with a specific
goal at the end. Those people who create and communicate the spin are often referred to
as „spin doctors’. A „spin‟ is often characterised as inaccuracies, exaggerations,
euphemisms, half-truths and excessively emotional appeals when referring to politics,
business and elsewhere. This PR technique is often associated with politicians and
newspapers. There are different techniques of spin, including:
Cherry picking (selectively picking information to support a position)
Non-denial denial (when true words are used to convey a false impression)
Non-apology apology (a statement that seems like an apology, but is not
apologising for the act, only because the person(s) effected wishes to be apologised
Mistakes were made (used as a rhetorical device)
Phrasing in a specific way to assume unproven truths or avoiding the questions
Burying bad news (announcing a positive along side many negatives in hope that
the media will focus only on the positive)
Misdirection and diversion.
An example of an effective spin would be when Janet Jackson and Justin Timberlake
performed at the 2004 super bowl, and Janet had a „wardrobe malfunction‟ causing 540,000
complaints and a $550,000 fine. Her PR insisted that it was an accident and in no way part
of the performance.
Why might a person or a company engage in damage limitation? Using an example
will improve your grade.
A person or a company might need to use damage control/damage limitation as a way to
effectively address concerns at the same time as outdoing any negative news with positive
news, whilst actively trying to handle and fix the negative news. An example of this would
be when Chris Brown, musician, assaulted his then girlfriend Rhianna. He worked closely
with a PR team to help restore his image, and it was found that by him apologising and
acknowledging his mistakes, the public were more likely to respect him for being truthful. It
is known that if you try and conceal the situation or lies about it, and then the reputation for
the person will quickly deteriorate, whereas if you react quickly and are truthful your
business/the person(s) will have a better chance at needing limited damage control. An
example of when damage limitation has been used would be when an Outback Steakhouse
in Ohio gave a 4-year-old girl alcohol (a vodka and peach schnapps slushy). They had to
quickly release a statement to begin their damage control of the situation; they chose to use
the techniques that are used when creating a spin. They chose to make a statement
apologising for the act, whilst subtly putting the blame on the family of the child.
What benefit could there be to an organisation to create an event? Use an example of
a marketing or PR event to support your responses.
Creating an event for an organisation or company is a great way of changing your public
image. By creating an event that will draw in an audience as well as being for a good
cause, will benefit the company/organisation because it will help people to see them in a
different way. An example of this is when Herp Albert created the Herp Albert Foundation,
which focuses on the arts; he often hosts charity fundraisers and receives donations to his
organisation from actors and actresses, such as Mel Gibson.
What is lobbying and who is most likely to be influenced by it?
Lobbying is when you are attempting to influence others or if you are advising those who
wish to influence others. A person in this job is called a lobbyist. The types of people who
are most likely to be influenced by it are the UK Government, Parliament, the devolved
legislatures or administration, regional or local government or other people in the public
eye. An example of lobbying would be when gun enthusiast Alan Gottlieb went on Piers
Morgan Tonight, with the hope to get sponsors for „Guns save lives day‟ on the one year
anniversary of the Sandy Hook Massacre, which was referred to as a „disgusting political