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Business communication

‘Business Communication differs from other types of communication, not by its means of communicating but by its objectives’

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(2 Days Workshop) By: Saurabh S Sawhney
Business communication
The word ‘Communication’ is derived from 
the Latin word ‘Communicare’ 
Which means ‘to make common, to share, to 
transmit or to impart’. 
Thus communication can be considered as 
process that involves the transfer of 
information, ideas, emotions, feelings etc. 
between people. 
‘Business Communication differs from other 
types of communication, not by its means of 
communicating but by its objectives’
Business Communication vs. External Customers
Business communication 
Its all about: 
Marketing 
Brand management 
Customer relations 
Consumer behavior 
Advertising 
Public relations 
Corporate Communication 
Community engagement, 
Reputation management, 
Interpersonal communication
Why Study Communication? 
The Only Completely Portable Skill 
You will use it in every relationship 
You will need it regardless of your career path 
The “Information Age” 
The history of civilization is the history of 
information 
Language and written documents facilitate the 
transfer of information and knowledge through time 
and space

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Business communication

  • 1. (2 Days Workshop) By: Saurabh S Sawhney
  • 3. The word ‘Communication’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Communicare’ Which means ‘to make common, to share, to transmit or to impart’. Thus communication can be considered as process that involves the transfer of information, ideas, emotions, feelings etc. between people. ‘Business Communication differs from other types of communication, not by its means of communicating but by its objectives’
  • 4. Business Communication vs. External Customers
  • 5. Business communication Its all about: Marketing Brand management Customer relations Consumer behavior Advertising Public relations Corporate Communication Community engagement, Reputation management, Interpersonal communication
  • 6. Why Study Communication? The Only Completely Portable Skill You will use it in every relationship You will need it regardless of your career path The “Information Age” The history of civilization is the history of information Language and written documents facilitate the transfer of information and knowledge through time and space
  • 7. Why Study Communication? Your Quality of Life Depends Primarily on Your Communication Skills You Cannot Be Too Good at Communication People Overestimate Their Own Communication Skills
  • 8. We Want Others to Change
  • 10. Communicating Meaning Physiology & Appearance: 55 percent Paralanguage: 38 percent Language: 7 percent
  • 11. Personal Profiles Achiever Communicator Specialist Perfectionist C A P S
  • 12. Profile Characteristics Achiever Likes to set goals, challenge the environment and win. Sees life as a competition. Communicator Likes to achieve results by working with and through people. Finds more enjoyment in the process than in the results. Specialist Likes to plan work and relationships. Finds enjoyment in knowing what to expect. Perfectionist Enjoys jobs requiring attention to detail. Complies with authority and tries to provide the “right” answer.
  • 15. The Medium How the communication is to be made Important to select an appropriate medium for the message: Need to consider the needs of the sender, the nature of the receiver and the aims of the communication Inappropriate medium can be a barrier to effective communication
  • 16. Value
  • 17. Value Vast majority of problems in business are caused by ineffective communication in one form or another Businesses essentially human focused organisations Value of good communications therefore inestimable
  • 19. To Whom? Who the communication is aimed at is an important factor: The nature of the medium and the content may depend on who it is aimed at Necessity of being sensitive to the receiver Should communication be formal or informal? E.g.
  • 20. To Whom E-mail communication: Does it need to adhere to normal rules of spelling, punctuation and grammar? Is it appropriate to use text speak?  Is this OK 4U or is txt 1 stp 2fr? Are there different rules for different situations? How do you know what the receiver expects? What damage can be caused by inappropriate e-mail messages?
  • 21. Type Type of message may be an important factor in determining the medium, content, approach, etc. Good news? Bad news? Information? Instruction? Each of the above may require a different approach and a different medium.
  • 23. The Message What is the communication designed to achieve? This needs to be considered carefully to judge the best method of delivery and to judge the effectiveness of the feedback as to whether the message has been successful.
  • 25. Role of ICT (Information & Communication Technology) ICT has brought many advantages but also has its limitations: It enables speedy communication It can be cheap and save on costs (e.g. Video conferencing) It can be expensive in hardware requirements It can seem impersonal It can be abused
  • 27. Barriers Anything that prevents successful communication from occurring Complex and multi-layered Can be technical or generated by the medium used, etc. but: Main problem is human behaviour and psychology, e.g.
  • 28. Emotional Interference A significant factor influencing successful communication Emotions - anger, frustration, happiness, enthusiasm, need to be defensive, desire to be assertive, etc. Body language – says far more about communication than we ever realise!
  • 31. Introduction Body Language is the unspoken communication that goes on in every Face-to-Face encounter with another human being. It tells you their true feelings towards you and how well your words are being received. Between 60-80% of our message is communicated through our Body Language, only 7-10% is attributable to the actual words of a conversation.
  • 32. What is body language? The gestures, postures, and facial expressions by which a person manifests various physical, mental, or emotional states and communicates nonverbally with others.
  • 33. Basic groups of body language There are two basic groups of body language postures: OPEN/CLOSED and FORWARD/BACK
  • 34. The posture groups combine to create four basic modes They are Responsive Reflective Combative Fugitive
  • 35. Responsive In responsive mode, OPEN/FORWARD the person is actively accepting. Interpretation types - Engaged Eager Ready to agree
  • 36. Examples… Engaged  Leaning forward  Open body  Open arms Eager  (Sprint Position)  Open legs  Feet under chair  On toes Ready to agree  Closes papers  Pen down  Hands flat on table
  • 37. Reflective In reflective mode, OPEN/BACK, people are interested and receptive but not actively accepting. Interpretation types - Listening Evaluating Attentive
  • 38. Examples…  Listening  Head tilted  Lots of eye contact  Nodding  High blink rate  Evaluating  Sucks glasses / pencils  Strokes chin  Looks up and right  Legs crossed in 4 pos.  ( Ankle on knee )  Attentive  ( Standing )  Arms behind back  Smile  Open feet
  • 39. Combative In combative mode, CLOSED/FORWARD, there is active resistance Interpretation types Defiant Lying Let me speak Aggressive
  • 40. Examples… Let me speak  Finger tapping  Foot tapping  Staring Aggressive  Leaning forwards  Finger pointing  Fist clenched Defiant  ( standing )  Hands on hips  Frown Lying  Touches face  Hands over mouth  Pulls ear  Eyes down  Glances at you  Shift in seat  Looks down and to left
  • 41. Fugitive In fugitive mode, CLOSED/BACK, people are trying to escape physically through the door or mentally into boredom. Interpretation types Bored Let me go Rejection Defensive
  • 42. Examples… Bored  Staring into space  Slumped posture  Doodling  Foot tapping Let me go  Feet towards door  Looking around  Buttoning jacket Rejection  Sitting / moving back  Arms folded  Legs crossed 11 pos  ( Thigh on knee )  Head down  frown Defensive  ( Standing )  Feet pointing in  Hands clenched
  • 43. Conclusion Knowing how to read body language is a useful communication skill. So one should know how to use it. It might help us in a cracking a business deal, that crucial meeting, the business function, or that special date!
  • 44. Generally, people retain 10% of what they READ 20% of what they HEAR 30% of what they SEE 50% of what they SEE and HEAR 70% of what they SAY 90% of what they SAY and DO
  • 45. Business Communication Feedback Process Trans. 15-4 Sender Encoding the message Message Decoding the message Noise Receiver
  • 46. Business Communication Goals Receiver Understanding Receiver Response Favorable Relationship Organizational Goodwill Sender is responsible for these goals.
  • 47. Parts of a presentation Introduction Body Conclusion Questions Say what you are going to say, say it, then say what you have just said.
  • 48. Guidelines for Effective Introductions Always prepare your opening Tell people what the presentation is about Keep the opening short and simple Only use anecdotes that are relevant Use caution with personal experiences Stay away from inappropriate humor
  • 49. Guidelines for Effective Closings Always prepare a closing Always restate the main point, and, perhaps, the key supporting points Say clearly what happens next If appropriate, make a call to action Thank the audience
  • 50. 10 common presentation mistakes (and suggestions for avoiding them) #1 Accepting an inappropriate invitation personally decline, retain opportunity for company #2 Neglecting to research the audience take the time to find out who you are talking to
  • 51. What you should know about your audience How large is the audience? What are the audience members’ relevant characteristics? Why are people attending? What are the audience’s specific needs, interests, and concerns? How much do people already know? How are people likely to respond to your message?
  • 52. 10 common presentation mistakes (and suggestions for avoiding them) #3 Procrastinating, then punting. Do not try to organize your talk and create your slides simultaneously. #4 Getting a late start. Always plan to arrive early for your presentation.
  • 53. 10 common presentation mistakes (and suggestions for avoiding them) #5 Assuming all projectors are the same. Be sure you know the equipment or bring your own. #6 Failing to heed Murphy’s Law Always assume the equipment will NOT work.
  • 54. 10 common presentation mistakes (and suggestions for avoiding them) #7 Backing up to the wrong media Check your back-up media before leaving for your presentation. #8 Telling tasteless or offensive jokes A greater awareness of your audience can determine if they will find your sense of humor funny or offensive.
  • 55. 10 common presentation mistakes (and suggestions for avoiding them) #9 Relying on the World Wide Web live Web connection Create a copy on your hard drive. #10 Having too little to say Be prepared!
  • 56. Tips on PowerPoint Presentations Always use a title slide. Put it up about five minutes before your presentation begins. The presentation should set the tone of the message. If you are sharing good news, your presentation can use a lot of fun art, audio and video. If you have bad news, stick to the points.
  • 57. Tips on PowerPoint Presentations Keep the presentation look simple. You don’t want to distract from the content of the slide/presentation. Keep a consistent look from slide to slide. Create high contrast between the background and the text. Consider creating a company specific background for sales presentations.
  • 58. Same slide Keep it simple. You don’t want to distract from the content of the slide. Be consistent from slide to slide. Create high contrast between the background and the text. Consider creating a company specific background for sales presentations.
  • 59. Tips on PowerPoint Presentations One of the significant advantages of using presentation software packages is that you have access to color. Use it wisely and judiciously.(cont) Use complimentary colors together. Never use red and green together unless you want your audience to think of Christmas!
  • 60. Tips on PowerPoint Presentations One of the significant advantages of using presentation software packages is that you have access to color. Use it wisely and judiciously. Keep it simple and consistent. Use no more than five colors for charts or graphs. Choose no more than two colors for text. Be careful with the use of red because the eye will naturally go there first.
  • 61. Same slide One of the significant advantages of using presentation software packages is that you have access to color. Use it wisely and judiciously. Keep it simple and consistent. Use no more than five colors for charts or graphs. Choose no more than two colors for text. Be careful with the use of red because the eye will naturally go there first.
  • 62. Tips on PowerPoint Presentations Limit your bullet points to three or four items. Try to have no more than 24 words on any one slide. Be careful when using abbreviations, acronyms, and special phases on your slides. Explain them quickly or you lose your audience.
  • 63. Tips on PowerPoint Presentations Fonts are like colors, just because you have a lot of them to choose from you don’t have to use them all! No more than two or three per slide. Be consistent from slide to slide. Don’t overdo the use of italics, bolding and shadows and like e-mail, do NOT use all caps.
  • 64. Same slide • Fonts are like colors, just because you have a lot of them to choose from you don’t have to use them all! No more than two or three per slide. • Be consistent from slide to slide. • Don’t overdo the use of italics, bolding and sshhaaddoowwss and like email, DO NOT USE ALL CAPS.
  • 65. Tips on PowerPoint Presentations It is important to explain how to read your chart or graph as soon as you put it on the screen. Do not say anything important within ten seconds of putting up a chart. People won’t be listening, they’re too busy figuring out the chart.
  • 66. Tips on PowerPoint Presentations Have a final slide that lets the audience know that the presentation is over.
  • 69. How We Communicate • CVs, Resumes • Email, Web site, FAQs • Letters, Newsletters, Brochures, Articles, Catalogs • Advertisements, Notice Board, Pamphlets, Signs, Press Release • Presentations, multimedia, talks • Reports, Manuals, Proposals
  • 70. Which Reports? Sales Reports Inspection Reports Annual Reports Audit Reports Feasibility Reports Progress Reports White Papers
  • 71. Technical Writing Reports Proposals User Manuals Technical Manuals White Papers
  • 72. Classification of Reports Formal Reports and Informal Reports Information Reports Analytical Reports Recommendation Reports
  • 73. 5 Steps to Report Writing 1. Define the problem 2. Gather the necessary information 3. Analyze the information 4. Organize the information 5. Write the report
  • 74. Anatomy of a Report Cover Page Title Page Letter of Transmittal Table of Contents List of Illustrations Executive Summary Report Body Appendices 74
  • 75. Report Body Introduction Purpose and Scope;Limitations, Assumptions, and Methods Background/History of the Problem Body Presents and interprets data Conclusions and Recommendations References or Works Cited Appendixes Interview transcripts, questionnaires, question tallies, printouts, and previous reports 75
  • 76. Sales Proposal Budget Objectives Strategy and Tactics Schedule Results Closing 76
  • 77. Document Design Use no more than 5 fonts. Use no more than 5 colors. Use glossy paper. Use white space. Use templates. Use parallelism. Avoid double emphasis. 77
  • 78. 78
  • 79. Making Messages Effective Clear Complete Correct Save reader’s time Build good will 79
  • 80. PAIBOC Purpose Audiences Information Benefits Objections Context 80
  • 81. Communicate across Cultures Gender Race and ethnicity Regional and national origin Social class Religion Age Sexual orientation Physical ability 81
  • 82. Bias-free Communication Managers and their wives will… Managers and their spouses will… Manpower – Personnel Manhours – Hours or working hours Manning – Staffing Workman – Worker, employee, writer Chairman – Chair, chairperson 82
  • 83. Letter Contents Reference, Date, Address, Salutation, Subject (B/A), Body, Complimentary Close, Enclosures  Dear Mr Saurabh: Sincerely, and Cordially, Open (Dear Saurabh) and Closed (Dear Saurabh:) Second Page – Reader’s Name, Date, Page Number 83
  • 84. Formats for Letters and Memos Open and closed punctuation Full stops at end of addresses Full stops in abbreviations (am/pm) Block and Modified Block Date and Signature Subject Line – Optional 84
  • 85. Minutes of the Meeting Decisions Reached Action Items Open Issues 85
  • 86. Body of the Email Brief Important points at the top Bullets and numbering Emphasize (NOT) HTML (letterhead) All rules of good writing 86
  • 87. Mailing Lists Your boss could be reading! Posts are archived. Avoid using company email address. Avoid conversations (one liners). Do not rush to lists. 87
  • 88. Covering Letters Brief 3 paragraphs, bullets Focus on Major requirements Differentiators Research Web, friends, colleagues 88 Tip: Do not plead.
  • 89. 89
  • 90. Netiquette = E-mail & Internet Etiquette E-mail message - No nonverbal expression to supplement what we are “saying”. Normal communication takes into account tone of voice, gestures, and proximity Since this is absent – be very careful with email 90
  • 91. Netiquette Never flame. Use FULL CAPS only to emphasize a word or two. Send messages on a need basis. Recipient’s work practice (one long or several short messages) Quote briefly (B/A) while replying. Attachments 91
  • 92. Email Contacts  Organize contacts by first and last name  Makes you much more efficient and professional 92
  • 93. Email Length? Brief and to the point Preferably one page Readers should not have to scroll 93
  • 94. Content Never use ALL CAPS Watch for typos Use normal capitalization and punctuation Use correct grammar & spelling Avoid long sentences 94
  • 95. Replying  Return emails in the same day that you would return a phone call 95
  • 96. Subject Lines Always use a subject line Make the subject line meaningful Example: “April 22 production team meeting agenda” instead of “meeting” 96
  • 97. Signature Always use a signature or name at the end Includes alternate means of contacting you 97
  • 98. Wording? Use active words instead of passive 98
  • 99. Privacy?  Emails = public documents  Only include those statements in email that you can openly defend 99
  • 100. Attachments  Attachments: Title needs to make sense  Large attachments?? 100
  • 101. Flaming?  Never “flame” someone.  Flaming = virtual term for venting emotion online or sending inflammatory emails. 101
  • 102. Sensitive Issues?  Never send an email about sensitive subjects.  Examples:  Disciplinary action  Conflicts about grades or personal information  Concerns about fellow co-workers  complaints 102
  • 103. Reply All??  Be very careful 103
  • 104. 104
  • 105. Impressions? How you conduct yourself on the telephone = face-to- face interactions 105
  • 106. Guessing Game? Identify yourself, office or organization in as few words as possible 106
  • 107. Tone  Cheerful and considerate attitude toward each telephone caller.  Smile when you answer or talk on the phone  ***It will show on the other end. 107
  • 108. Identification? Give your name when the telephone is answered, before asking for the person you are requesting 108
  • 109. Considerate Keep business conversations to the point 109
  • 110. Holding???  Do not keep someone on hold more than 30 seconds. 110
  • 111. Leaving a message! Always leave your phone number if you ask someone to call you back Even if you think they have it 111
  • 112. Listening Well!! Listening is essential whether in person or on the phone 112
  • 113. Call Me Back!!! Always return your calls on the same day 113
  • 114. Timing?  Think about the time when making a phone call.  Not acceptable to call someone before 7-8 a.m. and after 8:30-9 p.m..  Avoid meal times 114
  • 115. Opps! Never hang-up when you realize you have a wrong number Apologize and then hang up 115
  • 116. Message Taking  When taking a message  Indicate the time & date of the call  Caller  Information  Phone number  Person taking the message  Ask for correct spelling if necessary 116
  • 117. Never – ever! Never – eat, drink or chew gum on the phone 117
  • 118. 118
  • 119. Can you hear me now?  Maintain at least a 10 foot zone from anyone while talking. 119
  • 120. Never talk here  Elevators  Restaurants  Meeting Halls  Board Rooms  Auditoriums  Lobby areas of Hotels  Other enclosed Customer spaces 120
  • 121. Emotions  Don’t have emotional conversations in public – ever. 121
  • 122. Language – yes I can hear you too!  Watch your language & tone of voice  Others are watching and getting impressions of you 122
  • 123. Ring Tones!!  Don’t use loud and annoying ring tones 123
  • 124. Personal vs. Business  Never take a personal call during a business meeting. 124
  • 125. If you have too  If you must answer a cell phone in a public setting, answer and tell the person to hold a minute while you remove yourself from the room. 125
  • 126. Manner Mode  Always keep your phone on manner mode when in a public event such as a convention or meeting. 126
  • 127. THANK YOU… (End of Day2)

Editor's Notes

  1. #1 Accepting an inappropriate invitation graciously decline the invitation and pass it on to someone in your organization that is better suited Chances are they will come back to you again in the future. If you do a poor job they won’t. #2 Neglecting to research the audience Even if you know what it is you are talking about, take the time to find out who you are talking to and what they might want to hear from you. David Kohler requested information about each of you.
  2. #3 Procrastinating, then punting. Do not try to organize your talk and create your slides simultaneously. Decide what you want to say, create an outline and then start building your slides. You can import an outline into PowerPoint. #4 Getting a late start. Always plan to arrive early for your presentation. If your presentation is in the morning and you are staying in a hotel, bring your own alarm clock to be sure it works. May want to drive to the location to determine the actual drive time a day or two early.
  3. #5 Assuming all projectors are the same. Arrive early enough to familiarize yourself with the equipment, bring your own equipment or be sure someone is there who knows the equipment. #6 Failing to heed Murphy’s Law Always assume the equipment will NOT work. Have a back up plan - your own equipment, overhead slides, printed material, etc.
  4. #7 Backing up to the wrong media Check your back-up media before leaving for your presentation. Call ahead to be sure the facility can accommodate your back up media. David Kohler had backed up his presentation on a CD however he backed it up from the laptop that had the problem. He failed to check either the laptop or the CD before coming here! So often what happens is that people make changes to a presentation, hit the automatic save which saves to the hard drive, pop out the floppy and head off to their presentation. They never updated the floppy! #8 Telling tasteless or offensive jokes A greater awareness of your audience can determine if they will find your sense of humor funny or offensive. The Internet is not a good place to find an opening joke. Most of them have already made the rounds and this only confirms your credibility as an avid reader of forwarded email jokes. Use real stories where possible.
  5. #9 Relying on the World Wide Web live Web connection Create a copy of the Web site you want to demonstrate (or the relevant parts of it) on your hard drive. You can do this using Adobe Acrobat OPEN WEB PAGE #10 Having too little to say Be prepared! Do a few trial runs to determine the length of the presentation.
  6. Title slide acts as a Welcome for your audience as well as letting them know they are in the right place. Your presentation also has to match your personality. Make sure if you are doing a group presentation that it matches everyone in the groups personality. If I put a presentation together for the Dean it will look different than one I would do for myself or for Joe T. John Cotton and I do things very differently. We need to work through that when we do presentations together.
  7. Remember that the content of the presentation is still going to be the main thing the faculty will be grading and the main thing the customer will be buying. A lot of sizzle will only go so far. Keep a consistent background and look from slide to slide. Especially as you will be doing group presentations. Each of you may be doing a part of the presentation. Ultimately the end result has to look like one consistent presentation.
  8. You know what the abbreviations mean but the audience does not. Even if you explained them earlier in the presentation, it is best to use the full words in your discussion.
  9. If you change fonts between slides the audience begins to think about that part of the presentation. They begin to focus on that and stop listening to what you are saying. Be sure to stay consistent.
  10. Make sure that the chart is readable and relevant to the audience.
  11. This slide gives you a chance to summarize what you have been discussing throughout the presentation.