Pollution: The presence in or introduction into the environmentof a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects.When undesirable changes in our surrounding exercise harmfuleffects on plants, animals & human beings, it is called pollution.Short term economic gains at the cost of long termenvironmental benefits for mankind is the mother of pollution.Pollutants classification:1)Degradable Non Persistent Pollutants: These types ofpollutants are rapidly decomposed by natural processes. eg:discarded vegetables, domestic sewage2)Slowly Degradable or Persistent Pollutants: Those Pollutantswhich remain in the atmosphere in an unchanged condition & takesyears to get degraded. insecticides, plastic bags.3)Non Degradable pollutants: Those pollutants do not getdecomposed by natural processes. it is difficult to degradethem. eg: mercury & lead.Air Pollution: It occurs in many forms but can generally bethought of as gaseous & particulate contaminants that arepresent in the earths atmosphere. Gaseous pollutants includesulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide,volatile organic compounds, hydrogen sulphide, hydrogenfluoride, & various gaseous forms of metals. These pollutantsare emitted from large stationary sources such as fossil fuelfired power plants, smelters, industrial boilers, petroleumrefineries, & manufacturing facilities as well as from area &mobile sources. They are corrosive to various materials whichcauses damage to cultural resources, can cause injury toplants & animals, aggravate respiratory diseases, & reducevisibility. Carbon Monoxide: It is a poisonous gas without colouror smell. It mainly comes from smoke emitted by petrol ordiesel run vehicles. Natural process turns it into some othercomponent, which are not harmful. Nitrogen Oxides: Vehicularexhaust. They are imp bcz they play an imp role in the productionof secondary pollutants such as ozone. Sulphur Oxides: Whenfossil fuels, such as petrol, diesel & kerosene burn theyproduce sulphur oxides. Hydrocarbons: compound havingmolecules of carbon & hydrogen. They get evaporated from fuelsupply or half burnt fuels produce hydrocarbons. with the rainfall they get mixed up with the water flowing. Lead: Lead is amajor pollutant which cannot be largely monitored. The level oflead has been recorded very high in the atmosphere surroundingmetro cities.a)Primary Pollutants: The substances which are directlyemitted from the source & remain in that form are termed asprimary pollutants eg, smoke, fumes, ash, dust, nitric oxide& sulphur dioxide b)Secondary pollutants: The substanceswhich are formed by chemical reaction between the primarypollutants & constituents of the environment (i.e. those whichare already present in the environment) .eg smog, ozone, sulphurtrioxide, nitrogen dioxide.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such aslakes, rivers, oceans, & groundwater caused by human activities,which can be harmful to organisms & plants which live in thesewater bodies. Water pollution is the presence in water bodies oftoxic chemicals &/or biological agents that exceed what isnaturally found in water & may pose a threat to human health&/or the environment. Additionally, water pollution may includechemicals exclusively introduced into the water bodies due tohuman activities, in which case any amount of those chemicalsdetected in water denotes pollution, regardless of the harmthey may pose to human health & the environment.Causes- Water Pollution1)Sewage from domestic households, factories & commercialbuildings Sewage that is treated in water treatment plants isoften disposed into the sea. Sewage can be more problematicwhen people flush chemicals & pharmaceutical substances downthe toilet.2)Dumping solid wastes & littering by humans in rivers, lakes &oceans. Littering items include cardboard, Styrofoam, aluminum,plastic & glass.3)Industrial waste from factories, which use freshwater tocarry waste from the plant into rivers, contaminates waters withpollutants such as asbestos, lead, mercury & petrochemicals.4)Oil Pollution caused by oil spills from tankers & oil from shiptravel. Oil does not dissolve in water & forms a thick sludge.5)Burning fossil fuels into the air causes the formation ofacidic particles in the atmosphere. When these particles mix withwater vapor, the result is acid rain.6)An increase in water temp. caused by global warming & thermalplants that use lakes & rivers to cool down mechanicalequipment.Soil Pollution: soil pollution is the presence of toxicchemicals (pollutants or contaminants) in soil in high enoughconcentrations to be of risk to human health &/or ecosystem.even when the levels of contaminants in soil are not of risk, soilpollution may occur simply due to the fact that the levels of thecontaminants in soil exceed the levels that are naturallypresent in soil. Soil pollutants include a large variety ofcontaminants or chemicals, which could be both naturally-occurring in soil & man-made. In both cases, the main soilpollution causes are the human activities (i.e., the accumulationof those chemicals in soil at levels of health risk is due tohuman activities such as accidental leaks & spills, dumping,manufacturing processes, etc.).Soil Degradation Causes: Soil erosion: Removal of topsoil faster than the soil forming processes can replaceit, due to natural, animal, & human activity (over grazing, overcultivation, forest clearing, mechanized farming, etc.).Soil erosion results in land infertility
& leads to desertification & devastating flooding. Excessive useof Fertilizers & Excess of salts, overexploitation of land, lack oforganic matter, low water retention capacity of soils loss ofvegetation cover, reduction of infiltration, increased runoff,evaporation & erosion inappropriate cultivation practices, etc. Noise pollution refers to sounds in the environment that arecaused by humans & that threaten the health or welfare of humanor animal inhabitants. The most common source of noisepollution by far, the one that affects the most people on theplanet, is motor vehicles. Aircraft & industrial machinery arealso major sources. Additional noise pollution is contributedby office machines, sirens, power tools, & other equipment.Impact-Noise Pollution:(a) Noise pollution affects human health, comfort & efficiency.It cause contraction of blood vessels, makes, the skin pale,leads to excessive secretion of adrenalin hormone into bloodstream with is responsible for high blood pressure. (b) It causes muscles to contract leading to nervousbreakdown, tension & even insanity. (c) Noise effects are anxiety, stress reaction & fright. Theseadverse reactions are coupled with a change in hormone contentof blood, which in turn produces increased rate of heart beat,constriction of blood vessels, digestive sperms & dilation ofpupil of eye.(d) The most immediate & acute effect of noise is the impairmentof hearing, which diminishes by the damage of some part ofauditory system. When exposed to very loud & sudden noise acutedamage occurs to the eardrum. Prolonged exposure to noise ofcertain frequency pattern will lead to chronic damage to the haircells in the inner ear.(f) Physiological effects of noise pollution include neurosis,hypertension, increase in sweating, hepatic diseases, giddiness,peptic ulcers, undesirable change in gastro intestinal activitiesbehavioural & emotional stress.(g) Noise mainly interferes with mans communication. It is easilyvisualized that a conversation can be carried on in whisper in astill place, while one his to shout to make sense in a noisyfactory.(h) Changes in breathing amplitude have also been reported dueto impulsive noise.(j) Noise causes chronic headache & irritability; work, whichneeds a high degree of skill, is considerably affected. Theoverall working efficiency goes down when noise level goes up.(k) Loud & sudden noise such as sonic boom produces a startleeffect, which may damage the brain.Psychological effect of noise pollution:(a) Depression & fatigue, which considerably reduces theefficiency of a person.
(b) Insomnia as a result of lack of undisturbed & refreshingsleep.(c) Straining of senses & annoyance as a result of slow butpersistent noise from motorcycles, alarm clocks, call bells,telephone rings etc.(d) Affecting of psychomotor performance of a person by asudden loud noise (sound)(e) It is a cause of frustration & is associated with difficulty inconcentration, disturbance of rest, physical & mental fatigue.Low frequency noise of 50 to 60 dB affects the higher centre ofbrain & causes an alternation in the normal sleep pattern &prevents sound sleep.(f) Noise, which is an annoyance also causes irritation dis-satisfaction, dis-interest & affects work "performance. Noisehas been reported both to improve & to decrease workefficiency, depending on its intensity, duration & frequencydistribution etc.Individuals Role in Preventing Pollution:1)We should develop respect for each form of life.2)We should plant trees & care for them. 3)We should use fruits & vegetables grown with organicchemicals which in turn will reduce the use of pesticides.4)To save petrol & diesel we should walk to cover shorterdistances or use public transport.5)We should use more of durable products & repair them forreuse.6)We should reduce the use of plastic, paper, wooden products.7)We should avoid use of furnitures, doors made of teak bcz itis forest based products.8)we should extend our help to efforts directed atrehabilitating degraded land within our surroundings. We shouldparticipate in afforestation programmes.9)We should switch off lights & fans when not needed them.10)We should avoid using air fresheners bcz they have a badimpact on ozone layer.11)we should avoid using things which are not good for soilhealths.12)We should use recyclable or reusable goods.13)Instead of using plastic bags we should use jute bags orcarry cloth bags with us.14)We should rechargeable batteries.Disaster: Disaster is a sudden, calamitous event bringing greatdamage, loss, & destruction & devastation to life & property. Thedamage caused by disasters is immeasurable & varies with thegeographical location, climate & the type of the earthsurface/degree of vulnerability. This influences the mental,socio-economic, political & cultural state of the affected area.Generally, disaster has the following effects in the concernedareas:
1)It completely disrupts the normal day to day life2)It negatively influences the emergency systems3)Normal needs & processes like food, shelter, health, etc. areaffected & deteriorate depending on the intensity & severity ofthe disaster.DISASTER MANAGEMENT: DM can be defined as the organization &management of resources & responsibilities for dealing with allhumanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness,response & recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.OR DM means to take wll planned & control oriented steps tosolve the problems created by natural disaster or man-madedisaster.Essential Components Of Mitigation Management:1)Risk assessment & Vulnerability Analysis2)Applied Research & Technology Transfer3)Public awareness & Training4)Institutional Mechanism5)Incentives & Resources for Mitigation6)Land use Planning & Regulations.Nature or Characteristics Of Disaster:1)Uncertain Event: Natural disaster are uncertain events. Withthe help of satellite One can get the idea of the when & in whichare will it happen in advance.2)Natural Event: Most of the disaster are natural events.Disaster occur due to the changes in internal part of earth &pollution in the environment.3)Loss Of Life: Natural disaster results in huge loss of life.They destroy the everything that comes into their way.4)Destruction of property5)Destruction of living Organism: Bcz of natural disasternot only the man dies but also living organisms like birds,animals.6)Damage to agriculture: Bcz of heavy rains or floodsagricultural crops destroys & this not only affect the peopleliving in that are but also the area in which it supplies itsagricultural crops.7)Change in Environment: Due to natural disaster the naturalenvironment changes. Due to extreme heat & cold there is achange in season cycle.8)Disturbance in Human Life: Bcz of natural & man madedisaster it changes the normal life of the people for some days.Communication is also one of the changes.Objective Of Disaster Management:1)Reduce negative effect of calamity2)Protection of human life & living Organism3)To make human life free from fear
4)Rehabilitate human life5)Maintain Progress Rate6)To Perform social responsibility.Natural Disaster- Steps on the bases of past experience:1)After earth quake in gujarat, it was decided that while buildingany house certain rules of construction should be followedlike base of the house should pe prepared & supporting slabshould be arranged.2)Before the rainy season, drainage should be completelycleaned.3)Sutters of dams should be oiled.4)Fire brigade of every area should be informed to remain ready.5)Enough supply of ruber tubes, life boats, ropes etc. shouldbe organised.6)There should be arrangements to warn people in case ofdisaster.7)Camps should be arranged to make people aware of the stepswhich should be taken at the time of various types of disaster. Man-made Disaster- preventions:1)Specific speed should be fixed for vehicles & strictly obeyingshould be forced in mountain areas.2)To keep control over speed there should be bumpers beforethe turns on the road.3)Railway engine drivers should be provided training again &again at the time of intervals & they should be provided moderninstruments of communication.4)Capacity of passengers should be fixed for privates boats & itshould be obeyed strictly.Managerial Steps of Disaster: Pre-disaster Steps:1)Warning about Disaster2)Arrangements for shifting3)Provide primary facilities 4)Steps of alertness5)Provide information constantlyPost-disaster Steps:1)Provide information through public media2)Receive info about casualty & damage3)Contact for rescue operation4)Help of fire brigade5)Shift the injured to the hospital6)Planning control of rescue activity7)Set up relief camp8)Tools for the resistance of diseases9)Distribute means required for daily life10)Invocation to NGOs11)Monetary help12)Control over rumours.
Tools for the rescue operation during disaster:1)Quick Transportation2)Ropes3)Communication wireless4)Portable mike5)Tent Protection wall6)Generators7)Fire Fighter8)Safety Boats9)Long ladder10)Portable cranes11)Bulldozer12)Siren13)Mobile Hospital14)Helicopters15)Fire Proof GarmentsSteps To Prevent Man-made Disaster:1)Survey should be made about, internal defects & weakness2)Area should be checked & observed, keeping in mind the safetyfor residence & progress.3)Bcz of local disaster, the code of conduct should bepractised4)By economic & other encouragements, such schemes & code ofconduct should be applied.