Mastitis

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Role of vitamin E and Se in mastitis and milk quality

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Mastitis

  1. 1. A major creditseminaronPresented by-Saurabh GangwarANIMAL NUTRITIONDIVISIONM.V.Sc scholarInfluence of vitamin E and Se onInfluence of vitamin E and Se onmastitis and milk quality in dairy cowmastitis and milk quality in dairy cow
  2. 2. Inflammation of mammary gland, characterised byphysiochemical and bacteriological changes in milk andpathological change in glandular tissue.What’s mastitis?IntroductionIntroduction(Rodostitis et al.,2000)
  3. 3. Types of mastitis-I. ClinicalII.Subclinical (70%)(Sharma et al.,2004)IntroductionIntroduction
  4. 4. Resistance,nutrition,stressBacteria, virus,mycoplasmaHousing, equipment, hygiene,weather, beddingHostEnvironmentInfectiousAgentDeterminants of mastitisDeterminants of mastitis
  5. 5. Majority of cases of clinical mastitis were detectedduring the first week of lactation.(Wilson et al., 2004)Mastitis remains a worldwide problem of primeeconomic importance to dairy producers.(National Mastitis Council, 2005)
  6. 6. Total economic loss due toTotal economic loss due tomastitis in Indiamastitis in IndiaIt increased about 115 fold in the last five decades.Loss due to mastitis is 7165.5 crore per year.(NDRI,2012)
  7. 7. Economic lossEconomic lossReduced milk productionDiscarded milkReplacement costExtra labourVeterinary service cost(Smith and Horgan., 2001)
  8. 8. Animal healthLoss of functional quarterLowered milk productionDeath of cowHuman healthPoor quality milkAntibiotic residues in milk.(Van Schaik et al. 2002)HHealth concernsealth concerns loss due toloss due to mastitismastitis
  9. 9. Parturition.Onset of lactation.Increased level of steroids.Change in feeding and management practice.Negative energy balance.Large change in harmonal and metabolism .(Aitken et al., 2011)Stress in periparturient animalsStress in periparturient animals
  10. 10. In transition period depression of the non specific immunesystem due to hormonal change and stress.(Sordillo et al.,2011)Mastitis could induce increase formation of free radicals inmilk leading to oxidative stress.(Gu et al., 2009)Immune response in periparturientImmune response in periparturientperiodperiod
  11. 11. Less no of neutrophil are able to migrate into peripheral tissue.(Aitken et al.,2011)Phagocytic and killing ability of neutrophil also impairedaround parturition.(Mehrzad et al.,2001)Functional activity of B cells decrease.(Sordillo et al.,2013)Oxidative stress influences bovineOxidative stress influences bovineimmunityimmunity
  12. 12. The best way to reduce the incidence of mastitis is to improveimmune status of animals.Antioxidants like vitamin E and Se plays an important role instressful condition. (Panda et. al.,2006) 57 – 71 % decrease in sub- clinical mastitis in cowsupplemented with Vitamin E @ 1000 IU/day during dryperiod. (Chatterjee et al.,2005)Need of supplementationNeed of supplementation
  13. 13. It is major lipid soluble antioxidant in the cell membrane. Vit E protect againest lipid peroxidation by harmful lipid freeradicals.(Spears and Weiss,2008)Enhances phagocytic activity of neutrophils, macrophages andNK cells.( Mukherjee et al., 2008)Biological role of vitamin EBiological role of vitamin E
  14. 14. Biochemical role through glutathione peroxide andthioredoxin reductase.(Papp et al.,2007)Se may influence eicosanoid metabolism to modulateinflammation and chemotactically active compounds.(Sordillo et al., 2013)Enhance neutrophil function.Biological role of SeBiological role of Se
  15. 15. 00.511.522.53-60 -30 -15 0 10 30 60Days pre andpost calvingAlphaTocopherol(microgram/ml)(Weiss et al.,1997)•Reduced endogenous synthesis.•Scavenger the free radical. (Kateria et al.,2012)Reduction of alpha-tocopherol in plasma inReduction of alpha-tocopherol in plasma inperiparturient dairy cattleperiparturient dairy cattle
  16. 16. 00.10.20.30.40.50.6Healthy Mastitisn=75mg/LMilk Plasma(Aroshi et al., 2006)012345Healthy Mastitismg/Ln=75Level of vitamin E in healthy andLevel of vitamin E in healthy andmastitis cowmastitis cow
  17. 17. Component location NutrientinvolvedfunctionSuperoxidedismutasecytosol Cu,Zn,Mn An enzyme that converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxideGlutathioneperoxidasecytosol Se An enzyme that convertshydrogen peroxide to waterCatalase cytosol Fe An enzyme that convertsHydrogen peroxide to waterAlpha tocopherol membrane Vitamin E Break fatty acid peroxidationchain reactionCarotene membrane Carotene Prevents initiation of fatty acidperoxidation chain reactionsAntioxidant system of mammalian cellsAntioxidant system of mammalian cells
  18. 18. Free radicals are formed as a normal end product of cellularmetabolism. (Valko et al.,2007)Increased production of reactive oxygen species is increased inlate pregnancy, parturition and lactation .(Bordello et al.,2011)Free radical formationFree radical formation
  19. 19. Antioxidants protect the body from free radicals either bydirectly scavenging free radicals or by inhibiting the activity ofoxidizing enzymes.( Ellah et al., 2013). Antioxident stabilize freeradicals and prevent damageto cells and tissuesANTIOXIDENT MECHANISMANTIOXIDENT MECHANISM
  20. 20. In CytosolSODO2˙ H2O2 H2O(Cu, Mn, Zn) GSH-Px(Se)In MembraneFA Lipid hydroperoxide AlcohalVitamin EO2˙, H2O2Mechanism of ActionMechanism of Action
  21. 21. Altered prostaglandin Vit.E &Se( Sharma et al., 2011)Immunosuppressive effectsImmunosuppressive effectsFunction of T and B cellsActive macrophageMechanism of ActionMechanism of Action
  22. 22. CureReleaseSurvival“ALARM”Peripheral PMNPhagocytosis& killingVit. E & SeVit. E & SeMicro-organismsRole of Vit. E & SeRole of Vit. E & Sein phagocytosisin phagocytosis(Zadox, 2006)
  23. 23. (Suriyasathaporn et al., 2006)Serum BHBAClinical ketosis is associated with a two-foldClinical ketosis is associated with a two-foldincrease in the risk of clinical mastitisincrease in the risk of clinical mastitis
  24. 24. Effect of Vit. E & SeEffect of Vit. E & SeParametersParameters Control (n=20)Control (n=20) T1 (n=20)T1 (n=20) T2 (n=20)T2 (n=20)NoneNone 20 ml inj.20 ml inj. 40 ml inj.40 ml inj.Serum Se (Serum Se (µµg/l)g/l)4 wk before calving4 wk before calving 7272 6767 6969Calving dayCalving day 5656 7878 9292ColostrumColostrum 111111 135135 145145Milk SCC (1000/mlMilk SCC (1000/ml))4 week4 week 226226 212212 2072078 week8 week 193193 183183 17917912 week12 week 227227 215215 203203Injection: 0.5 mg Se (Na-selenite) + 50 IU Vit. E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate)/ml.(Moeini(Moeini et al.,et al., 2009)2009)
  25. 25. PlasmaPlasma αα-tocopherol conc. (µg/ml) during periparturient &-tocopherol conc. (µg/ml) during periparturient &postparturient period in cattlepostparturient period in cattleDaysDays Control groupControl group(n=6)(n=6)Treatment groupTreatment group(n=6)(n=6)-30-30 3.623.62 2.742.74-20-20 3.113.11 3.553.55-10-10 2.292.29 3.013.01-5-5 2.872.87 3.233.2300 1.571.57 2.252.2533 1.401.40 2.652.6577 1.931.93 2.402.401212 1.781.78 3.143.14Supplementation: 1000 IU dl-α- TA/d from 30 d bp up to 2 wk ap(Chawla(Chawla et al.,et al., 2004)2004)
  26. 26. Effect of Vitamin E supplementation onEffect of Vitamin E supplementation onmilk production & mastitis in cattlemilk production & mastitis in cattleParameterParameter Control groupControl group Treatment groupTreatment groupMilk production (kg)Milk production (kg) 11.011.0 14.1Mastitis (%)Mastitis (%)(15 d postpartum)(15 d postpartum)37.537.5 17.4(Chawla(Chawla et al.,et al., 2004)2004)Supplementation: 1000 IU dl-α- TA/d from 30d bp up to 2 wk ap
  27. 27. DaysDays T1T1 T2T2 T3T3 T4T4-60-60 1.101.10 1.181.18 1.111.11 1.061.06-45-45 1.131.13 1.161.16 1.161.16 1.111.11-30-30 0.950.95 1.101.10 0.950.95 094094-15-15 0.780.78 0.840.84 0.920.92 08508500 0.500.50 0.610.61 0.750.75 0.780.781515 0.620.62 0.780.78 0.860.86 0.930.933030 0.730.73 0.990.99 0.940.94 0.970.97PlasmaPlasma αα-tocopherol concentration (µg/ml) in-tocopherol concentration (µg/ml) inbuffaloes after supplementationbuffaloes after supplementationT1: control.T2: 1000 IU α -TA/d from 60 d bp to 30 d pp.T3: 1500 IU α -TA/d from 60 d bp to 30 d pp.T4: 2000 IU α -TA/d from 60 d bp to 30 d pp.(Panda, 2008)
  28. 28. Days ofDays oflactationlactationT1T1 T2T2 T3T3 T4T40-150-15 7.387.38 7.637.63 9.009.00 8.798.7916-3016-30 8.128.12 9.219.21 10.2910.29 10.2710.2731-4531-45 8.708.70 9.799.79 11.0811.08 10.8710.8746-6046-60 8.298.29 9.919.91 11.2511.25 10.7010.70MeanMean 8.128.12 9.139.13 10.4010.40 10.1510.15Milk yield of buffaloes afterMilk yield of buffaloes aftersupplementationsupplementation(Panda, 2008)
  29. 29. DaysDays T1T1 T2T2 T3T3 T4T411 2.022.02 1.581.58 1.461.46 1.511.5155 2.352.35 1.711.71 1.371.37 1.461.4677 2.212.21 1.821.82 1.451.45 1.361.361515 2.282.28 1.641.64 1.391.39 1.241.243030 1.941.94 1.531.53 1.421.42 1.391.39Milk somatic cell Counts (SCC) X 1Milk somatic cell Counts (SCC) X 10055ininbuffaloes after supplementationbuffaloes after supplementation(Panda, 2008)
  30. 30. Vitamin E supplementation on total plasmaVitamin E supplementation on total plasmaimmunoglobulin (mg/ml) in periparturient cowsimmunoglobulin (mg/ml) in periparturient cowsDay partrution Ι ΙΙ-30 50.4 49.6-15 44.9 46.1-7 40.5 41.00 34.5 38.17 42.5 44.421 48.9 50.6(Sharma et al.,2011 )1,000 I.U. α-tocopheryl acetate
  31. 31. Comparison between control and treatmentComparison between control and treatmentgroup for no. of cases of CMgroup for no. of cases of CMFarm Status Control group Treatment groupFarm no. 1(no=120)Mastitis + 10 2Farm no. 2(no=150)Mastitis + 11 3Farm no. 3(no=120)Mastitis + 9 2Farm no. 4(no=130)Mastitis+ 10 3Total animal(no=520)Mastitis + 40 10Mastitis +(%) 8% 2%Treatment: sodium selenate @ 1mg/kgBW s/c injection 30 day before parturition(Sanchez(Sanchez et al.,et al., 2011)2011)
  32. 32. Suppl. of 1000 IU α-tocopherol –Dry cows- ↓ SCM by 40%(Rajiv et al., 2004)Antibiotics - ↓ 60% CM in buffaloes Antibiotics + Vitamin E- 80% ↓ CM(Kaur et al.,2003)
  33. 33. Milk qualityMilk qualitySCC is a primary indicator of mastitis and milk quality in dairyherd. (Weiss etal.,2003)Several studies have reported decreases in casein content inmilk . (Kelly et al.,2000)Mastitis also affects the quality of pasteurized liquid milk andreduces its shelf life.(Ma et al.,2000)
  34. 34. Compositional changes in milk from normalCompositional changes in milk from normalhealthy cow and mastitic cowhealthy cow and mastitic cowConstituentConstituent Normal milkNormal milk Mastitic milkMastitic milk % of normal% of normalSNFSNF 8.98.9 8.88.8 99 -99 -FatFat 3.53.5 3.23.2 91 -91 -Lactose 4.94.9 4.44.4 90 -90 -Total proteinTotal protein 3.613.61 3.563.56 99 -99 -Total caseinTotal casein 2.82.8 2.32.3 82 -82 -Serum albuminSerum albumin 0.020.02 0.070.07 350 +350 +LactoferrinLactoferrin 0.020.02 0.100.10 500 +500 +IgIg 0.100.10 0.60.6 600 +600 +NaNa 0.0570.057 0.1050.105 184 +184 +ClCl 0.0910.091 0.1470.147 161 +161 +KK 0.1730.173 0.1570.157 91 -91 -CaCa 0.120.12 0.040.04 33 -33 -
  35. 35. Source of seSource of seCattle supplemented with Se-yeast had an increase in serumand milk Se concentrations in comparison with those givensodium selenite and also lower SCC and new cases ofsubclinical mastitis. More increased activity of GSHPx.(Cortinas et al. 2010)
  36. 36. ConclusionsConclusionsIn dairy animals oxidative stress can be minimized bysupplementation of Vitamin E & Se.Supplementation of Vitamin E & Se reduces the incidence ofmastitis.Milk yield & quality of milk can be improved withsupplementation of vitamin E and selenium.

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