PRESENTATION ON VOCATIONAL TRAINING
TRANING PLACE :- C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR
TRAINING STARTING ON 07.05.2013 TO 06.06.2013
...
 INTRODUCTION
 SCHEMATIC POWER SYSTEM DAIGRAM
 CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTATION
 MAIN EQUIPMENTS OF SUBSTATION
 TYPE OF I...
 Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board was Formed in Accordance
with the section 5 of the Electricity Supply Act 1948 as P...
33 KV
Bus P.T
11 KV
33/11 KV sub
station
LA
ES
ISO
CT
CB
CB
LA
LA
T/F
CB
CT
CT CT
CT
According to Design.
1.Indoor type
Sub-station.
2.Out door type
Sub-station.
(a) Pole mounted
Sub-station.
(b) Foundation ...
 1) Power transformer
 2) Circuit breaker
 3) Isolator
 4) Earthing switch
 5) lightning arrestor
 6) BusBar
 7) Cu...
 Transformer is used to step down the voltage from 33 kv voltage
to 11kv voltage .
 Generally 3.15 MVA, 5 MVA, 10 MVA 33...
 Check Oil level in main tank & OLTC tank.
 Check the color of silica gel in breather ;it must
be blue in color .if it i...
 Check Earth resistance ,provide watering
arrangement for earthling pits.
 Tight all connections.
 Check breakdown volt...
 Check cooling system & confirm fan control
operation w.r.to temperature variation.
 33/11 KV, Δ / Y , 3.15 MVA, 5 MVA, 10 MVA
CURRENT
TRANSFORMER
POTENTIAL
TRANSFORMER
 Current T/F is used for protection and
metering purposes.
 It steps down the current level of the line for
following pu...
 300 -150 / 5 A
 200-100 / 5 A
 100-50 / 5 A
 50-25 / 5 A
It steps down the voltage level of line for -
1) Measurement : voltmeter, frequency meter ,kw
meter, kwh meter ,power fact...
 For 33 KV :- 33 KV / 110 V/√3
 For 11 KV :- 11 KV / 110 V/√3
 Circuit Breaker can switch automatically
during normal and abnormal conditions .
during faulty condition the fault is se...
 Low voltage air circuit breaker.
 Oil circuit breaker.
 Air blast circuit breaker.
 SF6 circuit breaker.
 Vacuum cir...
11 KV 33 KV
Rated
Voltage
12 KV 36 KV
Normal
Current
400 A 630 A
S.C Breaking
Current
8 & 12.5 KA 12.5 KA (750
MVA)
DC Vol...
 High resistance interruption.
(1) Arc lengthening.
(2) Arc cooling.
(3) Arc splitting.
(4) Arc constraining.
 Low resis...
 1) no oil is required for are quenching
 2) least maintenance
 3) compact size
 4) light in weight
Maintenance of cir...
 Isolator is used to isolate the equipment.
 Isolator is operate at no load.
Maintenance of isolator:-
1) Oiling &greasi...
 It is operated on No Load Only.
 Rated Voltage :- 12 KV
 Normal Current :- 400 A
 Rated Voltage :- 36 V
 Normal Current :- 630 A
 Earthing switch discharges the voltage an
deadline to earth . it is connected between line
unit of isolator to earth .
N...
11 KV 33 KV
Voltage Rating 9 KV 30 KV
Normal
Discharge
Current
5 KA 10 KA
 Busbar are conducting rod to which a number
incoming and outgoing feeders are connected
in 33kv S/S there are 33kv bus &...
Copper.
Tin
Lead.
Silver.
TYPES OF MATERIAL USED IN FUSE WIRE:-
 Rewireable fuse.
 Cartridge type fuse.
 Drop out fuse.
 High capacity H.R.C. fuse.
 High voltage H.R.C. fuse.
Types ...
 Rewireable fuse.
 Cartridge type fuse.
 Drop out fuse.
 High capacity H.R.C. fuse.
 High voltage H.R.C. fuse.
TYPES ...
 11 KV , 50 HZ.
 Rated Voltage :- 12 KV
 Rated Normal Current:- 100 A.
 DESIRED CHARECTERISTICS OF PROTECTION SYSTEM:-
Characteristics of protection system.
1.Reliability
2.Sensitivity.
3.Sele...
FUNCTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS:-
 The relay is used to cut off the power supply,
promptly to any element of power system w...
Main features of a good protective relay.
1.Reliability
2.Sensitivity.
3.Selectivity.
4.Quickness.
5.Non interference
With...
1) Differential Relay
2) Over Current Earth Fault Relay
3) Buchholz Relay
 This is the main protection provided to the transformer. This takes
care of all the internal faults within the protectio...
 Over current earth fault protection is also
called as back up protection . It two
transformers are used in parallel than...
 It is used to provide protection against internal
faults in transformer . Incipient faults are due to
the arcing in the ...
 Generally for 33kv S/S
 Auxiliary DC volt is 30 v DC , 15 nos of cells are used
 DC voltage supply is used for followi...
 Specific Gravity of electrolyte and amount of
charged
 Hydrometer :- it is the device used for
measurement of specific ...
 3 ph Capacitor bank is used for improvement
of power factor . It is normally connected to 11
kv bus . VCB is used for Ca...
 12 KV , 1200 KVAr, 2400 KVAr , 3600 KVAr
The advantages of power factors improvement by
Capacitor addition:-
 a) Reactive component of the network is
reduced and ...
 Reduced kvA (maximum demand ) charges in
utility bill.
 Reduced distribution losses (kwh) within the
plant network.
 B...
ISO ABISO
AB
AB
3PH SUPPLY
ISO
ISO
ISO
ISO
ISO
ISO
ISO
ISO
AB
AB
R Y B
R Y B
R
Y
B
R
Y
B
R
Y
B
POWER X’MER
INCOMING BUSBAR...
Voltage
level
(kV)
Standar
d bay
widths
(in
Mtrs.)
For equipments
and rigid
conductors in air
Phase to Phase spacing in
is...
 The training session was very educational and
very informative this CSPDCL Office have
good harmonic relation and co-ord...
C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)
C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)
C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)
C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)
C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)
C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)
C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)
C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)
C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)
C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)
C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)
C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)
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C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)

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C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR (TOWN)

  1. 1. PRESENTATION ON VOCATIONAL TRAINING TRANING PLACE :- C.S.P.D.C.L.AMBIKAPUR TRAINING STARTING ON 07.05.2013 TO 06.06.2013  SUPERVISION BY:-  MR.D.K.SHARMA A.E.IN CSPDCL(O&M) (AMBIKAPUR TOWN)  SUBMITTED TO :-  MR.P.R.MISHRA H.O.D. E.E. VEC LAKHANPUR
  2. 2.  INTRODUCTION  SCHEMATIC POWER SYSTEM DAIGRAM  CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTATION  MAIN EQUIPMENTS OF SUBSTATION  TYPE OF INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER  TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS  EARTHING SWITCH  LIGHTING ARRESTOR  BUS BAR  FUSE  INTRODUCTION OF PROTECTION SCHEME  PF IMPROVEMENT  MINIMUM CLEARANCE  CONCLUSION
  3. 3.  Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board was Formed in Accordance with the section 5 of the Electricity Supply Act 1948 as Per the Notification Published in the gazette of the Government of Chhattisgarh Dated 15th November 2000. Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB)became functional w.e.f. 01.12.2000.  Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board has been reorganized into following Five Companies in accordance with the provisions contained in the section 131-134 of Electricity Act 2003 by the Government of Chhattisgarh vide notification dated 19.12.2008
  4. 4. 33 KV Bus P.T 11 KV 33/11 KV sub station LA ES ISO CT CB CB LA LA T/F CB CT CT CT CT
  5. 5. According to Design. 1.Indoor type Sub-station. 2.Out door type Sub-station. (a) Pole mounted Sub-station. (b) Foundation mounted Sub-station.
  6. 6.  1) Power transformer  2) Circuit breaker  3) Isolator  4) Earthing switch  5) lightning arrestor  6) BusBar  7) Current transformer  8) Potential transformer  9) Protective relay  10) DC battery set  11)Capacitor bank  12)Fire fighting system
  7. 7.  Transformer is used to step down the voltage from 33 kv voltage to 11kv voltage .  Generally 3.15 MVA, 5 MVA, 10 MVA 33/11kv, Δ / Y transformer are used in 33/11kv .
  8. 8.  Check Oil level in main tank & OLTC tank.  Check the color of silica gel in breather ;it must be blue in color .if it is turned pink then recondition it or replace it.  Check On load Tap Changer Lower/Raise trail by Local & Remote.  Trip trail by draining oil in Buchholz relay
  9. 9.  Check Earth resistance ,provide watering arrangement for earthling pits.  Tight all connections.  Check breakdown voltage of oil.  Clean the bushings.  Attend the oil leakages  Note Temperature of Oil & leakage.
  10. 10.  Check cooling system & confirm fan control operation w.r.to temperature variation.
  11. 11.  33/11 KV, Δ / Y , 3.15 MVA, 5 MVA, 10 MVA
  12. 12. CURRENT TRANSFORMER POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER
  13. 13.  Current T/F is used for protection and metering purposes.  It steps down the current level of the line for following purposes. 1) Measurement :- ammeter , kw meter , kwh meter , power factor meter 2) control and protection :- current when exceeds the set value operates the relay which senses the faulty condition .
  14. 14.  300 -150 / 5 A  200-100 / 5 A  100-50 / 5 A  50-25 / 5 A
  15. 15. It steps down the voltage level of line for - 1) Measurement : voltmeter, frequency meter ,kw meter, kwh meter ,power factor meter 2) Control & protection : used in directional over current protection and under frequency relay operation (48.8 Hz , df/dt relay)
  16. 16.  For 33 KV :- 33 KV / 110 V/√3  For 11 KV :- 11 KV / 110 V/√3
  17. 17.  Circuit Breaker can switch automatically during normal and abnormal conditions . during faulty condition the fault is sensed by the relay and operates the circuit breaker to isolate the fault. In 33kv substation generally vacuum circuit breaker are used where are quenching medium is vacuum
  18. 18.  Low voltage air circuit breaker.  Oil circuit breaker.  Air blast circuit breaker.  SF6 circuit breaker.  Vacuum circuit breaker.
  19. 19. 11 KV 33 KV Rated Voltage 12 KV 36 KV Normal Current 400 A 630 A S.C Breaking Current 8 & 12.5 KA 12.5 KA (750 MVA) DC Voltage 24 V 24 V
  20. 20.  High resistance interruption. (1) Arc lengthening. (2) Arc cooling. (3) Arc splitting. (4) Arc constraining.  Low resistance interruption. (1) Cooling. (2) Gap lengthening. (3) Blast effect.
  21. 21.  1) no oil is required for are quenching  2) least maintenance  3) compact size  4) light in weight Maintenance of circuit breaker  1) close/trip through local/remote control  2) trip trial through auto closer relay  4) oiling & greasing of moving parts  5) vermin proofing  6) heater healthy
  22. 22.  Isolator is used to isolate the equipment.  Isolator is operate at no load. Maintenance of isolator:- 1) Oiling &greasing of moving parts. 2) check contact firmness . 3) check open / close trials. 4) Earthing switch .
  23. 23.  It is operated on No Load Only.  Rated Voltage :- 12 KV  Normal Current :- 400 A
  24. 24.  Rated Voltage :- 36 V  Normal Current :- 630 A
  25. 25.  Earthing switch discharges the voltage an deadline to earth . it is connected between line unit of isolator to earth . NOTE:- it there is breakdown at line then for measurement of resistance by megger do not close earth switch .
  26. 26. 11 KV 33 KV Voltage Rating 9 KV 30 KV Normal Discharge Current 5 KA 10 KA
  27. 27.  Busbar are conducting rod to which a number incoming and outgoing feeders are connected in 33kv S/S there are 33kv bus & 11kv bus . VARIOUS TYPES OF BUS BAR ARRANGE- MENT SYSTEM:-  Single bus bar system used in D.C. and A.C. power station.  Single bus bar system with sectionalization .  Ring bus bar system.  Duplicate bus bar system.
  28. 28. Copper. Tin Lead. Silver. TYPES OF MATERIAL USED IN FUSE WIRE:-
  29. 29.  Rewireable fuse.  Cartridge type fuse.  Drop out fuse.  High capacity H.R.C. fuse.  High voltage H.R.C. fuse. Types of Fuse element
  30. 30.  Rewireable fuse.  Cartridge type fuse.  Drop out fuse.  High capacity H.R.C. fuse.  High voltage H.R.C. fuse. TYPES OF FUSES:-
  31. 31.  11 KV , 50 HZ.  Rated Voltage :- 12 KV  Rated Normal Current:- 100 A.
  32. 32.  DESIRED CHARECTERISTICS OF PROTECTION SYSTEM:- Characteristics of protection system. 1.Reliability 2.Sensitivity. 3.Selectivity. 4.Descrimination. 5.Speed. 6.Simplicity. 7.Economy.
  33. 33. FUNCTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS:-  The relay is used to cut off the power supply, promptly to any element of power system which undergoes short –circuit it starts operating abnormally.
  34. 34. Main features of a good protective relay. 1.Reliability 2.Sensitivity. 3.Selectivity. 4.Quickness. 5.Non interference With future extension.
  35. 35. 1) Differential Relay 2) Over Current Earth Fault Relay 3) Buchholz Relay
  36. 36.  This is the main protection provided to the transformer. This takes care of all the internal faults within the protection zone at this relay it from hv, ct to lv ct ,it is also called as Differential zone. Fault lying within this zone are called as external fault or through fault.  Details of the relay  Transformer Differential protection relay  Percentage Bias type  Suitable for 2 winding transformer ,CTR-iA,  operating current 20-100%  Bias setting 20-30% , operating time less than msec for time setting contact 2 nos
  37. 37.  Over current earth fault protection is also called as back up protection . It two transformers are used in parallel than directional Over Current Earth fault relay should be used.  These relay are provided on 33kv hv side of the transformer ,11kv (lv) side of the transformer and on 11kv feeders.
  38. 38.  It is used to provide protection against internal faults in transformer . Incipient faults are due to the arcing in the oil because of the failure of the inter -lamination or core bolt insulation or poor electrical connection causing spark in the oil. These fault occurs the gas in the main tank rushes upwards and gets accumulated in the relay chamber . initially it initiates buchholz alarm it the fault persist then buchholz trip command is extended to the CB.
  39. 39.  Generally for 33kv S/S  Auxiliary DC volt is 30 v DC , 15 nos of cells are used  DC voltage supply is used for following control circuit 1) Tripping circuit of CB 2) Closing circuit of CB 3) Alarm circuit , (buchholz alarm, winding temp alarm, trip alarm ,DC fail alarm) 4) Semaphore indicator (indicators the close/open position of isobar and CB) 5) Breaker on/off indicates (indication bulbs are used ) 6) Trip circuit healthy indication (indication bulb is used )
  40. 40.  Specific Gravity of electrolyte and amount of charged  Hydrometer :- it is the device used for measurement of specific gravity of electrolyte range is 1150 to 1433. 100 75 50 25 Discharged Specific Gravity At 27o C 1200-1230 1200-1210 1170-1185 1150-1160 Below 1150
  41. 41.  3 ph Capacitor bank is used for improvement of power factor . It is normally connected to 11 kv bus . VCB is used for Capacitor bank switching .  Normally capacitor banks are connected in star.
  42. 42.  12 KV , 1200 KVAr, 2400 KVAr , 3600 KVAr
  43. 43. The advantages of power factors improvement by Capacitor addition:-  a) Reactive component of the network is reduced and so also the total current in the system from the source end  b) I2R power losses are reduced in the system because of reduction in current  c) voltage level at the load end is increased
  44. 44.  Reduced kvA (maximum demand ) charges in utility bill.  Reduced distribution losses (kwh) within the plant network.  Better voltage and improved performance of system.  A high power factor eliminates penalty charges imposed when operating with a low power factor.
  45. 45. ISO ABISO AB AB 3PH SUPPLY ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO AB AB R Y B R Y B R Y B R Y B R Y B POWER X’MER INCOMING BUSBAR OUTGOING BUSBAR
  46. 46. Voltage level (kV) Standar d bay widths (in Mtrs.) For equipments and rigid conductors in air Phase to Phase spacing in isolators and switches Phase to phase (mm) Phase to earth (mm) Isolator (mm) Switches with Arc Horns (mm) 132 9.5 1700 1000 2135 3050 66 7 1220 750 1525 2135 33 4.6 915 610 765 1220 11 3.5 560 305 610 915 0.415 -- 380 305 -- --
  47. 47.  The training session was very educational and very informative this CSPDCL Office have good harmonic relation and co-ordination between staff members. As the vocational training seems laborious job to gate in touch with the activities. It was nobility of the people to provide the information and the required theoretical background at there continuous job hour.

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