8 Ppe


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  • This presentation is designed to assist trainers conducting OSHA 10-hour General Industry outreach training for workers. Since workers are the target audience, this presentation emphasizes hazard identification, avoidance, and control – not standards. No attempt has been made to treat the topic exhaustively. It is essential that trainers tailor their presentations to the needs and understanding of their audience. This presentation is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or for any standards issued by the U.S. Department of Labor. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Labor.
  • 8 Ppe

    1. 1. Personal Protective Equipment
    2. 2. Definition and scope <ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing and devices worn by workers to prevent injury </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Protecting Employees from Workplace Hazards <ul><li>Employers must protect employees from workplace hazards such as machines, hazardous substances, and dangerous work procedures that can cause injury </li></ul><ul><li>Employers must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use all feasible engineering and work practice controls to eliminate and reduce hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) if these controls do not eliminate the hazards </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Responsibilities <ul><li>Employer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess workplace for hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide PPE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine when to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide PPE training for employees and instruction in proper use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use PPE in accordance with training received and other instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspect daily and maintain in a clean and reliable condition </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Engineering Controls If . . . The machine or work environment can be physically changed to prevent employee exposure to the potential hazard, Then . . . The hazard can be eliminated with an engineering control.
    6. 6. Engineering Controls <ul><li>Initial design specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute less harmful material </li></ul><ul><li>Change process </li></ul><ul><li>Enclose process </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate process </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul>Examples . . .
    7. 7. Work Practice Controls If . . . Employees can be removed from exposure to the potential hazard by changing the way they do their jobs, Then . . . The hazard can be eliminated with a work practice control.
    8. 8. Work Practice Controls <ul><li>Use of wet methods to suppress dust </li></ul><ul><li>Personal hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Housekeeping and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Job rotation of workers </li></ul>Examples . . .
    9. 9. OSHA PPE Standards <ul><li>1910.132, General Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>PPE must be provided, used, and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition &quot;wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards . . . capable of causing injury or impairment . . ..“ </li></ul><ul><li>Employers are responsible for employee-owned equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>PPE must be of safe design and construction </li></ul><ul><li>Defective or damaged PPE shall not be used </li></ul>
    10. 10. OSHA PPE Standards <ul><li>1910.132, General Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Employers must assess the workplace to evaluate hazards that require the use of PPE </li></ul><ul><li>Select and require the use of appropriate PPE </li></ul><ul><li>Inform affected employees of selection decisions </li></ul>
    11. 11. OSHA PPE Standards <ul><li>1910.132, General Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>PPE training: </li></ul><ul><li>each employee required to use PPE must be trained: </li></ul><ul><li>When PPE is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>What PPE is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>How to properly don, doff, adjust, and wear PPE </li></ul><ul><li>PPE limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of the PPE </li></ul>
    12. 12. Examples of PPE <ul><li>Eye - safety glasses, goggles </li></ul><ul><li>Face - face shields </li></ul><ul><li>Head - hard hats </li></ul><ul><li>Feet - safety shoes </li></ul><ul><li>Hands and arms - gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies - vests </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing - earplugs, earmuffs </li></ul>
    13. 13. OSHA PPE Standards <ul><li>Other OSHA PPE Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1910.133, Eye and Face Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1910.134, Respiratory Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1910.135, Head Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1910.136, Occupational Foot Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1910.137, Electrical protective devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1910.138, Hand Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ANSI standards have a significant role </li></ul>
    14. 14. Establishing a PPE Program <ul><li>Sets out procedures for selecting, providing and using PPE as part of an employer’s routine operation </li></ul><ul><li>First -- assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of PPE </li></ul><ul><li>Once the proper PPE has been selected, the employer must provide training to each employee who is required to use PPE </li></ul>
    15. 15. Eye protection
    16. 16. Eye protection <ul><li>1910.133, Eye and Face Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Side protection when hazard from flying objects </li></ul><ul><li>Prescription eye protection or devices must fit over glasses for employees who wear glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Eye and face PPE shall be distinctly marked </li></ul><ul><li>Lenses for protection against radiant energy must have an appropriate shade number for the work being performed </li></ul>
    17. 17. Eye and face protection <ul><li>Additional ANSI requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normal, high velocity and high mass impact, penetration (plastic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion and flammability resistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cleanability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optical criteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum thickness </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. What are some of the causes of eye injuries? <ul><li>Dust and other flying particles, such as metal shavings or sawdust </li></ul><ul><li>Molten metal that might splash </li></ul><ul><li>Acids and other caustic liquid chemicals that might splash </li></ul><ul><li>Blood and other potentially infectious body fluids that might splash, spray, or splatter </li></ul><ul><li>Intense light such as that created by welding and lasers </li></ul>
    19. 19. Goggles <ul><li>Protect eyes, eye sockets, and the facial area immediately surrounding the eyes from impact, dust, and splashes </li></ul><ul><li>Some goggles fit over corrective lenses </li></ul>
    20. 20. Welding Shields Protect eyes from burns caused by infrared or intense radiant light, and protect face and eyes from flying sparks, metal spatter, and slag chips produced during welding, brazing, soldering, and cutting
    21. 21. Face Shields <ul><li>Protect the face from nuisance dusts and potential splashes or sprays of hazardous liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Do not protect employees from impact hazards </li></ul>
    22. 22. Head Protection
    23. 23. Head Protection <ul><li>1910.135, Head Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Employees must wear appropriate protective helmets in areas of falling object hazards or exposed electrical conductors </li></ul><ul><li>Protective helmets must comply with ANSI Z89.1-1986, &quot;American National Standard for Personnel Protection-Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements,&quot; </li></ul>
    24. 24. Head Protection <ul><li>ANSI Z89.1 (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classifications of head protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type I – impact on top only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type II – top or off-center impact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class G - limited voltages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class E - high voltages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class C - no voltage protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection and maintenance </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. What are some of the causes of head injuries? <ul><li>Falling objects </li></ul><ul><li>Bumping head against fixed objects, such as exposed pipes or beams </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with exposed electrical conductors </li></ul>
    26. 26. Classes of Hard Hats <ul><li>Class A </li></ul><ul><li>General service (e.g., mining, building construction, shipbuilding, lumbering, and manufacturing) </li></ul><ul><li>Good impact protection but limited voltage protection </li></ul><ul><li>Class B </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical work </li></ul><ul><li>Protect against falling objects and high-voltage shock and burns </li></ul><ul><li>Class C </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for comfort, offer limited protection </li></ul><ul><li>Protects heads that may bump against fixed objects, but do not protect against falling objects or electrical shock </li></ul>
    27. 27. Hearing Protection <ul><li>1910.95 requires hearing protection for employees exposed above 85 dB </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing protectors are labeled with the NRR (noise reduction rating). </li></ul>
    28. 28. Foot Protection <ul><li>Toe and foot injuries account for 5% of all disabling workplace injuries. Workers not wearing safety shoes have 75% of all occupational foot injuries </li></ul>
    29. 29. Foot Protection <ul><li>1910.136, Occupational Foot Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees must wear protective footwear in areas in danger of foot injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>falling or rolling objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>objects piercing the sole </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>electrical hazards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective footwear shall comply with ANSI Z41-1991, &quot;American National Standard for Personal Protection-Protective Footwear&quot; </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Foot Protection <ul><li>Requirements of ANSI Z41 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Footwear classified by impact and compression resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special footwear types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metatarsal (protects top of foot) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conductive (primarily for static electricity control) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical hazard (insulated) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sole puncture resistance </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. What are some of the causes of foot injuries? <ul><li>Heavy objects such as barrels or tools that might roll onto or fall on employees’ feet </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp objects such as nails or spikes that might pierce the soles or uppers of ordinary shoes </li></ul><ul><li>Molten metal that might splash on feet </li></ul><ul><li>Hot or wet surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Slippery surfaces </li></ul>
    32. 32. Hand Protection <ul><li>Hand and finger injuries account for 18% of all disabling injuries and about 25% of all industrial work place accidents </li></ul>
    33. 33. Hand Protection <ul><li>1910.138, Hand Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Employees must use appropriate hand protection when hands are exposed to hazards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skin absorption of harmful substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>severe cuts or lacerations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>severe abrasions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punctures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical burns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thermal burns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>harmful temperature extremes </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Hand Protection <ul><li>1910.138, Hand Protection (cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>Hand protection must be selected in accord with an evaluation of: </li></ul><ul><li>performance characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>conditions present </li></ul><ul><li>duration of use </li></ul><ul><li>hazards and potential hazards identified </li></ul>
    35. 35. What are some of the hand injuries you need to guard against? <ul><li>Burns </li></ul><ul><li>Bruises </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasions </li></ul><ul><li>Cuts </li></ul><ul><li>Punctures </li></ul><ul><li>Fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Amputations </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Exposures </li></ul>
    36. 36. Types of Gloves Norfoil laminate resists permeation and breakthrough by an array of toxic/hazardous chemicals. Butyl provides the highest permeation resistance to gas or water vapors; frequently used for ketones (M.E.K., Acetone) and esters (Amyl Acetate, Ethyl Acetate).
    37. 37. Types of Gloves (cont’d) Viton is highly resistant to permeation by chlorinated and aromatic solvents. Nitrile provides protection against a wide variety of solvents, harsh chemicals, fats and petroleum products and also provides excellent resistance to cuts, snags, punctures and abrasions.
    38. 38. Types of Gloves (cont’d) Kevlar protects against cuts, slashes, and abrasion. Stainless steel mesh protects against cuts and lacerations.
    39. 39. Body Protection
    40. 40. What are some of the causes of body injuries? <ul><li>Intense heat </li></ul><ul><li>Splashes of hot metals and other hot liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts from tools, machinery, and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Cuts </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with potentially infectious materials, like blood </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul>
    41. 41. Body Protection Criteria for Selection <ul><li>Provide protective clothing for parts of the body exposed to possible injury </li></ul><ul><li>Types of body protection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aprons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coveralls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full body suits </li></ul></ul>