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South Asia Part 2


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South Asia Part 2

  1. 1. <ul><li>They recognize a single deity, and view other Gods and Goddesses as manifestations or aspects of that supreme God </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of Hinduism is to transcend the wheel of reincarnation and join with brahman </li></ul>HINDUISM
  2. 2. Hinduism <ul><li>1 billion adherents of whom about 890 million live in India </li></ul><ul><li>World's third largest religion after Christianity and Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Other countries with large Hindu populations include: </li></ul><ul><li>Nepal, </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka, </li></ul><ul><li>Bangladesh </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia and </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia. </li></ul>
  3. 3. MAJOR TENETS OF HINDUISM <ul><li>Three main ideas are important in understanding the Hindu religion and the caste system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reincarnation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dharma (ethics and duties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetarianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kindness to animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonviolence </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Puja or worship </li></ul><ul><li>Cremation of the dead </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations of the caste system </li></ul>THREE BASIC PRACTICES
  5. 5. Buddhism
  6. 6. ORIGINS AND SPREAD OF BUDDHISM <ul><li>Siddhartha Gautama (563 - 483 B.C.) </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Asoka (3rd Century B.C.) </li></ul>E. J. PALKA
  7. 7. BUDDHISM <ul><li>Adherents objected to harsher features of Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on self-knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of worldly desires, determination not to hurt or kill people or animals </li></ul>E. J. PALKA
  8. 8. Budhism <ul><li>The goal of Buddhism is to reach nirvana, enlightenment and the end of suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism teach that desire causes suffering, so to end suffering desire must be ended </li></ul>
  9. 9. FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS <ul><li>Sorrow and suffering are part of all life. </li></ul><ul><li>People suffer because they desire things they cannot have. </li></ul><ul><li>The way to escape suffering is to end desire, to stop wanting, and to reach a stage of not wanting. </li></ul><ul><li>To end desire, follow the “middle path,” i.e., the path that avoids the extremes of too much pleasure and desire. </li></ul>
  10. 10. EIGHTFOLD PATH TO THE MIDDLE WAY <ul><li>Right understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Right purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Right speech </li></ul><ul><li>Right conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Right means of earning a living </li></ul><ul><li>Right effort </li></ul><ul><li>Right awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Right meditation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Spread of Buddhism <ul><li>Asoka, a believer of Buddhism elevated the religion from obscurity to regional and ultimately global importance, a century after the death of Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>Asoka sent missionaries throughout the world </li></ul>
  12. 12. RELIGIOUS CONTRASTS <ul><li>ISLAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No idols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One sacred book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform dogma - 5 pillars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intolerant (of other religions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat beef/Sacrifice cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bury Dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Equality (in theory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theocratic society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HINDUISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many idols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various sacred writings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbed other religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venerate cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burn dead (& alive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caste separation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ State” of secondary importance </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. End of Part 1
  14. 15. POPULATION DILEMMA of South Asia <ul><li>Second largest and the fastest-growing population of all world regions </li></ul><ul><li>2006 estimate (1.47 billion) </li></ul><ul><li>Annual increase 1.7 compared with China (1.0) </li></ul><ul><li>India expected to be 1.63 billion by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>What are the challenges?? </li></ul>
  15. 16. Population Challenges <ul><li>Increase the foreign trade imbalance </li></ul><ul><li>Overburdened educational system </li></ul><ul><li>young labor is lacking in skills, training, and work experience, and related productivity has declined </li></ul><ul><li>Worsened the average nutrition of the general public </li></ul>
  16. 17. Measures to Control Population <ul><li>Redistribution of the population to places outside cities, </li></ul><ul><li>Export labor to oil-producing nations of the Middle East and Africa to earn more income for the foreign exchange </li></ul>
  17. 18. Indian Economy <ul><li> </li></ul>
  18. 19. Realm of Poverty
  19. 20. Realm of Poverty <ul><li>Accounts for more than ¹/5 the world’s population and ⅔s of its poorest inhabitants. </li></ul><ul><li>Its literacy rates are among the lowest in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly half the population earn an equivalent of 1 US dollar a day. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Realm of Poverty <ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 22. Realm of Poverty <ul><li>Reasons for these problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly geographic –constitute 22 percent of the world’s population but just has only 3 percent of its land area. </li></ul><ul><li>Political problems. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Controlling Homelessness <ul><li> </li></ul>
  23. 24. Language <ul><li>28% URBANIZED </li></ul><ul><li>India speaks 14 major and numerous minor languages </li></ul><ul><li>Hindi is the official language </li></ul><ul><li>English is the lingua franca </li></ul>
  24. 25. LANGUAGES Hindi 320 m Bihari 70 m Marathi 67 m Rajasthani 44 m Gujarati 39 m Oriya 31 m Assamese 23 m Sindhi 17 m Sinhalese 13 m Telugu 71m Tamil 67m Kannada 43m Malayalam 35m
  25. 26. India Federal and Free <ul><li>Colonized by Britain and became independent in 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Centrifugal forces that threaten India's democracy </li></ul>
  26. 27. India’s centrifugal forces
  27. 28. Centrifugal forces of India <ul><li>Caste system </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduvta: This is a concept to make India a society in which Hindu principles prevail. The aims are to </li></ul><ul><li>Impose Hindu curriculum on schools </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit the activities of non-hindus </li></ul><ul><li>Change the family laws in a way that would be unacceptable to Muslims </li></ul>
  28. 29. Centripetal forces in India <ul><li>Hinduism is a way of life and a faith </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion of Hinduism brings a national coherence </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Better communication- continuous circulation of people, Ideas, and goods help bind the disparate states together </li></ul><ul><li>opposition to British rule, during colonial era </li></ul><ul><li>Education ( literacy level between men and women are almost the same ( 65.5% men and 54.3% female) </li></ul>
  29. 30. India Sikh <ul><li>Is a monotheistic religion </li></ul><ul><li>over 23 million followers. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Economic Transition <ul><li>1992 Major economic structural adjustments reforms backed by the World Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Privatization of Industries </li></ul><ul><li>300 million affluent middle class-contributory factor </li></ul><ul><li>A mixture of traditional village farming and modern agriculture </li></ul>
  31. 32. India’s future??? <ul><li>http:// =emfP5NT3kqY&feature=related </li></ul>
  32. 33. Pakistan
  33. 34. Pakistan <ul><li>The earliest urban civilization in South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>South Asia’s Muslim frontier </li></ul><ul><li>The seventh largest armed forces in the world and </li></ul><ul><li>Declared nuclear weapons state </li></ul>
  34. 35. Pakistan <ul><li>Gained independence in 1947 as east and west Pakistan </li></ul>
  35. 36. East Pakistan <ul><li>Political conflict in 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>East Pakistan declared Independence to become the People’s Republic of Bangladesh </li></ul>
  36. 37. Pakistan <ul><li>From independence until 1958 Pakistan's capital was Karachi in Sindh in the far south </li></ul><ul><li>… . idea of building a new capital in a different location. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamabad is the capital </li></ul>
  37. 38. Kashmir <ul><li>Pakistan controls the northwest portion, </li></ul><ul><li>India controls the central and southern portion (Jammu and Kashmir) and Ladakh, and </li></ul><ul><li>China controls the northeastern portion (Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract) </li></ul>
  38. 39. Kashmir
  39. 40. Kashmir
  40. 41. Kashmir <ul><li>Kashmir one of the world's most dangerous territorial disputes ???? </li></ul>
  41. 42. Bangladesh
  42. 43. Bangladesh <ul><li>One of the poorest and least developed countries on earth </li></ul><ul><li>Population of 139.5 million </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth rate is 2.2% per annum </li></ul><ul><li>Bangladesh is also susceptible to natural hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the natural Harzards include cyclone ( Hurricanes) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1991 it killed over 150,000 people </li></ul>
  43. 44. Bangladesh
  44. 45. Vulnerability of Bangladesh <ul><li>Low elevation of Southern Bangladesh </li></ul>
  45. 46. Dhaka
  46. 47. Bangladesh <ul><li>It is a dominantly Muslim society </li></ul><ul><li>The major conflict with India is over the control of the Ganges river, </li></ul><ul><li>Ganges contolled by India but remains Bangladesh’s main source of water supply. </li></ul>
  47. 48. The Mountainous North- Nepal <ul><li>Nepal has a population of 25 million </li></ul><ul><li>It is also a poor country </li></ul><ul><li>Nepalese are people of many sources: India, Tibet, and Interior Asia </li></ul><ul><li>The capital is Kathmandu </li></ul><ul><li>90% are Hindu </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism in Nepal is a blend of Hindu and Buddhist ideals </li></ul><ul><li>90% of the people speak Nepali, a language related to India Hindi </li></ul>
  48. 50. Sri Lanka <ul><li>Known as Ceylon before 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Became Independent from the British in 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>It is neither a Hindi or Muslim country </li></ul><ul><li>Population 19 million </li></ul><ul><li>70% of the population are Buddhists </li></ul>
  49. 52. Bhutan Last place on earth to receive television Lets watch this documentary