Occupational biohazard


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Biohazard in Occupational environment.

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Occupational biohazard

  1. 1. Biohazard in occupational environment Saugat Bhattacharjee B.Sc. 5th Semester ABBS
  2. 2.  Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans.  includes medical waste or samples of a microorganism, virus or toxin (from a biological source) that can affect human health (a biological contamination).
  3. 3.  There are at least 193 important biological agents that show infectious, allergenic, toxic, or carcinogenic activities in the working population.  These agents are viruses, bacteria, fungi, plant substances, invertebrate animals (mostly arthropods), and substances derived from vertebrate animals.  large occupational groups are exposed to these biohazards.
  4. 4.  The risk is greatest among health care and laboratory workers who are threatened by human pathogens.  agricultural workers who are at risk from dust-borne biological allergens and toxins and by parasitic worms in warm climates.
  5. 5.  biohazards are also important risk factors for many other professions, including woodworkers, workers of textile plants, sewage and compost workers, miners and renovators.
  6. 6.  The biohazard symbol was developed in 1966 by Charles Baldwin, an environmental-health engineer working for the Dow Chemical Company on the containment products. Generally used as a warning, so that those potentially exposed to the substances will know to take precautions.
  7. 7.  In an article in Science in 1967, the symbol was presented as the new standard for all biological hazards ("biohazards").  Striking in form in order to draw immediate attention;  Unique and unambiguous, in order not to be confused with symbols used for other purposes;  Quickly recognizable and easily recalled;  Easily stenciled;  Symmetrical, in order to appear identical from all angles of approach;  Acceptable to groups of varying ethnic backgrounds.
  8. 8.  UN numbers or UN IDs are four-digit numbers that identify hazardous substances, and articles (such as explosives, flammable liquids, toxic substances, etc.) in the framework of international transport.  There is no UN number allocated to non-hazardous substances. These will simply not have a UN number.
  9. 9. Biohazard Category A, UN 2814 Category B, UN 2900 Category B, UN 3373 Regulated Medical Waste, UN 3291
  10. 10. Category A, UN 2814 • Infectious substances affecting humans and animals: substance in a form capable of causing permanent disability or life-threatening or fatal disease in otherwise healthy humans or animals when exposure to it occurs. Category B, UN 2900 • Infectious substances affecting animals only: substance that is not in a form generally capable of causing permanent disability of life-threatening or fatal disease in otherwise healthy humans and animals when exposure to themselves occurs.
  11. 11. Category B, UN 3373 • Biological substance transported for diagnostic or investigative purposes. Regulated Medical Waste, UN 3291 • Waste or reusable material derived from medical treatment of an animal or human, or from biomedical research, which includes the production and testing of biological products.
  12. 12.  The United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) categorizes various diseases in levels of biohazard, Level 1 being minimum risk and Level 4 being extreme risk. Laboratories and other facilities are categorized as BSL (Biosafety Level) 1-4 or as P1 through P4 for short (Pathogen or Protection Level).
  13. 13.  Bacteria and viruses including Bacillus subtilis, canine hepatitis, Escherichia coli, varicella (chicken pox), as well as some cell cultures an  At this level precautions against the biohazardous materials in question are minimal, most likely involving gloves and some sort of facial protection. d non-infectious bacteria.
  14. 14. The use of Glove and Mask in BSL 1
  15. 15.  Bacteria and viruses that cause only mild disease to humans, or are difficult to contract via aerosol in a lab setting, such as hepatitis A, B, and C, influenza A, Lyme disease, salmonella, mumps, measles, dengue fever.  Routine diagnostic work with clinical specimens can be done safely at Biosafety Level 2.  Research work (including co-cultivation, virus replication studies, or manipulations involving concentrated virus) can be done in a BSL-2 (P2) facility.
  16. 16. Salmonella typhae
  17. 17.  A sharps container is a container that is filled with used medical needles (and other sharp medical instruments, such as an IV catheter). They fit into two main types: 1. single use which are disposed of with the waste inside, 2. reusable which are robotically emptied and sterilised before being returned for re-use.
  18. 18.  Bacteria and viruses that can cause severe to fatal disease in humans, but for which vaccines or other treatments exist, such as anthrax, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, SARS virus, tuberculosis, typhus, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever and malaria.  Use of sterilized apparatus and sterilized equipments should be practiced. Proper sanitation and purification of water and other waste products is a must.
  19. 19. Trypanosoma cruzi
  20. 20.  Viruses and bacteria that cause severe to fatal disease in humans, and for which vaccines or other treatments are not available, such as Bolivian and Argentine hemorrhagic fevers, Marburg virus, Ebola virus, hantaviruses, Lassa fever virus and other hemorrhagic diseases.  Extreme care and precaution should be taken to work in such kind of environment.
  21. 21.  When dealing with biological hazards at this level the use of a positive pressure personnel suit, with a segregated air supply, is mandatory.  Multiple airlocks are employed and are electronically secured to prevent both doors opening at the same time. All air and water service going to and coming from a Biosafety Level 4 (P4) lab will undergo similar decontamination procedures to eliminate the
  22. 22. autonomous detection system
  23. 23. Ebola Virus Hanta virus
  24. 24. Some controls to consider to protect your workers: • Engineering • Administration • PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)
  25. 25. Engineering Controls • Ventilation (HVAC) • Isolation or quarantine areas • Automated bathrooms • Self-sheathing needles/needleless system
  26. 26. Administration Controls: • Schedules • Polices, Procedures, Programs, and Best Practices • Medical Monitoring • Vaccinations • Emergency Preparedness • Training