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  3. 3. CONCEPT OF POWER• Potential ability of a person / group to exercise control over another person / group (Moorhead / Griffin)• Ability to influence another person (Nelson & Quick)• Influence – process affecting thoughts, behavior & feeling of another person• Authority – right to influence another.• Zone of indifference The range in which attempts to influence a person will be perceived as legitimate & will be acted on without a great deal of thought.
  4. 4. REWARD POWER• Based on person A’s ability to control rewards that person B wants.• Reward power can lead to better incentives but only as long as person B sees a strong and clear link between performance and rewards
  5. 5. COERCIVE POWER• Deny desired rewards / administer punishment.• Requires the leader/manager to be physically present and watchful all the time, otherwise, employees will not work.
  6. 6. LEGITIMATE POWER• Based on position and mutual agreement• Persons A and B agree that person A has the right to influence person B’s behavior.• Person B must believe that person A has the right to tell them what to do
  7. 7. PROCESS POWER• Control over methods of production and analysis.• Places an individual in the position of; Influencing how inputs are transformed into outputs Controlling the analytical process used to make choices
  8. 8. INFORMATION POWER• Access / control of information.• May protect information in order to increase their power.• May complement legitimate hierarchical power
  9. 9. REPRESENTATIVE POWER• Formal right conferred by the firm to speak as a representative for a potentially important group composed of individuals across departments or outside the firm.• Help complex organizations deals with a variety of constituencies.
  10. 10. EXPERT POWER• The power that exists when person A has the information or knowledge that person B needs.• For expert power to work, three conditions must be met:  Person B must believe that person A’s knowledge is accurate,  The knowledge must be relevant and useful for person B  That person B believes that person A is really an expert.
  11. 11. Rational persuasion• Convince other person of the desirability of a goal and a reasonable way of achieving it.• Supervisor’s daily activity involves this power.
  12. 12. Referent power• That is based on interpersonal attraction.• Person A has referent power over person B because person B identifies with person A and wants to be like person A.• People who have this source of power have a personal magnetism, an air of confidence and a passionate belief in objectives that attract and hold their followers.
  13. 13. COALITION POWER• The ability to control another’s behavior indirectly because the individual owes an obligation to you or another as part of a larger collective interest.
  14. 14. Building Position PowerPerfecting Building Influence Personal PowerTechniques BUILDING INFLUENCE Increasing Controlling Visibility & Decision Control over Premises Information
  15. 15. Action directed at 3 dimensions: developing or using 1. UpwardPower Oriented relationship in which 2. Downward Behavior other people are willing to defer wholly or 3. Lateral partially to one’s wishes. Effective managers build and maintain position power and personal power to exercise downward, upward and lateral influence.
  16. 16. BUILDING POSITION POWER• Increase centrality and criticality in organization• Increase task relevance of own and work unit’s activities• Attempt to define tasks so they are difficult to evaluate
  17. 17. BUILDING PERSONAL POWER• Building expertise  Advanced training and education, participation in professional associations and project involvement• Learning political savvy  Learning ways to negotiate, persuade and understand goals and means that others accept• Enhancing likeability  Pleasant personality characteristics, agreeable behavior patterns and attractive.
  18. 18. INCREASING VISIBILITY & CONTROLOVER INFORMATION• Expand contacts with senior people• Make oral presentations of written work• Participating in problem – solving task forces• Seek opportunities to increase name recognition.• Sending out notices of accomplishment• Coalitions and network
  19. 19. CONTROLLING DECISION PREMISES• Make one’s own goals and needs clear• Bargaining effectively regarding one’s preferred goals and needs.
  20. 20. PERFECTING INFLUENCE TECHNIQUES• Reason• Friendliness• Coalition• Bargaining• Assertiveness• Higher authority• sanctions
  21. 21. EMPOWERMENT?• Managers help others to acquire and use power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work.• Power is something can be shared• Provide foundation for self – managing work teams and other employee involvement groups.
  22. 22. POWER KEYS TO EMPOWERMENT• Changing position power• Expanding the zone of indifference
  23. 23. POWER AS AN EXPANDING PIE• Employees must be trained to expand their power and their new influence potential• Empowerment changes the dynamics between supervisors and subordinates
  24. 24. WAYS TO EXPAND POWER• Define roles and responsibilities• Provide opportunities for creative problem solving coupled with the discretion to act• Emphasize different ways of exercise influence• Provide support to individuals so they become comfortable with developing their power• Expand inducements for thinking and acting, not just obeying.
  25. 25. GUIDELINES FOR EMPOWERING• Express confidence in employees• Set high performance expectations• Create opportunities for participative decision making• Remove bureaucratic constraints that stifle autonomy
  26. 26. ETZIONI’S POWER ANALYSIS Type of Membership Alienative Calculative Moral Coercive Utilitarian Normative SOURCE: Adapted from Amitai Etzioni, Modern Organizations (Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964), 59-61. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, N.J.
  27. 27. ORGANIZATIONAL POWERCoercive Power – influence through threatof punishment, fear, or intimidationUtilitarian Power – influence throughrewards and benefitsNormative Power – influence throughknowledge of belonging, doing the rightthing
  28. 28. ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERSHIPAlienative Membership – members feelhostile, negative, do not want to be thereCalculative Membership – members weighbenefits and limitations of belongingMoral Membership – members have positiveorganizational feelings; will deny own needs
  29. 29. KANTER’S SYMBOLS OF POWER• Ability to intercede for someone in trouble• Ability to get placements for favored employees• Exceeding budget limitations• Procuring above-average raises for employees• Getting items on the agenda at meetings• Access to early information• Having top managers seek out their opinion Rosabeth Moss Kanter
  30. 30. KANTER’S SYMBOLS OF POWERLESS Top Executives Staff Professionals • Budget cuts • Resistance to change • Punishing behaviors • Turf protection • Top-down communications Managers First-line Supervisors • Assign external attribution - • Overly close supervision blame others or environment • Inflexible adherence to rules • Do job rather than train Key to overcoming powerlessness: share power and delegate decision making
  32. 32. McCLELLAND’S 2 FACES OF POWERPersonal power• The negative face of power. This is power used for personal gain.• Leaders or managers who use personal power are often referred to as “power hungry”.• Personal power is a win-lose form of power in which the manager tends to treat others as objects to be utilized to get ahead.• It is based on the traditional notion of power as domination over others.
  33. 33. Cont’Social power• positive face of power.• Create motivation or to accomplish group goals.• McClelland found that the best managers are those who possess a high need for social power coupled with a relatively low need for social affiliation.
  34. 34. FOUR POWER-ORIENTED CHARACTERISTICS1. Belief in the authority system • They believe that the institution is important and that the authority system is valid. • They are comfortable influencing and being influenced. The source of their power is the authority system of which they are a part.2. Preference for work and discipline • They like their work and they are also very orderly. They believe that work is more than its income producing value.3. Altruism • They put the company and its needs before their own. They see their own well-being as integrally tied to the corporate well- being.4. Belief in Justice • They believe justice is to be sought above all else. People should receive that to which they are entitled and that which they earn.
  35. 35. USING POWER EFFECTIVELY• Use ethical way• Understand use all the various types of power and influence• Seek out jobs that allow you to develop your power skills• Use power tempered by maturity and self – control• Accept that influencing people is an important part of the management job.
  36. 36. WHAT THEY SAY ABOUT POWER…• “Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character, give him power” - Abraham Lincoln• “You can have power over people as long as you dont take everything away from them. But when youve robbed a man of everything, hes no longer in your power” - ALEKSANDER SOLZHENITSYN• William Shakespeare: O, it is excellent to have a giants strength, but it is tyrannous to use it like a giant.• Martin Luther King, Jr.: Our nettlesome task is to discover how to organize our strength into compelling power.