B l joshi education diversity in up


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B l joshi education diversity in up

  1. 1. Educational Diversity in Uttar Pradesh: A Social Group and Regional Analysis Abusaleh Shariff, BrijLal Joshi Amit Sharma and VeerpalSandhu Presented in a conference on ‘Education and Health: Special Focus on UP’ Organized by Glocal University, Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh October 25-26, 2013 Authors’ respective affiliation: US-India Policy Institute, Washington DC; Centre for Research and Debates in Development Policy New Delhi National Council of Applied Economic Research, New Delhi, and Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
  2. 2. Educational Diversity by SRCs and Regions of Uttar Pradesh • UP Highly Diverse in terms of its people, economy, occupations, artisanship, trade, geography and culture • UP: 16.5 % of India’s Population census 2011 • UP: 26.7 % of Indian Muslim Population • UP: 37 million Muslim Population • UP: 18.5% of state population are Muslims Analyzed NSSO - years 2004-05 and 2009-10 Highlights Educational diversity by SRCs Unique Regional Diversity in Education The Socio Religious Community categorization are based on the methodology provided by the Prime Minister’s High Level (Sachar) Committee - 2006
  3. 3. Education Differentials according to Socio-Religious Categories
  4. 4. Literacy by SRCs in UP- 2009-10 and Growth Rates (GRs)  Highest Achievers – High Hindus : Urban 93% - Rural 80%  Least - SCs/STs & Muslims  Five year Reference Period: literacy increased in rural but stagnated in urban areas  Muslims Literacy just about the level of SCs/STs combined • Literacy in fact declined for Urban Muslim general and STs  GRs largest for SCs followed by the OBCs (Muslims) both R & U
  5. 5. Matric (15-18 years)Level Education in UP by SRCs 2009-10 and GRs Variation in Matric education is far higher  High Caste Hindus have large advantage  H-OBCs and the SCs are catching up  Relative proportions decline for Muslims as levels of education increases  Shares in matric for Muslims OBCs and Muslims General is least and far too low  Muslims levels of Matric are lower than the SCs and the STs in both rural and urban area in 2009-10  With in the Muslims the OBCs show a relatively higher growth rate and the Muslim General have in fact shown negative growth in rural areas
  6. 6. Higher Education Levels (ages 19-25 yrs) in UP by SRCs- 2009-10 and GRs  Higher Level Education in UP is highly discriminatory  Huge differentials for SRCs and for Urban – Rural areas  The SRC differentials in Urban areas are by-far the worst  Achievers are High Casts - both in urban and rural areas  The H-OBCs and SCs have better access to Higher Education after the High Caste  Muslims have the least levels of higher education compared to all other SRCs in bothurban and rural areas  Muslims fall below the levels of the SCs/STs The GRs for M-OBCs are better than the Muslim-General  In fact there is a negative GR for Muslim-General in Urban areas
  7. 7. Regional Diversity in Metric Level Education
  8. 8. Two Types of Regions Contagious Geographic | Group of Districts with specified Share of Muslims Contagious Geographic Regions:     Western UP Eastern UP Central UP Budelkhand % Muslims 45.4 36.1 14.8 1.9   G1  G2  G3  G4  G5 Group of Districts with specified Share of Muslims Districts With %ge Muslims No. of Districts >40 % 3 30-40% 7 20-30% 10 10-20% 33 < 10 % 17
  9. 9. Geographic Regions: Shares in Matric by SRCs in UP, 2009-10 Central, East and Bundelkhand are highly iniquitous regions of UP  H-High Castes have advantage in all regions  H-OBCs are second best except in West. Their level in Central UP is outstanding  Higher education is out of reach for Muslims in all regions especially in East and Central  Muslims - slight edge over the SCs/STs in West  SCs/STs least in Central and Bundelkhand
  10. 10. Special Regions based on proportion of Muslims Matric Level Differentials by SRCs in UP, 2009-10  Muslims worst than all SRCs in G1, G3 and G4  Muslims population and their share in matric is lowest in G1 although their share in population is above 40%. Too specific to these districts (Bijnoor, Muradabad, Rampur) – Remember Polio!  Better metric for Muslims in G2 but then too low in other regions. : Bareilly, Meerut, JP Nagar, Muzfarnagar, Saharanpur, Balrampur, Bahriach.  Share of OBCs low in G1 and G2 but very good in G3 and G4 and G5 districts  Muslim proportions are better in G2 only (7 distracts) more research needed to find out the reasons for better levels of Muslim education. Proximity to Delhi, and agriculturally rich?
  11. 11. Educational Diversity in UP compared to the All India Scenario
  12. 12. Percentage Change at different levels of Education by SRCs in Uttar Pradesh – 2004-5 to 2009-10 Over all Literacy 7+ increased in rural by8% and urban by 3.5% Levels above Matric healthy growth amongst the SCs/STs, H-OBCs and Hindu-General.  Muslims worst affected, especially nonOBC Muslims have negative growth in Urban areas no growth in rural areas  Other minorities mostly Sikhs some Christens has shown large (22%) increase in literacy in rural areas. Urban Muslim-general literacy declined by 1.1%.  Matric : Rural M-OBCs have done better.  Matric : Muslims in Urban done better | SCs/STs in urban areasdoing good.  But Hindu-High Caste recorded negative GR (a higher levels)
  13. 13. Percentage Change at different levels of Education by SRCs in India – 2004-5 to 2009-10 Literacy 7+ increase in rural by 6.9% and in urban 2.8% in India  Highest GRs noticed at matric level education for all communities especially the SCs/STs in both rural and urban areas.  Non-OBC Muslims have recorded negative growth rates in higher education (19 to 25 yrs and 22 to 35 yrs) in urban areas and small growth in rural areas.  Muslim OBCs show a positive growth but no where comparable with the positive growth rates recorded for the SCs/STs, H-OBCs and H-General categories