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Types of communication
Dr Asha Kaushik
CPC ,COES
Types of communication
 For communication to be effective ,the
communicator has to be very careful and
judicious in the c...
1. Written communication includes
Letters , circulars , memos , telegrams
, reports ,minutes , forms and
questionnaires , ...
• Audio-visual communication includes
television and cinema films that
combine the visual impact with
narration .
Written ...
written communication :
Limitations
• It is time consuming: a letter may take
two or even three to four days to reach
its ...
Oral communication :limitations
 Oral communication is not possible if the
communicator and the receiver are far removed
...
Essentials of oral
communication

Clear pronunciation.
Brevity .
Precision.
Conviction.
Logical sequence.
Appropriate word...
Face to face communication: m
Merits and limitations

Facial expressions and gestures help to
communicate better.
 It rei...
Limitations
• Difficult to practice in a large –sized
organisations
• Not effective in large gathering
• Ineffective if th...
Visual communication.

• Visual communication alone is not enough .it
can be effective only in combination with
other medi...
Audio-visual communication
• It is a combination of sight and sound.
• Make use of written record also.
• It facilitate in...
• Within the organisation ,the workers can be
educated by suitable demonstrations on the
close-circuit televisions screen....
Computer –based communication
• Advantages of computer technology
• The quickest means of communication
• Space no longer ...
limitations
• Uncertain legal validity

• Fear of undesirable leakage

• The virus malady
Dimensions/Flow of
communication
• Vertical-(i)Downward
(ii)Upward
• Horizontal or lateral
Diagonal or crosswise

• Grapev...
Downward
 Any organization has an inbuilt hierarchical
system, and in that, in the first instances,
communication invaria...
Downward Communication
•Used by most large schools that are hierarchical in
nature.
• Flows from Superintendent to Assista...
PROBLEMS WITH DOWNWARD
COMMUNICATION
 Subordinates select and prioritize messages in
accordance with their perception of ...
Ways to improve Downward
Communication
• Adopt training sessions for administrators to
help them learn better ways to comm...
Upward communication
 The main functions of upward communication
is to supply information to the upper levels
about what ...
UPWARD COMMUNICATION
SUPERINTENDENTS

ASSISTANT

SUPERINTENDENTS

PRINCIPALS
ASSISTANT PRINCIPALS
FACULTY
BENEFITS
• Provides feedback to Administrators from
Downward Communication.
• Helps monitor decision making
effectiveness....
PROBLEMS WITH UPWARD
COMMUNICATION

• Subject to filtering and distortion because
subordinates do not want superiors to ga...
WAYS TO IMPROVE UPWARD
COMMUNICATION
Employee Meetings

Employee Letters

Open Door Policy

Social Groups
Employee Meetings
• Meetings to probe job problems,and needs.
• Determine what administrative practices help or
hinder sub...
OPEN DOOR POLICY
• Encourages subordinates to walk in and
talk to administrators many levels up.
• They are encouraged to ...
EMPLOYEE LETTERS
• Subordinates can submit letters to
administrators or suggestions.
• All letters are anonymous.
• All su...
Participation in social groups
 Act as unplanned upward commnication .
 Examples are.
 Parties, Picnics, golf outings, ...
Lateral or Horizontal
Communication
• Occur between people at the same level.
• When communication takes place between two...
•
•
•
•
•

It is carried on through:Face to face discussion
Telephonic talk
Periodical meetings
Memos.
Important for promo...
HORIZONTAL
COMMUNICATION
ASSISTANT
PRINCIPAL

ASSISTANT
PRINCIPAL

FACULTY
MEMBER

FACULTY
MEMBER

OFTEN
OVERLOOKED
AS
UNI...
Diagonal or Crosswise
Communication
• Includes the horizontal flow of information.
• It is also among persons at different...
DIAGIONAL COMMUNICATION
Superintendent
Asst.Supt.

Asst. Supt. For

For Personnel

Instruction

Director of
Personnel

Chi...
I HEARD IT THROUGH THE
GRAPEVINE

• Used when employees feel the
organizational forms of communication have
failed.
• Exis...
 Keeps subordinates informed about
important organizational matters.
 Gives administrators insight about
subordinates at...
Grapevine
• An informal channel of communication.
• Can flow vertically,horizontally,diagonally.
Types of grapevine
• (1) Single strand:flows like a chain
• (2) Gossip :one person tells everybody else
• (3) Probability(...
Importance of grapevine
• Emotional relief

• Harmony & Cohesiveness in the organisation
• Supplement to other channels
• ...
Demits of grapevine
• Distortion of information
• May transmit incomplete information
• Travels with destructive swiftness
To use it effectively
The manager should• Keep an eye on rumor-mongers
• Primarily for feedback
• Contradict rumours promp...
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Types & flow of communication

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Types & flow of communication

  1. 1. Types of communication Dr Asha Kaushik CPC ,COES
  2. 2. Types of communication  For communication to be effective ,the communicator has to be very careful and judicious in the choice of media, which will depend on various factors like urgency of the message ,the time available ,expenditure involved and the intellectual and emotional level of the receivers.  All the media available can be broadly classified into five groups: (i) Written communication. (ii) Oral communication.(Face to Face communication) (iii) Audio-visual communication. (iv) Computer-based communication.
  3. 3. 1. Written communication includes Letters , circulars , memos , telegrams , reports ,minutes , forms and questionnaires , manuals , etc. 2. Oral communication includes face to face communication ,conversation over the telephone , radio broadcast ,interviews , group discussions , meetings ,conferences ,seminars and speeches. 3. Visual communication encompasses gestures and facial expressions , tables and charts , graphs , diagrams , posters ,slides ,film strips ,etc .
  4. 4. • Audio-visual communication includes television and cinema films that combine the visual impact with narration . Written communication: merits • It is accurate and precise . • It can be repeatedly referred to . • It is a permanent record . • It is a legal document . • It facilitates the assignation of responsibility . • It has a wide access.
  5. 5. written communication : Limitations • It is time consuming: a letter may take two or even three to four days to reach its destination , where as in oral communication message is instantly transmitted . • It is costly
  6. 6. Oral communication :limitations  Oral communication is not possible if the communicator and the receiver are far removed from each other and no mechanical devices are available to connect them.  Lengthy messages are not suitable for oral transmission  Oral messages cannot be retained for long time  Oral messages do not have any legal validity unless they are taped and made a part of permanent record .  Although oral communication offer greater opportunity for clarification ,there are also inherent in them greater chances of misunderstanding.
  7. 7. Essentials of oral communication Clear pronunciation. Brevity . Precision. Conviction. Logical sequence. Appropriate word choice Avoiding hackneyed phrases and clichés.  Natural voice       
  8. 8. Face to face communication: m Merits and limitations Facial expressions and gestures help to communicate better.  It reinforced with the help of tone ,pitch and intensity of the speaker ‘s voice .  The message being communicated gets assistance of facial expressions and gestures. Particularly suitable for discussion.  There is a immediate feedback from the total personality of the listener .  It provides the speaker with a much better opportunity for adjustment.
  9. 9. Limitations • Difficult to practice in a large –sized organisations • Not effective in large gathering • Ineffective if the listener is not attentive
  10. 10. Visual communication. • Visual communication alone is not enough .it can be effective only in combination with other media. • It can be used to transmit very elementary and simple ideas ,orders ,warnings. • As we can easily interpolate the message given by a poster including two pieces of bone put in a cross- wise fashion and a skull placed in between.
  11. 11. Audio-visual communication • It is a combination of sight and sound. • Make use of written record also. • It facilitate interpretations and ensure that message is driven home. • Information transmitted through audio-visual retained much longer than any other means. • It is found most suitable for mass publicity ,mass propaganda and mass education.
  12. 12. • Within the organisation ,the workers can be educated by suitable demonstrations on the close-circuit televisions screen. • It is necessary to make the films and slides attractive and interesting. • The narration becomes clear ,precise ,lucid and easily understandable. • It is also advisable to keep the films short and to screen them at an appropriate time.
  13. 13. Computer –based communication • Advantages of computer technology • The quickest means of communication • Space no longer a barrier to communication • Video conferencing can replace personal meetings • Better means of keeping permanent record of valuable and bulky data • World –wide web as a publishing platform.
  14. 14. limitations • Uncertain legal validity • Fear of undesirable leakage • The virus malady
  15. 15. Dimensions/Flow of communication • Vertical-(i)Downward (ii)Upward • Horizontal or lateral Diagonal or crosswise • Grapevine.
  16. 16. Downward  Any organization has an inbuilt hierarchical system, and in that, in the first instances, communication invariably flows downwards.  Written: e.g. memoranda ,letters, handbooks, pamphlets, policy statements.  Oral: e.g. speeches, meetings, telephones etc.
  17. 17. Downward Communication •Used by most large schools that are hierarchical in nature. • Flows from Superintendent to Assistant Superintendent to principal to Assistant Principals to Faculty to students. • Necessary to clarify district’s goals, provide a sense of mission, assist in indoctrinating new employees. Inform employees about educational changes that impact the district and to provide subordinates with data regarding their performance.
  18. 18. PROBLEMS WITH DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION  Subordinates select and prioritize messages in accordance with their perception of their Boss’s character, personality, and motivation.  Sender does not devote enough time to learn whether messages have been received and understood.  Those at the Top may shut off this channel at certain times and on certain subjects or withhold information on a need to know basis.  Downward communication tends to be dominate in mechanistic organizations, as opposed to organic systems which are more open and unidirectional in flows of information.
  19. 19. Ways to improve Downward Communication • Adopt training sessions for administrators to help them learn better ways to communicate. • Get out of the office and walk around talk to employees on the firing line. • Conduct regular supervisory subordinate discussion sessions, which will help identify, analyze ,and solve problems in collaboration with subordinates.
  20. 20. Upward communication  The main functions of upward communication is to supply information to the upper levels about what is happening at the lower levels. For example: suggestion systems, appeal and grievance procedures, complaint system , counseling sessions , joint setting of objectives , the grapevine, group meetings. etc
  21. 21. UPWARD COMMUNICATION SUPERINTENDENTS ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENTS PRINCIPALS ASSISTANT PRINCIPALS FACULTY
  22. 22. BENEFITS • Provides feedback to Administrators from Downward Communication. • Helps monitor decision making effectiveness. • Helps gauge organizational climate. • Deals with problem areas quickly . • Provides needed information to Administrators.
  23. 23. PROBLEMS WITH UPWARD COMMUNICATION • Subject to filtering and distortion because subordinates do not want superiors to gain information that could be damaging to the subordinates. • Highly cohesive groups tend to withhold information that might be damaging to the group as a whole. • Lower level subordinate show less openness to upward communication than those who are at higher levels in the organization.
  24. 24. WAYS TO IMPROVE UPWARD COMMUNICATION Employee Meetings Employee Letters Open Door Policy Social Groups
  25. 25. Employee Meetings • Meetings to probe job problems,and needs. • Determine what administrative practices help or hinder subordinate job performance. • Provide feedback to administrators and encourage subordinates to offer ideas. • Help subordinates feel self worth and importance. • Studies show these meetings reduce turnover and improve subordinates attitudes
  26. 26. OPEN DOOR POLICY • Encourages subordinates to walk in and talk to administrators many levels up. • They are encouraged to talk with immediate supervisors first to eliminate resentment among administrators who are bypassed. • Some barriers exist such as subordinates who do not want to be identified as having a problem.
  27. 27. EMPLOYEE LETTERS • Subordinates can submit letters to administrators or suggestions. • All letters are anonymous. • All submissions must be answered without delay. • Replies can be delivered to the appropriate lower level administrator in cases where the communicator is anonymous.
  28. 28. Participation in social groups  Act as unplanned upward commnication .  Examples are.  Parties, Picnics, golf outings, cookouts, retreats, and other employer sponsored events.  Main barrier can sometimes be a lack of attendance
  29. 29. Lateral or Horizontal Communication • Occur between people at the same level. • When communication takes place between two or more persons who are subordinates working under the same person, or those who are working under the same person. • e.g. this variety of communication mostly takes place during committee meetings or conferences.
  30. 30. • • • • • It is carried on through:Face to face discussion Telephonic talk Periodical meetings Memos. Important for promoting-Understanding & coordination among various people or department.
  31. 31. HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION ASSISTANT PRINCIPAL ASSISTANT PRINCIPAL FACULTY MEMBER FACULTY MEMBER OFTEN OVERLOOKED AS UNIMPORTANT FACILLITATE COORDINATI ON BETWEEN UNITS ACHIEVED THROUGH CROSSFUNCTIONAL COMMITTEES FURNISHES EMOTIONAL SUPPORT AMONGPEERS
  32. 32. Diagonal or Crosswise Communication • Includes the horizontal flow of information. • It is also among persons at different levels • who have no direct reporting relationships • Oral e.g. Informal meetings, lunch hours meeting • Written e.g. Magazines, Journals, Company newspapers • This Kind of communication is used to speed information flow to improve understanding.
  33. 33. DIAGIONAL COMMUNICATION Superintendent Asst.Supt. Asst. Supt. For For Personnel Instruction Director of Personnel Chief Negotiator ELEM. Ed. Coordinator Elementary Principal Secondary Ed. Coordinator Secondary Principal Asst. Supt. For Business Accountants
  34. 34. I HEARD IT THROUGH THE GRAPEVINE • Used when employees feel the organizational forms of communication have failed. • Exists in all organizations. • Nearly five out of six messages are carried this way rather than formal methods of communication. • This form of communication is very rapid. • It has both positive and negative features. • Positive features include.
  35. 35.  Keeps subordinates informed about important organizational matters.  Gives administrators insight about subordinates attitudes.  Provides subordinates a relief valve to vent emotions.  Provides a test of subordinates feelings about a new procedure or Policy without making formal commitments.  Helps build moral by passing positive comments regarding the organisation.  Rumor is the one item that gives the grapevine its bad reputation.
  36. 36. Grapevine • An informal channel of communication. • Can flow vertically,horizontally,diagonally.
  37. 37. Types of grapevine • (1) Single strand:flows like a chain • (2) Gossip :one person tells everybody else • (3) Probability(random) :information may move from anybody to anybody • (4) cluster :moves through selected groups.
  38. 38. Importance of grapevine • Emotional relief • Harmony & Cohesiveness in the organisation • Supplement to other channels • A fast channel • Provides feedback
  39. 39. Demits of grapevine • Distortion of information • May transmit incomplete information • Travels with destructive swiftness
  40. 40. To use it effectively The manager should• Keep an eye on rumor-mongers • Primarily for feedback • Contradict rumours promptly • Involve the workers in the decision making process.

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