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Harappan next


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Harappan next

  1. 1. Harappans Indus Valley Harappa Mohenjo-Daro
  2. 2. Ages in History  Palaeolithic Age: Old Stone age dates from 500 millennium B.C. to 8th millennium B.C.  Lower or Early Palaeolithic Age  Middle Palaeolithic Age  Upper Palaeolithic Age 
  3. 3.  Mesolithic Age Also known as the Late Stone Age. It is intermediate or transitional stage between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic Ages and covers the period from 8th millennium to 4th millennium B.C.
  4. 4.  Neolithic Age The New Stone Age covers the period from 4000 B.C. onwards. This Age was marked by the use of polished stone tools.
  5. 5.  Chalcolithic Age The Stone- Copper Age covers the period from 1800 B.C. to 1000 or 800 B.C. In this age, apart from stone, copper was also used.
  6. 6. Periods in History Pleistocene Period: These are geographical periods. Pleistocene is known as Ice Age, it ended around the 8th millennium B.C. The Palaeolithic Age, in fact began in this period and came to an end along with this.  Holocene Period: The Holocene period came immediately after Pleistocene period and continues till today. 
  7. 7. Harappan Civilization  Discovered in 1921.  After Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia this Civilization emerged as the third major early Civilization of Mankind.
  8. 8. Old World Civilizations
  9. 9. Comparative Timeline
  10. 10.  The discovery of the Indus Valley civilization was first recorded in the 1800's by the British. The first recorded note was by a British army deserter, James Lewis, who was posing as an American engineer in 1826. He noticed the presence of mounded ruins at a small town in Punjab called Harappa
  11. 11. Alexander Cunningham
  12. 12.  Alexander Cunningham, who headed the Archaeological Survey of India, visited this site in 1853 and 1856 while looking for the cities that had been visited by Chinese pilgrims in the Buddhist period. The presence of an ancient city was confirmed in the following 50 years, but no one had any idea of its age or importance
  13. 13.  1. Charles Masson Expedition: Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and The Panjab (London, Richard Bentley,1842).  2. The Expedition of Alexander Burnes, and the archaeologist Sir Alexander Cunningham in the 1870's.  3. The excavation of Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, and by R.D. Banerji in 1920s.
  14. 14. Major cities Mohenjodaro  Harappa  Chanhudaro  Kalibangan  Lothal  Banawali  Surkotada  Dholavira 
  15. 15. Extent of the civilization Manda(North) Sutkagendor(West ) Alamgirpur(East) Daimabad(South)
  16. 16. Natural Resources The Indus Valley contained numerous natural resources that were an important part of Harappan civilization.  Resources included:     Fresh water and timber. Materials such as gold, silver, semi-precious stones. Marine resources.
  17. 17. Himalayan Mountains   Nanga Parbat and numerous other mountains of the Himalaya, Karakorum and Hindu Kush provide a continuous source of water for the Indus and its tributaries. These mountain ranges also provided important timber, animal products, and minerals, gold, silver, tin and semiprecious stones that were traded throughout the Indus Valley.
  18. 18. Valleys    Cedar in Chitral valley is still used to make houses and coffins, following a tradition that dates back to the first Indus cities. Beyond the mountains in the background is the region of Badakhshan, Afghanistan, a source of the deep blue lapis lazuli. This was mined during the Indus period and traded throughout the Indus Valley and to far off Mesopotamia and Egypt.
  19. 19. Coast   The coast of Sindh and Makran have bays and ancient Harappan sites have been located along the coast to the border of modern Iran. These coastal settlements were involved in fishing and trading, using the monsoon winds to travel back and forth to Oman and the Persian Gulf region.
  20. 20. Major Cities: Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa The cities are well known for their impressive, organized and regular layout.  They have well laid our plumbing and drainage system, including indoor toilets.  Over one thousand other towns and villages also existed in this region. 
  21. 21. Cities The similarities in plan and construction between Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa indicate that they were part of a unified government with extreme organization.      Both cities were constructed of the same type and shape of bricks. The two cities may have existed simultaneously and their sizes suggest that they served as capitals of their provinces. In contrast to other civilizations, burials found from these cities are not elaborate; they are more simplistic and contain few material goods. Remains of palaces or temples in the cities have not been found. No hard evidence exists indicating military activity, though the cities did contain fortifications and artifacts such as copper and bronze knives, spears, and arrowheads were recovered.
  22. 22. Mohenjo-Daro  This shows the high western mound made up of a massive mud brick platform and brick houses of the Harappan period ( 2600 to 1900 B. C.).
  23. 23. The Great Bath     The "great bath" is the earliest public water tank. The tank measures approximately 12 meters north-south and 7 meters wide, with a maximum depth of 2.4 meters. Two staircases lead down into the tank from the north and south and small sockets at the edges of the stairs are thought to have held wooden planks or treads. At the foot of the stairs is a small ledge with a brick edging that extends the entire width of the pool.
  24. 24. Great Bath
  25. 25. Streets   At Mohenjo-Daro narrow streets and alleyways are off of the major streets, leading into more private neighborhoods. Many of the brick houses were two stories high, with thick walls and high ceilings to keep the rooms cool in the hot summer months.
  26. 26. B.Tech LLB IPR : Legal History Wells   Private wells were rebuilt over many generations for large households and neighborhoods. This well at Mohenjo-daro stands like a chimney because all of the surrounding earth has been removed by excavation.
  27. 27. Private Bathing Area  Almost every house unit at Mohenjo-daro was equipped with a private bathing area with drains to take the dirty water out into a larger drain that emptied into a sewage drain. Many of these bathing areas had water tight floors to keep moisture from seeping into the other rooms nearby or below
  28. 28. Harappa   The high mound at Harappa (Mound AB) is surrounded by a massive mud brick city wall with large square ramparts. One of these eroding ramparts is visible through the underbrush that now covers the site.
  29. 29. Granary     The "granary" of Harappa is found on Mound F. It is a brick structure that was built on a massive brick foundation over 45 meters north-south and 45 meters east-west. Two rows of six rooms that appear to be foundations are arranged along a central passageway that is about 7 meters wide and partly paved with baked bricks. Each room measures 15.2 by 6.1 meters and has three sleeper walls with air space between them.
  30. 30. Well   A large public well and public bathing platforms were found in the southern part at Harappa. These public bathing areas may also have been used for washing clothes as is common in many traditional cities in Pakistan and India today.
  31. 31. Harappa:   Inside the city is an area that has been identified as a crafts quarter. Large quantities of manufacturing debris have been found in this area indicating the presence of workshops for making stone beads, shell ornaments, glazed faience ornaments, stone tools and possibly even gold working.
  32. 32. Harappan Gateway Artists Conception by Chris Sloan, courtesy of JM Kenoyer
  33. 33. Religion  The chief male deity was the Pasupati Mahadeva represented in seals as sitting in Yogic posture. The chief female deity was Mother Goddess. Indus people also worshipped Gods in the form of trees (Pipal) and animals. Further they believed in ghosts and evil forces and used amulets as protection against them.
  34. 34. Language     The Indus (or Harappan) people used a pictographic script. Some 3500 specimens of this script survive in stamp seals carved in stone, in molded terracotta and faience amulets, in fragments of pottery, and in a few other categories of inscribed objects. In addition to the pictographic signs, the seals and amulets often contain iconographic motifs, mostly realistic pictures of animals apparently worshipped as sacred, and a few cultic scenes, including anthropomorphic deities and worshippers. This material is important to the investigation of the Harappan language and religion, which continue to be major issues.
  35. 35. The origins of Indus writing    The origins of Indus writing can now be traced to the Ravi Phase (c. 3300-2800 BC) at Harappa. Some inscriptions were made on the bottom of the pottery before firing. This inscription (c. 3300 BC) appears to be three plant symbols.
  36. 36. Ancient Indus
  37. 37. SEALS  The seals of the ancient Harappan's were probably used in much the same way they are today, to sign letters or for commercial transactions.
  38. 38. Seals Silver Seal Clay Seals
  39. 39. Gharial eating fish on molded terra-cotta tablet from Mohenjo Daro.
  40. 40. Economy-Trade The Harappan civilization was mainly urban and mercantile.  Inhabitants of the Indus valley traded with Mesopotamia, southern India, Afghanistan, and Persia for gold, silver, copper, and turquoise. 
  41. 41. Trade Gold Disc The central ornament worn on the forehead of the famous "priest-king" sculpture from Mohenjo-daro appears to represent an eye bead, possibly made of gold with steatite inlay in the center.
  42. 42. Trade
  43. 43. Economy-Agriculture The Mesopotamian model of irrigated agriculture was used to take advantage of the fertile grounds along the Indus River.  Earthen walls were built to control the river's annual flooding. Crops grown included wheat, barley, peas, melons, and sesame.  This civilization was the first to cultivate cotton for the production of cloth. Several animals were domesticated including the elephant which was used for its ivory. 
  44. 44. Terraced Fields
  45. 45. Economy     Cubical weights in graduated sizes. These weights conform to the standard Harappan binary weight system that was used in all of the settlements. The smallest weight in this series is 0.856 grams and the most common weight is approximately 13.7 grams, which is in the 16th ratio. These weights were found in recent excavations at Harappa and may have been used for controlling trade and possibly for collecting taxes.
  46. 46. Harappan Astronomy  Although the translation of the Harappan script is still not complete, there are numerous indications that Harappans were well versed in astronomy.  Like other urban civilizations, it undoubtedly needed a calendar that adjusted to the lunar and solar transitions.
  47. 47. “Unicorn”    This unicorn seal was also discovered during the late 1927-31 excavations at Mohenjo-Daro. One theory holds that the bull actually has two horns, but that these have been stylized to one because of the complexity of depicting three dimensions. However the manufacturing and design process behind seals was so sophisticated that the depiction of three dimensions might not necessarily have been a problem.
  48. 48. Artifacts  These egg shaped whistles may have been used for music, a tradition that is still present in rural areas of Pakistan and India.
  49. 49. Clay Sculpture
  50. 50. Figurines
  51. 51. Ceramics
  52. 52. Elephants
  53. 53. Copper  Copper plate with vertical sides.
  54. 54. Ornaments      This collection of gold and agate ornaments (see next slide) includes objects found at both Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. At the top are fillets of hammered gold that would have been worn around the forehead. The other ornaments include bangles, chokers, long pendant necklaces, rings, earrings, conical hair ornaments, and broaches. These ornaments were never buried with the dead, but were passed on from one generation to the next. These ornaments were hidden under the floors in the homes of wealthy merchants or goldsmiths.
  55. 55. Ornaments
  56. 56. bangles
  57. 57. Necklace    Necklace from MohenjoDaro made from gold, agate, jasper, steatite and green stone. The gold beads are hollow and the pendant agate and jasper beads are attached with thick gold wire. Steatite beads with gold caps serve to separate each of the pendant beads.
  58. 58. Burial  The body was placed inside a wooden coffin (which later decayed) and entombed in a rectangular pit surrounded with burial offerings in pottery vessels.  The man was buried wearing a necklace of 340 graduated steatite beads and three separate pendant beads made of natural stone and three gold beads. A single copper bead was found at his waist.
  59. 59. Burial     Burial of woman and infant, Harappa. This burial was disturbed in antiquity, possibly by ancient Harappan grave robbers. Besides the fact that the body is flipped and the pottery disturbed, the left arm of the woman is broken and shell bangles that would normally be found on the left arm are missing. The infant was buried in a small pit beneath the legs of the mother.
  60. 60. Four Theories of Collapse  Archaeologists have offered four explanations for the collapse of the Harappan “Civilization”.  Three are based on ecological factors: intense flooding, epidemics and the dessication of the Sarasvati River.  The fourth hypothesis is that of the Aryan Invasion, proposed by Sir R. E. Mortimer Wheeler and Stuart Piggott.
  61. 61. Salient features
  62. 62. Similarities in plan and construction between Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa indicate that they were part of a unified government with extreme organization  Same type and shape of bricks.  Twin capitals  No palaces or temples remnants  No hard evidence exists indicating military activity 
  63. 63. Cities were fortified  Used copper and bronze knives, spears, and arrowheads.  The Harappan civilization was mainly urban and mercantile.  Inhabitants of the Indus valley traded with Mesopotamia, southern India, Afghanistan, and Persia for gold, silver, copper, and turquoise. 
  64. 64. Earthlinks were built to control the river's annual flooding  The city was laid out in a grid-like pattern with the orientation of streets and buildings according to the cardinal directions  The city had many drinking water wells, and a highly sophisticated system of waste removal. 
  65. 65. All Harappan houses were equipped with bathing houses, and sewage drains which emptied into larger mains and eventually deposited the fertile sludge on surrounding agricultural fields.  Site layouts and artifact styles throughout the Indus region are very similar  Standard brick size  They were the first to cultivate Cotton 
  66. 66. The weights that have been recovered have shown a remarkable accuracy. They follow a binary decimal system: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, up to 12,800 units, where one unit weighs approximately 0.85 grams  No monuments erected to glorify  Matriarchal Lineage.  Worshipped Mother Goddess.  & Pashupati Nath 
  67. 67. References Cited   Civilization  colapse.htm  Mcintosh, Jane. 2002. A Peaceful realm. Boulder: Westview Press. 