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  2. 2. Why to study this topic? Co- existance of separate political units necessitates a certain degree of contact among them. Communication between the governments to ensure smooth international process. Instrument of foreign policy Use of soft power instead of all out chaos. Thus diplomacy has become co-manager of all international relations
  3. 3. A country's foreign policy, also called the foreign relations policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve its goals within international relations milieu. The approaches are strategically employed to interact with other countries. In recent times, due to the deepening level of globalization and transnational activities, the states will also have to interact with non-state actors. The afore mentioned interaction is evaluated and monitored in attempts to maximize benefits of multilateral international cooperation. Since the national interests are paramount, foreign policies are designed by the government through high-level decision making processes. National interests accomplishment can occur as a result of peaceful cooperation with other nations, or through exploitation. Usually, creating foreign policy is the job of the head of government and the foreign minister (or equivalent). In some countries the legislature also has considerable oversight.
  4. 4. Geography History and Culture Economic Development National Interest National character and National Morale Political Structure Social Structure Ideology Public Opinion Power
  5. 5. Management of international relations by negotiations  -Oxford dictionary The application of Intelligence and tact to the conduct of official relations between governments of independent states. -Sir Enest satow in ‘guide to diplomatic practice’ Represents the accumulative political, economic and military pressures upon each side formalized in the exchange of demands and concessions between negotiators. -’The theory and Practice of International Relation’
  6. 6. Diplomacy can be taken asSynonym of foreign policy, negotiations, machinery by which such negotiations are carried out, branch of foreign service, or .... An abstract quality or gift, which, in its best sense, implies skill in the conduct of international conduct; and in its worst sense, implies the more guileful aspects of tact Nicolson Diplomacy is the political process under which political entities are interconnected with official relations in the framework of international environment to formulate policies and strategies centred around their own national interest and thus results in maximization of profit for the state.
  7. 7. Greece, Byzantium and renaissance Italy made the most notable contribution to the evolution of Diplomacy. Byzantine Diplomacy Italian diplomacy: The practice spread from Italy to the other European powers. Milan was the first to send a representative to the court of France in 1455 Diplomacy in Europe: Peace of Westphalia Post Westphalia Diplomacy Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Diplomacy in India
  8. 8. The origin of Modern day Diplomacy. The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman K W Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire This objective resulted in the redrawing of the continent's political map, establishing the boundaries of France, the Duchy of Warsaw, the Netherlands, the states of the Rhine, the German Kingdom of Saxony, and various Italian territories, and the creation of spheres of influence through which Austria, Britain, France and Russia brokered local and regional problems.Thus the concept of modern day diplomacy arose
  9. 9. The two treaties i.e. The Aix-la-chappelle and the Congress of Vienna ultimately established the diplomatic services and representation of the powers on agreed basis. Four Categories of representatives were defined, namely Ambassadors, pappal legates and papal nuncios Extraordinary envoys and plenipotentiary ministers Ministers resident Charge d’ Affaires
  10. 10. IT is an international treaty that defines a framework for diplomatic relations between independent countries. It specifies the privileges of a diplomatic mission that enable diplomats to perform their function without fear of coercion or harassment by the host country. This forms the legal basis for diplomatic immunity. Its articles are considered a cornerstone of modern international relations. As of June 2013, it has been ratified by 189 states The treaty is an extensive document, containing 53 articles
  11. 11. According to Hans J Morgenthau; (1)Diplomacy must determine its objectives in the light of the power actually and potentially available for the pursuit of these objectives. (2) Diplomacy must assess the objectives of other nations and the power ac-tually and potentially available for the pursuit of these objectives. (3) Diplomacy must determine to what extent these different objectives are compatible with each other. (4) Diplomacy must employ the means suited to the pursuit of its objectives. To him a Diplomat fulfills three basic functions for his government: Symbolic, Legal and Political Failure in any one of these tasks may jeopardize the success of foreign policy and with it the peace of the world.
  12. 12. According to Palmer and Perkins a Diplomat has five Functions: Representation Negotiations Reporting Protections of national Interest abroad Maintenance of International peace and promotion of peace and cooperation Role of Diplomacy In Foreign Policy
  13. 13. Diplomacy rooted community of Interest of a small group of leaders. Old diplomacy was a variant of secret diplomacy. Diplomacy pre 19 century is termed as traditional diplomacy Features of Traditional Diplomacy: Europe centric: Concert of Europe Monopoly of Aristocratic class and of professional diplomats Based largely on Bilateral basis and was usually undertaken in secrecy. Agenda of traditional diplomacy was parochial and narrow in comparison.
  14. 14. Emerged together with the Balance of Power system, as at the heart of the transition lay the suspicion of then public about the whole system of balance of power which they identified as the main cause of the First world war. Role of Diplomacy merged with secrecy and espionage. Presidents Woodrow Wilson :Diplomacy to thrive in public view rather in private international understandings. Integration of Public opinion Into Diplomacy and formulation of Foreign Policy Change in The structure of the International society: rise of Multilateral Diplomacy and Role of UNO. The Stage of diplomacy now shared with other Non state actors. The agenda of New Diplomacy Also includes Economic and social welfare as well as military issues.
  15. 15. THE post cold war period the role of Diplomacy has taken a huge turn. It is seen under a new light Previously During the cold war the Diplomatic concept was looked upon with doubt and suspicion. But in the new world order Diplomacy has thrived and thus helped in getting out of many exigent circumstances. Diplomacy in its current form helps not only in maintaining International peace and security but also promotes Inter national cooperation and helps in maintaining global stability.
  16. 16. SHOPKEEPER VS WARRIOR METHOD the “warrior,” diplomacy is aggressive, intransigent, recalcitrant stubborn, rigid, impolite, and undiplomatic and usually is found among nations which share a tragic history of conflict and War Like that of DPRK and ROK. The “shopkeeper,” diplomacy is characterized as practical, open-minded, candid, and compromising. This characterization was put forth by some scholars and diplomats who either observed or participated in North Korea-United States negotiations and in the inter-Korean summit. In fact, Kim Jong-il’s practical, candid negotiating style surprised many people who had held a different image of him and other North Korean officials.
  17. 17. SECRET VS OPEN A secret treaty is a treaty between nations that is not revealed to other nations or interested observers. An example would be a secret alliance between two nations to support each other in the event of war. The opposing nations would be unaware of the treaty and therefore unable to add it to their calculations, which could obviously result in a difficult situation for the party that declared war when suddenly confronted with the troops of two or even three nations. Secret treaties were common before the First World War, and many blamed them for helping spark that conflict.
  18. 18. DEMOCRATIC DIPLOMACY Participation of People in the politics of state and Importance of public opinion led to democratization of diplomacy. Governments no longer domain of Aristocrats and sole affairs of Diplomats or ministers. Major shortcoming: failure of common people to understand the intricacies of Foreign Policy Strong public opinion may pull down a diplomatic negotiation or dog it with delay and impression
  19. 19. TOTALITARIAN DIPLOMACY Rise of totalitarian states such as Germany, Italy, the Soviet union after WWI introduced this negative form of Diplomacy. The states used techniques such as Military, Political and Psychological power to expand their spheres of Influence. For this they Invoked doctrine of racial superiority, Mysticism, materialism and militarism to further their national interest. Diplomacy used as an instrument of National policy. Rendered traditional diplomacy methods useless
  20. 20. SUMMIT DIPLOMACY Involves direct participation of Foreign Ministers, Heads of State and Heads of Governments in Diplomatic negotiations. Atlantic Charter Summit,Yalta conference, Operate through regional organization as well
  21. 21. PERSONAL DIPLOMACY Use of normal channels of diplomacy are limited. Heads of States use personal agents to settle delicate Problems in IR. Example- Roosevelt reliance on Harry Hopkiss Direct approach to the counterpart . Though it provides a secrecy to the affairs of the world it does tend to make the process a bit undemocratic .
  22. 22. DIPLOMACY BY CONFERENCE International conferences held to discuss joint interest Foreign offices and consular's has helped in making the structure of Diplomacy more federal. It involves periodic meetings of regional and international organizations Has had many positive results like signing of various disarmament treaties and also related to sustainable development and environmental issues
  23. 23. ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY Trade and Aid Diplomacy Carrot or stick theory Used and Evolved during and in post Cold war period Role of UNO Economic sanctions against Cuba Iraq ASEAN Boycott of Myanmar
  24. 24. NUCLEAR DIPLOMACY Has Different form and meaning depending on the nuclear capability of the state. Options available are deterrence or compel lance or coercive diplomacy. Only problem a crisis situation may escalate and put the world on the threshold of Nuclear war.
  25. 25. Diplomacy is a technique to implement foreign policy. But it is not the substance of Foreign policy . Foreign policy is What you do; and diplomacy is how you do . Diplomacy is considered as the Central Technique as: It involves direct government to government interactions so that a particular state can draw inference from such talks or negotiations while formulating its foreign policy. Diplomacy Leads o better cooperation and helps in resolution of conflict. Diplomacy is Used to mould the FP of Other parties: The carrot/stick Theory
  26. 26. Use of Economic measures and embargos and sanctions to influence the events or actions of a aggressor state. Sub Version Techniques Post cold war diplomacy has become more complex And also has emerged as foremost weapon in modern day IR. The INDIAN Scenario: Panchsheel
  27. 27. Global Governance:The basic nature of Diplomacy has evolved post globalization, Contribution of Non –state actors: privatization of Diplomacy Authority beyond the State: Regional co-operation and formation of Regional alliance Role of Economic status of A country on Diplomacy. In the levels of diplomatic activity, from the local through the domestic national to the bilateral, regional and global;
  28. 28. Helps in Arbitration and mediations Use of Soft power methods ensure international peace Promotes Universal Brotherhood. Helps in formulation of foreign policy taking into account various factors necessary for a successful relationship. Dispute resolution Represent the national interest in international forum.
  29. 29. The overall picture that emerges from this presentation is one of an institution characterized by great resilience and adaptability. Within the essential dimensions of communication, representation and the reproduction of international society, diplomacy has adjusted to changing circumstances and has sometimes been instrumental in affecting these changes. Given its long history of adaptability, then, diplomacy does not seem a likely candidate for obsolescence or decline in the future. There is no need of reinventing diplomacy every few decades, with a succession of one “new diplomacy” after another. The basis ingredients are as old as the hills, although differences in their “mix” result indifferent types of diplomacy. If a diplomacy emerges that appears different from that of the recent past, it would be risky to call it “new” or “modern,” for it is likely to be best a reincarnation of an earlier type
  30. 30. Introduction: Diplomacy and Global Governance: Locating Patterns of (Dis)Connection: Andrew F. Cooper, Brian Hocking, and William Maley Essence of Diplomacy: Palgrave Macmillian:Christer Jönsson, Martin Hall International Relations, Peu Ghosh International Relations: Girish malhotra