Communalism

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Communalism

  1. 1. The communal issue was far from being a new element in Indian politics in 1945. Some authorities have looked on the failure of Congress to form coalition ministries in 1937. Others go back to 1928, when the all parties’ conference rejected separate electorates.
  2. 2. Some see Jinnah’s departure from the Congress in 1921 as the point of no return; others go back to the birth of Muslim League in 1906. But this problem goes much further.
  3. 3. A. SOCIAL CAUSES: The Hindus already established them in government services, as also in key positions in trade, industry and finance. They needed the support of the masses of their community in their struggle with the Hindu rivals for jobs.
  4. 4. B. ECONOMIC CAUSES: Due to lack of modern industrial development, unemployment was an acute problem in India. Many thought of such short- sighted remedies as communal and religious and later caste and provincial reservations in an attempt to get a larger share of the existing limited employment opportunities.
  5. 5. C. POLITICAL CAUSES: Modern political consciousness was late in developing among the Muslims. Denied British patronage, and relatively uninterested in British education, they slipped ever deeper into political and economic stagnation.
  6. 6. D. BRITISH POLICY OF ‘DIVIDE AND RULE  Great Revolt of 1857.  Muslims kept out of ranks of the army.  English education  From 1870, there was perceptible shift in British policy. They decided to come out as champions of Muslims.  Britishers patronize the Muhammadan Anglo- Oriental College of Sayyid Ahmed Khan.
  7. 7. E. ROLE OF SAYYID AHMAD KHAN • • • First Muslim leader to organize a movement for uniting the Muslims and instilling into them a desire for the western education. He founded Muhammadan Anglo- Oriental College at Aligarh. He discouraged Muslims from joining Indian National Congress.
  8. 8. F. COMMUNALISM IN WRITING OF INDIAN HISTORY: • British writers of Indian history served the imperial cause by initiating, developing the Hindu- Muslim approach in their study of Indian history.
  9. 9. G. OFFSHOOT OF SOCIO- RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS: • These movements contained some paradoxical aspects, they generated some unhealthy tendencies.
  10. 10. H. SIDE EFFECT OF NATIONALISM: I. COMMUNAL HINDU ORGANIZATIONS
  11. 11.  FOUNDATION OF MUSLIM LEAGUE ON DEC. 1906  PARTITION OF BENGAL  SEPARATE ELECTORATES  GROWTH OF PAKISTAN IDEA  THE PAKISTAN RESOLUTION  DIRECT ACTION DAY  PARTITION.

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