Dr Asha Kaushik
FRAMES OF REFERENCE
• The moment you interpret others point of view
from your angle you allow your preconceived
notions and prejudices to start working for you.
• Your frame of reference is based on your
experiences ,exposure ,education ,personality
and several other elements peculiar to you.
• Try to put yourself in others person position.
FRAMES OF REFERENCE
PEOPLE INTERPRET COMMUNICATIONS DIFFERENTLY DUE
IF PARTICIPANTS HAVE A
IF FRAMES OF REFERENCE ARE
CAN OCCUR IN EITHER DIRECTIONS
• Employees manipulate information in order to
avoid the appearance of having a problem
• CAN BE INTENTIONAL OR UNINTENTIONAL.
• Lack of understanding on part of receiver.
• ADMINISTRATORS WITHHOLD NEGATIVE
• ERRORS IN ENCODING AND DECODING.
• DUE TO DIFFERENT FRAMES OF REFERENCE
• Many levels of authority messages often
modified, shortened, amended and
• Few levels between top and bottom tends
to ignore the formal hierarchy problem:
Superintendent may suffer from
Uncertainty due to external Turbulence:
Advances in communication technology
Administrators select parts of information in
order to make decisions, which result in bad
• Different words have different meaning to
• Mainly due to AGE.EDUCATION
• Sender cannot transmit understanding or
• Concrete words have little difference from
sender to receiver.
• Abstract words may cause decoding problems
•Those with higher status have
more communication demands on
communication to those who have
ELEMENTS THAT CAN HELP WITH
Send the same message over and over.
Use multiple channels: Telephone, letter, memo,
face to face.
Using this method reduses chance of
Example: Follow up face to face with a letter or
Letter or memo also serves as reminder or
documentation if needed.
Multiple channels express to the receiver the
importance of the message.
• A technique to understand the receivers
frame of reference.
• Sender should put themselves in the
receivers shoes, when composing the
• The greater the gap in learning, culture
and experiences, the greater the
effort must be.
• Communication is only effective to the
extent that the sender and receiver both
have a high degree of understanding.
• Administrators must encode messages in
words and symbols that are
understandable to the receiver.
• Some research has shown that much of the
communication sent to employees is beyond
the level of their reading abilities.
• Feedback is must to ensure that
messages have been understood and
received and helps the sender and
receiver obtain mutual understanding.
Two way communication takes more time but
provides more satisfaction and is recommended in
all but the simplest and routine transmissions of
TO SOLICIT FEED BACK TRY THESE QUESTIONS:
•How do you feel about my statement?
•What do you think?
•What did you hear me say?
•Do you see any problems with what we have talked