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THE COMPETITION ACT(2002) 
Presented By 
P.G.DM. 1st Semester 
Acharya Bangalore B School
Competition Act 2002 History 
The Govt. Of India introduced the bill in 2001. 
Bill passed in Dec 2002. 
On 13 Jan 2003...
Objectives Of Competition Act 2002 
Competition Act 2002 notified in Jan 2003 for establishment of a commission. 
Objectiv...
Main Features Of Competition Act 2002 
Prohibits anti competitive arguments. (Sec 3) 
Prohibits abuse Dominant positions...
Anti Competitive Agreements phase 1st 
There are two types 
Horizontal & Vertical 
Agreement amongst competitors (horizo...
Anti Competative Agreements phase 2nd 
Agreements 
Agreements such as between manufacturer and distributor(vertical agreem...
Anti Competitive agreements Example 
Global lysine cartel, decided in US in( 1996)---turning point in anti cartel action 
...
Abuse Of Dominance 
Not dominance but abuse of dominance is prohibited. 
Acts deemed to be abuse are(Sec 4): 
Unfair or...
Abuse Of Dominance 2nd 
Dominance is based on arithmetical figure; but on several factors listed in 
Act.Sec19(4). 
Rele...
Abuse Of Dominance Example 
United Brands Company prosecuted by European competition commissioner. 
Court determined UB’s...
Regulation Of Combinations 
Combination includes: merger and amalgamation ,acquiring of control and 
acquisition of share...
Regulation Of Combinations Example 
FTC,US successfully opposed(1997)merger between staples and office depots-two 
office ...
Competition advocacy 
Commission shall take suitable measures to: 
Promote competition advocacy 
Create public awareness....
Examples Of Competition Advocacy 
Initiatives by commission in respect of: 
Department Of posts- Indian post office (Amen...
Examples Of Competition Advocacy 2 
Department Of Food & Distribution-Warehousing(Development & Regulation) Bill 
2005- p...
Government departments /Undertaking included [Section 2(h)] I.e., 
Competitive neutrality. 
Effects Doctrine.[Sec 32] 
R...
Effects Doctrine 
Following liberalization/globalization, cross border economic activity has grown 
enormously. 
This ha...
Relationship With Sector Regulators 
Regulator can refer a competition issue arising in a proceeding to commission for 
o...
International Co-Operation 
 For discharging its duties/functions CCI can enter in to 
memorandum/arrangements with any a...
CompetitionAct –An Economic Law 
Economic concepts/analysis fundamental to the law: 
Relevant market—Relevant product mark...
Competition Act & MRTP Act 
Based on liberalized regime. Based command and control 
Economically literate law.Not form- Re...
Power Of Commission 
Cease and desist order. 
In case of cartelized penalty up to 10% of turnover or three times of cart...
Who Can Approach Commisson 
Any person ;includes individual,company,firm,association,,government company 
Statutory coope...
How Enterprises Can achieve Compliance 
Compliance important because consequences potentially serious: 
Investigation,pen...
Continued………….. 
Appropriate policies and procedures; compliance manual incorporating clear 
policy statements, giving pr...
Role Of Trade Association 
Functions of trade association are useful for members 
May also beneficial in increasing effi...
Conclusion 
This presentation provides only an introduction to competition law, and should 
not be relied on as a substitu...
Thank you
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Presentation on The competition act(2002)

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The competition act(2002)

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Presentation on The competition act(2002)

  1. 1. THE COMPETITION ACT(2002) Presented By P.G.DM. 1st Semester Acharya Bangalore B School
  2. 2. Competition Act 2002 History The Govt. Of India introduced the bill in 2001. Bill passed in Dec 2002. On 13 Jan 2003 The President of India gave his assent. Competition Commission Of India(CCI) is advocacy for competition Act 2002. It replaces Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1969.
  3. 3. Objectives Of Competition Act 2002 Competition Act 2002 notified in Jan 2003 for establishment of a commission. Objectives Eliminate practices having adverse effect on competition. Promote & sustain competition. Protect interests of consumers. Ensure the freedom of trade carried on by other participants of the market.(see sec 18)
  4. 4. Main Features Of Competition Act 2002 Prohibits anti competitive arguments. (Sec 3) Prohibits abuse Dominant positions. (Sec 4) Provides the Regulations of combinations.(Sec 5&6) Enjoins Competition Advocacy.(sec 49)
  5. 5. Anti Competitive Agreements phase 1st There are two types Horizontal & Vertical Agreement amongst competitors (horizontal agreements),including cartels. Cartels presumed to have appreciable adverse effect on competition. Cartels are The most pernicious violation. Fix pricing, market sharing, limiting production, supply etc.bid rigging , collusive bidding.
  6. 6. Anti Competative Agreements phase 2nd Agreements Agreements such as between manufacturer and distributor(vertical agreement)– subject to Rule to reason; burden of proof lies on prosecutor . Tie in arrangements,exclusive supply/distribution agreement,refusal to deal,resale price maintenance. Agreement includes arrangement or understanding, oral or in writing not necessarily enforceable by law. [sec 3]
  7. 7. Anti Competitive agreements Example Global lysine cartel, decided in US in( 1996)---turning point in anti cartel action 5 firms (2 japanese,2 S. Korean,1 US) prosecuted for forming cartels and fixing Prices for five years. High penalties imposed ;ADM(cartel leader) fined $100m. Rigorous investigation with the help of FBI. Major role of economic analysis in calculation of overcharge. Issues Direct evidence is usually difficult.might required search and seizure operation as per section41.might necessitate reliance on circumstantial evidence leniency provision. Injury caused to developing countries by global cartels.
  8. 8. Abuse Of Dominance Not dominance but abuse of dominance is prohibited. Acts deemed to be abuse are(Sec 4): Unfair or discriminatory pricing ( including predatory pricing). Limiting production or technical development. Denial of market access Conclusion of contract s subject to supplementary obligations. Use of dominant position in one market enter in to or protect other market.
  9. 9. Abuse Of Dominance 2nd Dominance is based on arithmetical figure; but on several factors listed in Act.Sec19(4). Relevant markets needs to be first determined: Relevant product market Sec 19(7). Relevant geographic market. Sec 19(6).
  10. 10. Abuse Of Dominance Example United Brands Company prosecuted by European competition commissioner. Court determined UB’s dominance from combination several factors. Court held following amounted to abuse (1978). Refusal to supply long standing customer. Discriminatory pricing for equivalent transactions. Excessive pricing ,having no reasonable relation to economic value. Issues: Determination of relevant product market, relevant geographic market Economic tools available e.g. cross elasticity, subsitutability,SSNIP/HMT.Factors given in Sec 19. Another example: Microsoft case(Typing-in ,dying access, using dominance in one market to enter another).
  11. 11. Regulation Of Combinations Combination includes: merger and amalgamation ,acquiring of control and acquisition of shares ,voting rights, assets. High thresholds, including” domestic nexus”. Mandatory pre-notification before merger. Commission must decide in 210 days, else combination deemed approved. Combination assessed on rule of reason based on 14 factors. Commission can take Suo moto action within 1 year after combination.
  12. 12. Regulation Of Combinations Example FTC,US successfully opposed(1997)merger between staples and office depots-two office supplies super stores: Court accepted “office supply super stores "as relevant market: used economic tools eg:CR,HHI” Brown shoes indices”. Court recognized benefits to consumers by firm but found reasonable probability that proposed merger may substantially lessen competition; rejected efficiency arguments. ISSUES: Involves predicting future structure/conducts; factors given in Sec 20.
  13. 13. Competition advocacy Commission shall take suitable measures to: Promote competition advocacy Create public awareness. Impart training about competition issues. The Commission render opinion on a reference from the central government on a policy / law of competition; not binding.(Sec 49)
  14. 14. Examples Of Competition Advocacy Initiatives by commission in respect of: Department Of posts- Indian post office (Amendment Bill),2006- monopoly of letter mail ,USO fee, new regulator etc. Department Of Shipping-Shipping conferences-tariff fixing; and shipping trade Practices bill,2005. Department Of Telecom & TRAI- Number portability, spectrum allocation Additional merger regulation, open access to telecom infrastructure. Ministry Of Civil Aviation-Price fixing by airlines association. Reserve Bank Of India- Competition issues in banking sector.
  15. 15. Examples Of Competition Advocacy 2 Department Of Food & Distribution-Warehousing(Development & Regulation) Bill 2005- price monitoring by proposed regulator. Department Of Roads Transport & Highways- Competition Oriented reforms in passenger road transport (in states). Planning Commission- Model concession agreement. Planning Commission-Competition Policy for 11th five year plan document.
  16. 16. Government departments /Undertaking included [Section 2(h)] I.e., Competitive neutrality. Effects Doctrine.[Sec 32] Relationship sector regulators.[Sec 21,21A] International Co-Operation[Previous Sec 18] Excluded from competition scrutiny: Exports Responsible restrictions on IPRs (patents,copywright etc,) Efficiency enhancing JVs excluded from” presumptive rule”. . Other Highlights Of Act
  17. 17. Effects Doctrine Following liberalization/globalization, cross border economic activity has grown enormously. This has increased vulnerability to overseas/cross border economic mal-practices/ offences. CCI’s jurisdiction expressly extended to anti competitive practices /combination taking place outside India ,but having effects in market in India. This will better protect domestic market/consumers. [Sec 32]
  18. 18. Relationship With Sector Regulators Regulator can refer a competition issue arising in a proceeding to commission for opinion. Commission to opinion in 60 days; after which regulator pass order. Similarly commission may refer competition issue to sector regulator who must give opinion in 60 days after which commission may pass order.
  19. 19. International Co-Operation  For discharging its duties/functions CCI can enter in to memorandum/arrangements with any agency of foreign country. Such arrangements important for inquires against cross border/overseas violations. International Co-Operation & effects doctrine mutually complementary . Such agreements exist between several competitive authorities. [Sec 18]
  20. 20. CompetitionAct –An Economic Law Economic concepts/analysis fundamental to the law: Relevant market—Relevant product market, relevant geographic market.(SSNIP test) Dominant position.(Abuse Of Dominance) AAEC- Appreciable Adverse Effects n competition by agreements/Abuse Of Dominance. AACE by combinations.(HHI,CR)
  21. 21. Competition Act & MRTP Act Based on liberalized regime. Based command and control Economically literate law.Not form- Regime based But effect based Comparison concept expressly defined Competition concept not expressly define major role for economic analysis..  provides for regulation of combinations. Not regulation for combinations Provides for advocacy. . Has no advocacy role. Power to impose penalty deterrence factor. No power to impose penalty. Statutory authority can seek CCI’s opinion. No provision for statutory authorities to Government. Departments within its ambit. Seek opinion. Government Departments outside its ambit
  22. 22. Power Of Commission Cease and desist order. In case of cartelized penalty up to 10% of turnover or three times of cartelized profit. Penalty up to 10% for three preceding financial years. To declare agreement having AAEC as void. Oder can modified agreement. In case of combination - can be approved ,approved with modification, or refusal approval. In case of dominant enterprise- order for division of dominant enterprise.
  23. 23. Who Can Approach Commisson Any person ;includes individual,company,firm,association,,government company Statutory cooperation ,body coperate,leagal authority etc. Consumer; means one who buys goods/avails services for consideration . Association of persons or consumers or trade association. Reference by central/state government, statutory authority. Thus an enterprise, adversely affected can also approach commission .
  24. 24. How Enterprises Can achieve Compliance Compliance important because consequences potentially serious: Investigation,penalty,demages, voidance of agreements, adverse publicity. Businesses advised to raised awareness among employees,esecially those in sales,marketing,purchasing. Large businesses advised to have formal compliance programme with four suggested features: Support of senior management.
  25. 25. Continued………….. Appropriate policies and procedures; compliance manual incorporating clear policy statements, giving provision of competition law, example of prohibited behavior etc. Training Regular evaluation Compliance programme is mitigating factor for OFT;invovlment of senior management is aggravating factor. [Reference see guide of OFT U.K.]
  26. 26. Role Of Trade Association Functions of trade association are useful for members May also beneficial in increasing efficiency of markets. However, trade associations should take care not to be directly/indirectly as vehicle for anti competitive activity. Trade association can facilitate compliance by generating awareness ,educating members, propagating compliance programme;etc. [See guide of OFT U.K]
  27. 27. Conclusion This presentation provides only an introduction to competition law, and should not be relied on as a substitute law itself. Further, this presentation is subject to any amendments which may be made in competition law at any time in future.
  28. 28. Thank you

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