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SATYA KURMI PM Page 1MODULE 1Introduction,Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, motivating, and co...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 2Project Classification MatrixProject Class Work Effort Budget (internal & external)1 – Basic Project ...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 3An experienced six sigma team will usually give the risk assessment part to its most capablemember. T...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 4MODULE 2Management principles applied to project management,Seven Key Principles of Project Managemen...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 5 Tailor to suit the environment: whatever project management methodology orframework you favors, it ...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 6MODULE 3Strategic Planning –Strategic planning is an organizations process of defining its strategy, ...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 7✴In your research project, the statement of the problem is the first part of the proposal to be read[a...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 8Time boundTime bound objectives have a clear end date. "Lose 10 pounds," for instance, doesnt indicat...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 93. Really Question Your AssumptionsAlthough it helps to be a pragmatic optimist when writing strategi...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 108. Connect Assumptions to StrategiesThere is another requisite for the correction loop to work: the ...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 11• Cash flow• Capital• Price pressures Structural Resource Risks• IT systems• Proprietary informatio...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 12ExecutionThe greatest challenge for strategic planners in any environment is execution, actually put...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 13Project Resource Requirements,In project management terminology, resources are required to carry out...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 14Project ImplementationProject implementation: Eight steps to success Preparethe infrastructure. Man...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 15MODULE 5Project Monitoring, Evaluation, ControlWhat do we mean by project monitoring?It means to kee...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 16example, for daily or weekly plans. Write on the other side what actually happened.Keeping a work di...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 17o Represented by an arrow Dummy Activityo Indicates only precedence relationshipso Does not require...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 18CPM calculation• Path– A connected sequence of activities leading from the starting event to the end...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 19
SATYA KURMI PM Page 20MODULE 6Project MIS,A PMIS is defined as the documents (containers of information) and producers for...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 21when a problem is observed, the inclination is to fix things quickly without a thoroughexamination o...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 22success. It is also important to establish at the outset any limitations, such as travel time andcos...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 233. “The Executing Process Group consists of those processes performed to completethe work defined in...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 24 Termination rarely has much impact on technical success or failure . . . But a huge impact on oth...
SATYA KURMI PM Page 25 Project Initiating Project Planning Project Executing Project Controlling and Monitoring Proje...
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Project management

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Project management

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Project management

  1. 1. SATYA KURMI PM Page 1MODULE 1Introduction,Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, motivating, and controllingresources to achieve specific goals. Project management has been proven to be the most effectivemethod of delivering products within cost, schedule, and resource constraints. This intensive andhands-on course gives you the skills to ensure your projects are completed on time and on budgetwhile giving the user the product they expect. You will gain a strong working knowledge of thebasics of project management and be able to immediately use that knowledge to effectivelymanage work projects. At the end of the course you will be able to identify and manage theproduct scope, build a work breakdown structure, create a project plan, create the project budget,define and allocate resources, manage the project development, identify and manage risks, andunderstand the project procurement process.Definitions,The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet projectrequirements Organizing and managing resources so the project is completed within definedscope, quality, time and cost constraints.The planning and organization of an organizations resources in order to move a specific task,event or duty toward completion. Project management typically involves a one-time projectrather than an ongoing activity, and resources managed include both human and financial capital.Classifications, Project ClassificationAll projects can be classified into a category based on the amount of internal work effort andexternal costs. A small project would fall into Class 1 - Basic Project, while a large projectwould fall into Class 2 - Major Project.Why classify? “One size doesn’t fit all” when it comes to managing projects. The amount ofdocumentation and required project management activities must be scaled to the size of theproject.How do we classify? Projects are classified based on work effort. Basic Project Requests are forITS services that require less that 4 weeks of effort or $25,000 to implement. Major ProjectRequests are for ITS services that require more than 4 weeks of effort of cost more than $25,000to implement.
  2. 2. SATYA KURMI PM Page 2Project Classification MatrixProject Class Work Effort Budget (internal & external)1 – Basic Project 0 – 80 hours(< 4 weeks)$0 - $25,0002 – Major Project 81 + hours(> 4 weeks)$25,001 +Project Risk,The risks fall into categories. The major categories of risk are as follows:Stakeholder Risk: Stakeholders are people who have any kind of vested interest in theperformance of the project. Common examples of stakeholders are as regulators, customers,suppliers, managers, customers etc. Stakeholder risk arises from the fact that stakeholders maynot have the inclination or the capabilities required to execute the project.Regulatory Risk: An organization faces several kinds of regulations. It faces rules from thelocal and state government where they operate. It faces rules of the national government where itoperates. It also faces rules of international trade bodies. To add to all this there are internalregulations which have been put into place for better internal governance and avoiding fraud.The Six Sigma team has to ensure that the project does not adversely affect the compliancetowards these risks in any way whatsoever.Technology Risk: Many times the solution proposed by the project requires implementation of anew technology. However the organization may not be in a position to acquire these technologiesdue to financial or operational constraints. This poses obvious risks to the project as it canadversely affect the implementation of the proposed solution.External Risk: The execution of a project requires help and support from several outsidevendors as well. The dependence on these vendors poses obvious risk to the execution of theproject. These vendors lie outside the direct control of any organization. The organization mayhave very little ways to predict issues arising from external sources.Execution Risk: The project also faces risk of not receiving continued support from theorganization. This is because the organization may discover better use of their resources in theadditional time. It is also likely that the project may be poorly scoped causing it to spill overleading to wastage of resources prompting the management to abandon the project.
  3. 3. SATYA KURMI PM Page 3An experienced six sigma team will usually give the risk assessment part to its most capablemember. The better prepared the risk assessment plans, the better chance the organization has ofsuccessfully implementing that project.Scope.When it comes to project planning, defining the project scope is the most critical step. In case ifyou start the project without knowing what you are supposed to be delivering at the end to theclient, and what the boundaries of the project, there is a little chance for you to success. In mostof the instances, you actually do not have any chance to success with this unorganized approach.If you do not do a good job in project scope definition, project scope management during theproject execution is almost impossible. The main purpose of the scope definition is to clearlydescribe the boundaries of your project. Clearly describing the boundaries is not enough when itcomes to project. You need to get the clients agreement as well.Therefore, the defined scope of the project usually included into the contractual agreementsbetween the client and the services provider. SOW, or in other words, Statement of Work, is onesuch document. In the project scope definition, the elements within the scope and out of thescope are well defined in order to clearly understand what will be the area under the projectcontrol. Therefore, you should identify more elements in detailed manner and divide themamong the scope and out of scope.Scope Creep:Scope creep is something common with every project. This refers to the incremental expansionof the project scope. Most of the time, the client may come back to the service provider duringthe project execution and add more requirements. Most of such requirements havent been in theinitial requirements. As a result, change requests need to be raised in order to cover theincreasing costs of the services provider. Due to business cope creep, there can be technologicalscope creep as well. The project team may require new technologies in order to address some ofthe new requirements in the scope. In such instances, the services provider may want to workwith the client closely and make necessary logistic and financial arrangements.
  4. 4. SATYA KURMI PM Page 4MODULE 2Management principles applied to project management,Seven Key Principles of Project Management Business justification: every project should lead to a worthwhile return on investment.In other words, we need to understand the benefits that a particular project will bring,before committing ourselves to any significant expenditure. During the life cycle of aproject, however, circumstances can change quickly. If at any point it becomes clear thata return on investment is no longer feasible, then the project should be scrapped and nomore money wasted. Defined roles and responsibilities: everybody working on the project needs tounderstand the nature of their involvement: for what is each person responsible, and towhom are they accountable? Without clear roles and responsibilities, nobody will knowprecisely what he or she is supposed to be doing (and everybody will pass the buck at thefirst sign of trouble). In such a chaotic environment, the progress of the project will beseriously jeopardized. Manage by exception: project sponsors should avoid getting too bogged down in theday-to-day running of projects and instead allow the project manager to concentrate onthis area. Micro-management by a sponsor is a hindrance, not a help. Project sponsorsshould set clear boundaries for cost and time, with which the manager should work. Ifhe/she cannot provide the agreed deliverables within these constraints, concerns must beescalated to the sponsor for a decision. Manage by stages: break the project up into smaller chunks, or stages. Each stage marksa point at which the project sponsor will make key decisions. For example, is the projectstill worthwhile? Are the risks still acceptable? Dividing a project into stages, and onlycommitting to one stage at a time, is a low risk approach that enables the sponsor tomanage by exception. Focus on products: it is vital that clients and customers think carefully about theproducts, or deliverables, they require, before the project begins. The clearer they can beabout their requirements, the more realistic and achievable the plans that can beproduced. This makes managing the project much easier and less risky. Learn from experience: dont risk making the same mistakes on every project; considerwhy certain aspects went well or badly, then incorporate the lessons learned into yourapproach to your next project. Humans have an amazing capacity to learn, but when itcomes to repeating errors made during previous projects, we all too often fail to learn thelessons.
  5. 5. SATYA KURMI PM Page 5 Tailor to suit the environment: whatever project management methodology orframework you favors, it must be tailored to suit the needs of your project. Rather thanblindly following a methodology, the project manager must be able to adapt proceduresto meet the demands of the work in hand. How you plan on a two-week project is likelyto be very different from how you plan on a two-year project.sProject management life cycles and uncertaintyThe Project Life CycleEvery programme, project has certain phases of development.1. Conception phase2. Definition phase3. Planning & organizing phase4. Operational phase5. Checking and feedback phaseAn Alternate Project Life CycleUncertaintyAbility to predict outcome of parameters or foresee events that may impact the projectUncertainties have a defined range of possible outcomes described by functions reflecting theprobability for each outcome. Uncertainty functions can describe discrete events or continuousranges of outcomes.
  6. 6. SATYA KURMI PM Page 6MODULE 3Strategic Planning –Strategic planning is an organizations process of defining its strategy, or direction, and makingdecisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy. In order to determine the direction ofthe organization, it is necessary to understand its current position and the possible avenuesthrough which it can pursue a particular course of action. Generally, strategic planning deals withat least one of three key questions:"What do we do?""For whom do we do it?""How do we excel?"Strategic Planning Scope,A Leading Organisation• Demonstrate leadership by influencing public policy, informing system architecture anddelivering high quality outcomes.An Inclusive Organisation• Embrace difference through inclusive and accessible services and employment options.A Diversified Organisation• Leverage existing capability and capacity to new markets.A Growing Organisation• Leverage existing capability and capacity to existing markets.A Sustainable Organisation• Achieve economic, environmental and social outcomes for now and the future.Problem Statement of Strategic Planning✴The problem statement provides the context for the research study and typically generatesQUESTIONS which the research hopes to answer (objective of the research)✴In considering whether or not to move forward with a research project, you will generally spendsome time considering the problem.
  7. 7. SATYA KURMI PM Page 7✴In your research project, the statement of the problem is the first part of the proposal to be read[apart from the title and the abstract, if you decide to have one]. The problem statement should"hook" the reader and establish a persuasive context for what follows.Strategic Planning Goals, Objectives, :Strategic business plan objectives provide the specific details about what a companysexpectations are for meeting their identified goals. While goals are broad, objectives must beclear enough that, after the plan has been implemented; two independent observers can tellwhether or not the objective has been met.SpecificObjectives must be specific. This means that they need to indicate exactly what the expectationsare. "Lose weight," is not a specific objective. "Lose 12 pounds" is. While goals provide ageneral direction for an organization or planning group, "increase sales," or "beat thecompetition," objectives provide a clearer picture of what success will ultimately look like.MeasurableMeasurable objectives provide the ability for planning teams, at the end of a planning cycle, tolook back and determine whether or not the objectives have been achieved. Simply having aspecific number as part of the objective does not ensure that it will be measurable For instance:"Increase employee satisfaction by 10 percent" may appear to be measurable, but this statementdoes not give an indication of what satisfaction is and there may be disagreement over whatsatisfaction is or what success will look like. Instead, a measurable objective might point tospecific questions on an annual employee satisfaction survey that company leadership has chosento represent the level of overall employee satisfaction. The objective, therefore, might read:"Increase scores on questions 1,7 and 10 of the annual employee survey by 10 percent as anindication of increased satisfaction."ActionableThe "A" in the SMART acronym may be referred to as both “achievable” and "actionable."Since "achievable" is closely related to "realistic," actionable provides a slightly differentperspective. Actionable means that the objective must represent an outcome that the company orplanning group is able to take action to achieve. "Reduce economic impacts on sales," may notbe actionable because the company cannot impact economic impacts.RealisticRealistic objectives are those that the company or planning group has the ability to meet. Whileit is okay for objectives to be challenging, they should reflect outcomes that are within the reachof the organization, given its current or available resources in time, money and staff.
  8. 8. SATYA KURMI PM Page 8Time boundTime bound objectives have a clear end date. "Lose 10 pounds," for instance, doesnt indicatewhen those 10 pounds will be lost--it could be next month, next year or ten years from now. Allobjectives should clearly indicate the timeframe that they encompass to provide a point at whichthe planning group can determine whether or not the objective has been achieved.Success Criteria of Strategic PlanningTen key of success:-1. A clear and comprehensive grasp of external opportunities and challenges.2. A realistic and comprehensive assessment of the organization’s strengths and limitations3. An inclusive approach4. An empowered planning committee5. Involvement of senior leadership6. Sharing of responsibility by board and staff members7. Learning from best practices8. Clear priorities and an implementation plan9. Patience10. A commitment to changeAssumptions of Strategic Planning1. Keep Your Head Out of the SandWe call this flaw the “head-in-the- sand” problem: obliviousness to what one is actuallyassuming. This is the most pernicious problem we see with assumptions and strategic plans. It isthe inability or unwillingness to actually state what you are assuming.2. Stay above HubrisHubris is another common problem. Too many plans arrogantly assume away important barriers,pitfalls, and problems.The point of strategic assumptions is not to sweep away problems, but rather to articulate a likelyreality.
  9. 9. SATYA KURMI PM Page 93. Really Question Your AssumptionsAlthough it helps to be a pragmatic optimist when writing strategic goals, we suggest you playthe pragmatic skeptic when writing assumptions.The assumption-writer asks annoying questions such as, “Will the adversary truly respond theway we think he will?” “Has this ever worked in the past?” “On what basis do we think fundingwill continue to be available?” “How good are we, usually, at implementing big ideas?” “Whydo we think our competitors’ technology will not advance sufficiently for them to gain theadvantage?” “Do our constituents really want the same things they need?”4. Think of Categories Before You Think of AssumptionsBefore you and your team (and red team) brainstorm assumptions, you will find it immenselyhelpful to first brainstorm categories of assumptions. Cognitive psychological research (and ourexperience) indicates that people will generate about twice as many useful ideas if they havecategories in which to fit their ideas5. Close the Assumption-Strategy LoopIn theory, you should start by generating a nice, clean set of assumptions before crafting strategicgoals. After all, good assumptions enable solid strategic goals. But the truth is, the whole processis a messy, iterative loop that can start anywhere you like. Feel free to start with gloriousstrategic goals, and then question the assumptions that supported those goals. Or, start withassumptions and build strategic6. Keep Your Plan RelevantGood implementers continually ask, “How are we doing against our plan?” But greatimplementers also ask, “Is our plan still relevant?” A powerful way to address relevance is withyour assumptions. If your assumptions have not held true, or have been incomplete, then it’s timeto re-tailor the plan. Even before your results tell you that your plan is off the mark, occasionalreview of your assumptions serves as an early warning system before bad results start rolling in,and informing you that something needs changing. Here are the kinds of questions to ask:7. Make Them Crystal-Darn ClearOf course, just knowing your assumptions will put you ahead of the pack, both as a planner andas an implementer. But knowing exactly what you mean by each assumption will put you evenfarther ahead. We’ve written elsewhere about the importance of clear and measurable strategicgoals. Well, the same goes for assumptions.
  10. 10. SATYA KURMI PM Page 108. Connect Assumptions to StrategiesThere is another requisite for the correction loop to work: the relationship of a strategic goal toone or more assumptions should be absolutely explicit. Otherwise it’s too difficult to changeyour strategy, even if you spot discrepancies as your assumptions unfold. Too often, there is noclear relationship between the strategies in a strategic plan and the assumptions on which theyare based. The relationship between assumptions and strategies need not be only one assumptionto one strategy. Those relationships can also be many-to-one or one-to-many.9. Make Contingency PlansIf assumptions are measurable, they serve as effective tripwires for contingency plans. Forexample, your strategic plan might state, “If assumptions x, y, and z hold true, we’ll stick withcourse A. But if any two of them prove incorrect, we’ll switch to course B.” In other words, youdon’t need to wait until an assumption is disproven to create a replacement strategy.10. Hedge Your Bets“Hedging” is one way to prepare for the eventuality of incorrect assumptions. A hedge is arelatively small investment, up front, to mitigate the impact of incorrect assumptions. A hedgemight include the purchase of equipment that might never be needed (like a seat belt), trainingyou probably will never need (like CPR instruction), or the right to use or lease something thatmight never be part of your future.Strategic Planning Risks,Strategic risks - are simply those that affect the strategic direction of the organization.Common Strategic Risks External Risks• Competition• Market changes Human Resource Risks• Knowledge• Staffing• Employee theft Financial Risks
  11. 11. SATYA KURMI PM Page 11• Cash flow• Capital• Price pressures Structural Resource Risks• IT systems• Proprietary information• Regulatory actions Physical Resource Risks• Disasters• Bottlenecks Relationship Risks• Reputation• Supply chain.Obstacles of Strategic PlanningStrategic planning is one area that businesses large and small should pursue to ensure that allemployees are involved, especially in activities designed to achieve the company’s mission,vision, values and core strategies. Strategic planners face a number of challenges that they needto be alert to and prepared to overcome.EngagementA key challenge that strategic planners face is engaging the right people in the planning process.The words strategic planning; can strike fear in even the most experienced business person, butsmall businesses are most at risk of avoiding this important task.ConsensusProbably the most challenging aspect of strategic planning is people. Strategic planners face theneed to get a large number of people with different backgrounds, interests and perspectives toagree on the direction the organization should take. Achieving consensus can be challenging, butfortunately there are a number of business tools that can be used from simple brainstorming, tomind mapping to nominal ranking.
  12. 12. SATYA KURMI PM Page 12ExecutionThe greatest challenge for strategic planners in any environment is execution, actually putting theplan in place. Too often so much effort and attention is focused on developing the plan that oncedeveloped the planning team feels that their work is through. But it is at this point when that thereal work just begins. Actually achieving the goals, objectives, strategies and tactics in the plan isthe point of the entire process, as effective strategic planners know.MODULE 4Approval Process,Approval process steps are: An idea is documented and submitted to Enterprise Project Management (EPM) office bythe idea champion. The idea champion provides a description of the idea as well as how theidea would benefit. The Technology Expert Council (TEC) reviews the idea and determines the feasibility ofthe idea from a functional and technical perspective. TEC assembles a virtual task force offunctional and technical stakeholders to formulate a project request, inclusive of approach,proposed timeline, resources, and total cost of ownership information. TEC reviews the completed project request and provides information to the StrategicTechnology Investment Committee (STIC) on the project’s feasibility, fit within thetechnology portfolio, and a recommendation on whether to pursue the project and in whattimeframe. STIC reviews the project request, information from the TEC, and determines the next stepsfor the project request. STIC may determine that the project request needs to be approved attheSenior Institute Leadership and Advisors level, given the investment or impact to strategyand campus constituents. STIC may also ask for additional information before making adecision.
  13. 13. SATYA KURMI PM Page 13Project Resource Requirements,In project management terminology, resources are required to carry out the project tasks. Theycan be people, equipment, facilities, funding, or anything else capable of definition (usually otherthan labour) required for the completion of a project activity. The lack of a resource willtherefore be a constraint on the completion of the project activity. Resources may be storable ornon storable. Storable resources remain available unless depleted by usage, and may bereplenished by project tasks which produce them. Non-storable resources must be renewed foreach time period, even if not utilised in previous time periods.Resource scheduling, availability and optimisation are considered key to successful projectmanagement.Allocation of limited resources is based on the priority given to each of the project activities.Their priority is calculated using the Critical path method and heuristic analysis. For a case witha constraint on the number of resources, the objective is to create the most efficient schedulepossible - minimizing project duration and maximizing the use of the resources available.
  14. 14. SATYA KURMI PM Page 14Project ImplementationProject implementation: Eight steps to success Preparethe infrastructure. Many solutions are implemented into a production environmentthat is separate and distinct from where the solution was developed and tested. It is importantthat the characteristics of the production environment be accounted for. This strategy includes areview of hardware, software, communications, etc. In our example above, the potential desktopcapacity problem would have been revealed if we had done an evaluation of the production (orreal-world) environment. When you are ready for implementation, the production infrastructureneeds to be in place.Coordinate with the organizations involved in implementation. This may be as simple ascommunicating to your client community. However, few solutions today can be implementedwithout involving a number of organizations. For IT solutions, there are usually one or moreoperations and infrastructure groups that need to be communicated to ahead of time. Many ofthese groups might actually have a role in getting the solution successfully deployed. Part of theimplementation work is to coordinate the work of any other groups that have a role to play. Insome cases, developers simply failed to plan ahead and make sure the infrastructure groups wereprepared to support the implementation. As a result, the infrastructure groups were forced to dropeverything to make the implementation a success. Implement training Many solutions require users to attend training or more informalcoaching sessions. This type of training could be completed in advance, but the further out thetraining is held, the less information will be retained when implementation rolls around. Trainingthat takes place close to the time of implementation should be made part of the actualimplementation plan.Install the production solution. This is the piece everyone remembers. Your solution needsto be moved from development to test. If the solution is brand new, this might be finished in aleisurely and thoughtful manner over a period of time. If this project involves a major change toa current solution, you may have a lot less flexibility in terms of when the new solution moves toproduction, since the solution might need to be brought down for a period of time. You have tomake sure all of your production components are implemented successfully, including newhardware, databases, and program code.Convert the data. Data conversion, changing data from one format to another, needs to takeplace once the infrastructure and the solution are implemented.Perform final verification in production. You should have prepared to test the productionsolution to ensure everything is working as you expect. This may involve a combination ofdevelopment and client personnel. The first check is just to make sure everything is up andappears okay. The second check is to actually push data around in the solution, to make sure thatthe solution is operating as it should. Depending on the type of solution being implemented, thisverification step could be extensive.Implement new processes and procedures. Many IT solutions require changes to be made tobusiness processes as well. These changes should be implemented at the same time that theactual solution is deployed.Monitor the solution. Usually the project team will spend some period of time monitoring theimplemented solution. If there are problems that come up immediately after implementation, theproject team should address and fix them.
  15. 15. SATYA KURMI PM Page 15MODULE 5Project Monitoring, Evaluation, ControlWhat do we mean by project monitoring?It means to keep a careful check of project activities over a period of time.Why should we monitor a project?Surely if everyone is doing their best, things will go well?To work to its full potential, any kind of project needs to set out proposals and objectives. Then amonitoring system should be worked out to keep a check on all the various activities, includingfinances. This will help project staff to know how things are going, as well as giving earlywarning of possible problems and difficulties.How can a project be monitored?1. Keep it simpleRemember… monitoring is meant to be a help to good project management and not aburden.2. ObjectivesWork out clearly at the beginning the objectives of the project, including a budget of thelikely cost (expenditure).3. Plan the activities- what needs to be done- when it should be done- who will be involved in doing it- what resources are needed to do it- how long it will take to do- how much it will cost.4. MonitoringWork out the most appropriate way of monitoring the work - again, keep it simple:- meetings- diaries- reports on progress- accounts, reports on finances.Monitoring methodsReportsThese do not have to be very long. Their purpose needs to be clear - to report on activitiesand achievements. Above is an example of the records kept by ASHA in India. They give aclear and helpful record of exactly what has been achieved. They are short and to the point.This kind of report will help them in future planning and would clearly inform theGovernment or a donor agency of what has taken place.The ideal report - like this one below written by ASHA in India - is short and to the point.DiariesA helpful way of recording information would be to use one side of a note book for
  16. 16. SATYA KURMI PM Page 16example, for daily or weekly plans. Write on the other side what actually happened.Keeping a work diary like this will help you also to evaluate your own work. What are youdoing that is most helpful and brings effective results? Take time to ask people in thecommunity about how they feel.FinancesDonor agencies often transfer funds in quarterly or half yearly payments which may not fitin with the planned project expenses. Planning of expenditure may need to take this intoaccount. Careful budgeting and planning will be of great help in this.MeetingsConfidence and trust are vital. There is a possibility that monitoring may be seen as a wayof checking up on people. It must be a joint effort that everyone is involved with in someway or another.Use the Information!For monitoring to be a useful tool, the information that is collected must be used effectively in allsorts of ways:Improve the timing of planned activities.Adjust budgets.Improve future planning and decision making.Indicate where future work is necessary.Inform other agencies of activities, to encourage cooperation and publicity.Inform funding agencies of progress and future plans.Project Networking Techniques- PERT & CPM. Network analysis is the general name given to certain specific techniques which can beused for the planning, management and control of projects. Use of nodes and arrowsArrows An arrow leads from tail to head directionallyIndicate ACTIVITY, a time consuming effort that is required to perform a part ofthe work.Nodes  A node is represented by a circleIndicate EVENT, a point in time where one or more activities start and/or finish. Activityo A task or a certain amount of work required in the projecto Requires time to complete
  17. 17. SATYA KURMI PM Page 17o Represented by an arrow Dummy Activityo Indicates only precedence relationshipso Does not require any time of effort Evento Signals the beginning or ending of an activityo Designates a point in timeo Represented by a circle (node) Networko Shows the sequential relationships among activities using nodes andarrows Activity-on-node (AON)nodes represent activities, and arrows show precedence relationships Activity-on-arrow (AOA)arrows represent activities and nodes are events for points in time
  18. 18. SATYA KURMI PM Page 18CPM calculation• Path– A connected sequence of activities leading from the starting event to the endingevent• Critical Path– The longest path (time); determines the project duration• Critical Activities– All of the activities that make up the critical pathPert• PERT is based on the assumption that an activity’s duration follows a probabilitydistribution instead of being a single value• Three time estimates are required to compute the parameters of an activity’s durationdistribution:– pessimistic time (tp ) - the time the activity would take if things did not go well– most likely time (tm ) - the consensus best estimate of the activity’s duration– optimistic time (to ) - the time the activity would take if things did go wellPERT Example
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  20. 20. SATYA KURMI PM Page 20MODULE 6Project MIS,A PMIS is defined as the documents (containers of information) and producers for documentpreparation, maintenance, preservation and utilization that are used for creating planning andexecuting projects.A PMIS is used for collecting data from across various functions analyzing and presenting thosedata in form suitable for all the parties involved in a project.Project Review,Project Reviews are useful from many perspectives. The real benefit from Project Reviews is theopportunity to step back and tack a deeper look into the system. During the throes of delivery
  21. 21. SATYA KURMI PM Page 21when a problem is observed, the inclination is to fix things quickly without a thoroughexamination of what is really happening. We call this the ready, fire, aim approach. Sometimesthis works. We get lucky; smart team members use their insight to aim the arrow correctly.Project Reviews that follow this process allow us to take a deeper look and examine theunderlying values, practices, and assumptions that got us in trouble in the first place. We canthen precisely craft an appropriate solution and monitor the solution carefully.Project Team Management,A project team is a team whose members usually belong to different groups, functions and areassigned to activities for the same project. A team can be divided into sub-teams according toneed. Usually project teams are only used for a defined period of time. They are disbanded afterthe project is deemed complete. Due to the nature of the specific formation and disbandment,project teams are usually in organizations.A team is defined as “an interdependent collection of individuals who work together towards acommon goal and who share responsibility for specific outcomes of their organizations”.[1] Anadditional requirement to the original definition is that “the team is identified as such by thosewithin and outside of the team”.[2] As project teams work on specific projects, the firstrequirement is usually met. In the early stages of a project, the project team may not berecognized as a team, leading to some confusion within the organization. The centralcharacteristic of project teams in modern organizations is the autonomy and flexibility availed inthe process or method undertaken to meet their goals.Recruitment,The success of any intergovernmental information systems project generally depends on threefactors working together: technology, management, and policy. If any of these areas are ignoredin staffing a project team, the project is likely to have either short or long term problems or both.Without individuals capable of handling project management functions (timelines, work plans,budgets, recruiting) you run the risk of poor coordination, and wasted time and effort. If a projectlacks adequately skilled technology personnel, it is likely that deadlines will be missed andapplications may fail or contain crucial flaws that render the system inferior to the old way ofdoing business. Teams that do not include well-informed program and policy staff, especiallythose engaged in direct service functions, are likely to miss the boat on substantive service goals.Moreover, the project team needs both state and local membership and the roles assigned to eachperson should take advantage of that individual’s organizational location and professionalbackground and skills. A survey we conducted as part of our study showed clearly that allparticipants had greater confidence in success when local officials played active roles as lead orco-designers. Local officials have the experience to understand the daily operational needs of anynew project. They understand the street-level realities. As such, the early, active, and ongoinginvolvement of local government partners adds considerable value and ensures more complete
  22. 22. SATYA KURMI PM Page 22success. It is also important to establish at the outset any limitations, such as travel time andcosts, on local agency ability to participateOrganization,Organization is a systematic arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. Everyorganization is composed of three elements i.e. people, goals and system. Each organization hasa distinct purpose. This purpose is expressed as goals generally. Each organization is composedof people. Every organization has a systematic structure that defines the limit of each member.Some members are managers and some are operatives.A project organization chart is a simple graphical illustration of who’s involved in the projectand where they fit in the overall organizational, or project, plan. First you d include yourself, theproject manager, with the project team linked in beneath. You report to the project board, whichis led by the project sponsor. Depending on the specifics of your project, you will likely thengroup the remaining stakeholders into their respective areas (for instance, end users and IT staff).These groups are shown on either side of the project team, since they will be giving input as theproject progresses.Project Contracts,In the world of business, contracts are used for establishing business deals and partnerships. Theparties involved in the business engagement decide the type of the contract.Usually the type of the contract used for the business engagement varies depending on the typeof the work and the nature of the industry.The contract is simply an elaborated agreement between two or more parties. One or moreparties may provide products or services in return to something provided by other parties (client).The contract type is the key relationship between the parties engaged in the business and thecontract type determines the project risk.Principles,The Five Principles of Successful Project Management1. “The Initiating Process Group consists of those processes performed to define anew project or a phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start theproject or phase.” – A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge2. “The Planning Process Group consists of those processes required to establish thescope of the project, refine the objectives and define the course of action requiredto attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.”
  23. 23. SATYA KURMI PM Page 233. “The Executing Process Group consists of those processes performed to completethe work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the projectspecifications.”4. “The Monitoring and Controlling Process Group. Those processes required totrack, review and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identifyany areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the correspondingchanges.”5. “The Closing Process Group consists of those processes performed to finalize allactivities across all the Process Groups to formally close the project or phase.”Practical Aspects,Legal Aspects,Many legal aspects have to be considered in projects; aspects that can be clustered concerningthe main stakeholders in projects: Project team members often are employees working in contracts shaped by their companyor public organization on one side and by the conditions of labour law on the other side.Furthermore external consultants often work in a project hired on a service contract andof course also under the conditions of labour law. Suppliers submit products and services based upon contracts. Projects lead to results that are sold somehow to those who ordered these results - thebuyer. There are many options what finally will be sold, outputs of a project, jointventure results, etc. Often many legal aspects have to be considered.Insurance.Insurance Operations, Insurance Technology and Project Management go hand-in-hand. TheProject Manager manages the implementation and deployment of an industry based softwaresolution, make decisions that will affect deployments, and manage the client relationship. TheProject Manager must have the ability to develop and monitor project schedules and timelines toidentify and meet critical milestones, experience managing multiple projects with competingpriorities, the ability to understand technical subjects and emerging trends with relevance to theInsurance or Reinsurance marketplace. A Successful Insurance Project Manager must possess all3 capabilities i.e. Business, Operational and Technical.MODULE 7Project Termination –
  24. 24. SATYA KURMI PM Page 24 Termination rarely has much impact on technical success or failure . . . But a huge impact on other areas Residual attitudes toward the project (client, senior management, and projectteam) Success of subsequent projects So it makes sense to plan and execute termination with careMost Common Reasons Projects Terminate1. Low probability of technical/commercial success2. Low profitability/ROI/market potential3. Damaging cost growth4. Change in competitive factors/market needs5. Un resolvable technical problems6. Higher priority of competing projects7. Schedule delaysStrategies,Strategy is a high level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty.1. A method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future, such as achievement of a goal orsolution to a problem.2. The art and science of planning and marshalling resources for their most efficient and effectiveuse. The term is derived from the Greek word for generalship or leading an army. See alsotactics.procedures. Purpose Scope Definitions Actions
  25. 25. SATYA KURMI PM Page 25 Project Initiating Project Planning Project Executing Project Controlling and Monitoring Project Closing Project Review Responsibilities Policy Base Associated Documents Record Keeping ImplementationMODULE 8Project Inventory Management-Use of PERT & CPM techniques,• Useful at many stages of project management• Mathematically simple• Give critical path and slack time• Provide project documentation• Useful in monitoring costs

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