Selection tests and Reliability and Validity in HRM
S A T Y A P R A K A S H J O S H I
• Individuals differ in many respects including job-related abilities and skills.
• In order to select a right person for the job, their abilities and skills need to be equally
measured. That is done through selection tests.
• A selection test is a device that uncovers the information about the candidate, which
are not known through application blank.
• They can measure certain abilities, aptitudes and skills that provide objective
information how well the applicant can be expected to perform the job.
SELECTION TEST TYPES
• Aptitude Test : Learning capacity
• Intelligence Tests : Reasoning, verbal , number, memory
• Achievement Tests : Theoretical and practical knowledge
• Situational Tests : Situational problems
• Interest Tests : Likes and dislikes of candidates
• Personality Tests : Relationship, Talkative, Reliability, Self-confident
• Honesty Tests : The “Polygraph” a lie detector mechanical device that measure
honesty of the candidate. Reduce losses and Employee theft
ADVANTAGES OF SELECTION TESTS
• Predict Future Performance : A well designed test can predict future performance of an
• Unbiased Tool : Standard, Eliminate biasness in selection process.
• Measure the Aptitude : Psychological test measure the aptitude of candidates and
predict their success.
• Basis for Comparison : Test provide a reliable basis for comparing applicants ability.
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN
• Organization should have to select best candidates for the job.
• Selecting the right employees important for at least three main reasons.
– First Performance : Employee with the right skills and attributes will de better.
– Recruiting and hiring is the costly process.
– Important because of legal implications.
• Effective selection is therefore important and depends to a large degree on the testing
concepts of reliability and validity.
• Selection process must be valid or reliable and consistent.
• Reliability can be measured by several different statistical methods.
• The most frequent ones are test-retest. Alternate forms represented by a correlation
coefficient, which ranges 0 to 1.
• No selection test achieves perfect reliability, but the goal is to reduce error in
measurement as much as possible.
• High reliability is a necessary condition for high validity, but reliability does not ensure
that a test is valid.
• Test-retest reliability is a measure of reliability obtained by
administering the same test twice over a period of time to a group of
individuals. The scores from Time 1 and Time 2 can then be
correlated in order to evaluate the test for stability over time.
• Can determine if and how much data a student memorizes on a test.
The term validity refers to whether or not a test measures what it
intends to measure.
On a test with high validity the items will be closely linked to the test’s
intended focus. For many certification and licensure tests this means
that the items will be highly related to a specific job or occupation. If a
test has poor validity then it does not measure the job-related content
and competencies it ought to.
• A test has content validity, if it reflects an actual sample of the work
done on the job.
• The basic procedure is to identify job tasks and behaviors that are
critical to performance and then randomly select a sample of these
tasks and behaviors to be tested.
• The test should measure tasks and skills actually needed for the job.
• Construct Validity is used to ensure that the measure, actually measures what it is
intended to measure and not other variables.
• Using a panel of “experts” familiar with the construct is a way in which this type of
validity can be assessed.
• They bring out the qualities and weaknesses of candidates.
• Criterion validity means who do well on the test also do well on the job and those who
do poorly on the test do poorly on the job.
• Concurrent validity – a test is given to current employees and the scores are correlated
with their performance ratings.
• Predictive validity – test results of applicants are compared with their subsequent job