A REPORT ONPLANT LAYOUTPRESNTED BY:-SATYABRATA PRADHANKRUPAJAL BUSINESS SCHOOLREGD NO.:-11KB009BATCH.NO:-2011-13
Plant layout� Meaning-� Plant layout is the physical arrangement of industrial facilities. It involves the allocation of space & the arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized.
Objectives of plant layout1. Economies in materials, facilitate manufacturing process & handling of semi- finished & finished goods.2. Proper & efficient utilization of available floor space.3. Provision of better supervision & control of operations.4. Careful planning to avoid frequent changes in layout which may result in undue increase in cost of production.5. To provide adequate safety to the workers from accidents.
Types of plant layout1. Product layout2. Process layout3. Fixed Position/ Stationary layout
Product layout◦ Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high-volume flow◦ Here machines are arranged acc. To the needs of product & in the same sequence as the operations are necessary for manufacture.
Product LayoutRaw Finished Station Station Station Stationmaterials 1 2 3 4 itemor customer Material Material Material Material and/or and/or and/or and/or labor labor labor labor Used for Repetitive or Continuous Processing
Advantages of Product Layout1. High rate of output2. Low unit cost3. Labor specialization4. Low material handling cost5. High utilization of labor and equipment6. Short processing time
Disadvantages of Product Layout1. Poorly skilled workers may not maintain equipment or quality of output2. Fairly inflexible to changes in volume3. Needs preventive maintenance4. Require large capital investment
Process layout◦ Layout that can handle varied processing requirements.◦ Here all machines performing similar type of operations are grouped together at one location in the process layout. Thus here facilities are grouped together acc.◦ To their functions. E.g. all drilling machines are located at one place known as drilling section.
Process Layout MillingAssembly Grinding & Test Drilling Plating Process Layout - work travels to dedicated process centers
Advantages of Process Layouts1. Can handle a variety of processing requirements2. Machines breakdown doesn’t result in shutdown.3. Equipment used is less costly.4. Each production unit of system works independently.5. High utilization of facilities
Disadvantages of Process Layouts1. In-process inventory costs can be high2. Equipment utilization rates are low3. Material handling is slow and inefficient & is more.4. More space is required5. Longer processing time6. Back tracking may occur.
Fixed position layout� Layout in which the product or project remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed. E.g.� Employed in large project type organisation� Helicopter� Nuclear engg. Division of BHEL(Bharat Heavy Electricals Lit. )The product, because of its size and/or weight, remains in one location and processes are brought to it.