ေရႊ၀ါျပည္ (ရန္ကုန္ဘေဆြ)

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ေရႊ၀ါျပည္ (ရန္ကုန္ဘေဆြ)

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  2. 2. 2 rdrdAdkvf tMuyfwyfom;wdkU udkawGU&/ xdkUaemufb,fwkH;urQ rarQmfvifhcJUaom rdrdtm;&efjyKvmolwdkUudk awGU&/ AdkvfcsKyfBuD;oefrmyg;pyfonf [oGm;/ xdkUaemuf touf&SL&rnfudkarhavsmh ae/ xdkUaemuf [uf[ufyufyuf &,f/ AdkvfcsKyfBuD;oefrm&,farmjcif;udk ypfcwfwdkufcdkufaeMuolwkdUu tHUtm;oifh vsuf typftcwf&yfoGm;Mu/ aoewfBuD;awGvufuudkifvsuf rsufvkH;tjyL;om;ESifh 0dkif;MunfhMu/ a&S;OD;pGmowd&olum; AdkvfrSL;ausmufwdkUjzpfonf/ AdkvfrSL;ausmufwdkifonf AdkvfcsKyfBuD;oefrm a&SUajy;&yfvsuf tumuG,fay; vdkuf/ þokdUjyKvkyfrIaMumifhyifvQif wbufrS owd&vmMuum aoewfoHay:vm/ xdkaoewfoHESifhtwl AdkvfrSL;ausmufwdkifESifhwuG AdkvfcsKyfBuD;oefrmvnf; vJusoGm;/ (2) urÇmajrvkH;ay:ü ajrmufbuf aeoGm;vrf;aMumif;wnfhwnfhavmufwGif a&T0gjynf&Sd/ awmifwef;BuD;rsm;ESifh yifv,fjyifwdkU0dkif;&Humywfxm;aomaMumifh a&S;acwftcgu tjcm;aom wdkif;jynfwkdUrS vma&muf0ifxGuf&efcJ,Of;/ rkwfokHopfawmBuD;rsm; oH oGwf cJykwf aiG-ausmufpdrf; y,if;ESifh ausmufeD xGufaom awmifrsm;&Sd/ a&eHxGufaomajrrsm;ESifh oD;yifpm;yifpdkufysKd;&ef aumif;aom ajrMoZmjzifh pdrf;pdkaeonfh ajrjyefUvGifjyifrsm;&Sd/ ajrmufbufawmifwef;BuD;rsm;rS jzwfí taemufawmifbuf yifv,fjyiftxd tvsm;vdkufpD;qif;aom a&T0g0wdjrpfBuD; vnf;&Sd/ xdkjrpfBuD;urf;ab;wGif cdkif;EGm;rsm; uRJrsm;wkdUonf uGif;jyifzkH;rQaygjynfh/ ukef;wef;awmifurlwkdUürl jrif;rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom awmwd&pämefrsm; aysmfyg;jrL;wl;Mu/ þodkUaom t&yfwGifa&T0gvlrsKd;wkdUonf tcsif;csif;Adkvfvkvsuf jynfe,ftoD;oD; cJGa0í NrdKUjywnfaxmifaeMu/ vGefcJUaomESpfaygif; 1950-cefUu a&T0gjynfudka&mufbl;cJUaom tD&efukefonf BuD;wOD; rSwfwrf;wGif atmufygtwdkif; trSwftom;jyKcJU/ a&T0gjynfudk tpdk;&aomrif;onf xif&Sm;ausmfaZm/ olppfonf&Jrufrsm;onf uod®,? yvl0ESifh £E´Kjrpf0Srf;wavQmuf EdkifiH&Sd&Jruf Adkvfygrsm;xuf rsm;jym;onf ppfcsD wufwdkif; wdkufqifaygif; ig;aomif;ESifh csDwuf/ wyfrawmfBuD;wGif ppfonf&Jrufudk rqdkxm;bdt0wfavQmfaom c0gonfOD;a&yif waomif;ausmf/ xdka&T0gjynfü tjcm;b,fEdkifiHrQ r&ufwwfaom t0wftxnfrsKd;udkawGU&/ xdkt0wftxnfrsKd;wkdUudk 0wfqif&ef csKyfvkyfNyD;aomtcg tvGefEl;nHUajymhaysmif;aom aMumifh vufpGyfuGif;xJodkU xkwfaygufvQKdEdkif/ om;NrD;jzifh jyKaom,yfrsm;udkvnf;
  3. 3. 3 jrifbl;cJU&/ acgif;ay:ü OD;csKdwacsmif;wnf;om&Sdaom ¤if;wdkUtac:ESifh BuHUac:onfh taumifrsKd;udkvnf; awGUcJU/ uREkfyfwkdUonf xdka&T0gjynfüBuHUom;udk pm;cJUMu&/ a&T0gjynfopfawmwkdUü BuHUaumiftvGefaygrsm;/ tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;wGif BuHUaumifudk uREkfyfwkdU awGUbl;Muaomf vnf; a&T0gjynfwGifawGU&aom BuHUrsm;avmuf OD;csKdvSyonfh BuHUaumifwdkUudk rawGUbl; cJUMu&/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf xdkBuHUaumifwkdU OD;csKdrsm;udk xGufukeftjzpf w&kyfjynfokdU wifydkUMu/ w&kyfwkdUonf BuHUcsKdrsm;udk cg;ywfjyKvkyf0wfqifMu/ wefbdk;BuD;pGmay;í 0,fMu/ BuHUcsKdykHyef;udkvdkufí vSyvGef;vQif aiGydócsdefokH;av;q,fay;í 0,f,lMu onf/ BuHUcsKdrsm;tjyif qifpG,fwkdUudkvnf; ta&mif;t0,fjyKMuao;/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdU onf qifudkzrf;&m arG;jrLMu&mü *kwåEdkifiHom;wkdUxuf ydkrdkuRrf;usifMuonf/ txufyg tD&efukefonfBuD; rSwfwrf;tjyif w&kyfjynfBuD; ordkif;üvnf; a&T0gjynftaMumif;udk a&;om;xm;aom rSwfpkrSwfwrf;tcsKdU&Sdao;onf/ xdkw&kyfjynfBuD;ordkif;ü a&T0gjynfBuD;taMumif;udk a&;om;&mwGif a&T0gjynf rif;BuD;onf wdkif;crf;vSnfhvnfaomtcg a&TBudK;rsm;jzifh qdkif;wyfaom ovGefanmif apmif;xufü vnf;avQmif;&if; xGufonf[kqdk/ c&D;a0;vHcsDvQif qifpD;íxGuf/ eef;wGif;üa&T0gjynf bk&ifrif;BuD;udk &maygif; rsm;pGmaom tysKdawmfwkdU0ef;&Hcpm;/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf EdkifiHNrdKU&dk;BuD;rsm;udk pdrf;zefUzefUta&mif&Sdaom pOftkwf csyfrsm;jzifh aqmufvkyf/ NrdKUrsm;onf NrdKU0dkif;rsm;jzpfMuvsuf us,f0ef;vSy/ NrdKU&dk;wHcg; 12-ayguf&Sd/ NrdKUav;rsufESmbuf apwDwqlMupDwnfxm;/ EdkifiHolEdkifiHom;wkdUonf NrdKUwGif;üomaeMu/ NrdKUol-NrdKUom;rsm;onf tdrfudkow¦Krsm;oGyfrsm;jzifh jyKvkyfxm;aom tkwf<uyfjzifh rdk;Mu/ ydawmufom;? uRef;om;? ysOf;uwdk;om;wdkUjzifh tdrfudkaqmufvkyfMu/ EdkifiHolEdkifiHom;rsm;onf owå0gwkdUtoufudk owfjzwfjcif;rS wwftm;oa&TU a&SmifMuOfMu/ wOD;ESifhwOD;awGUaomtcg wOD;vufarmif;ESpfbufudk wOD;u vufESpfzufjzifhqkyfvsuf EIwfqufMu/ vlwdkif;vlwdkif; eu©wfaA'ifa[mwwfMujcif;? ,kHMunfwwfjcif;rSm a&T0gjynfxl;jcm;csufw&yfjzpf/ a&T0gjynfom;wdkUonf Ak'´omoem0ifrsm; jzpfMuí... r[m,eESifh [dem,e Ak'´bmomESpfckvkH;udk a&,Sufudk;uG,fMu/ ewfudkvnf; udk;uG,fMu/ bkef;BuD;rsm; onf 'um'umrwdkUtay:ü MoZm&Sdvsuf vlUudpöwdkUudk qkH;rnTefMum;Mu&/ xdkUaMumifh vnf; 'um'umrwkdUu bkef;BuD;ausmif;aygif;ajrmufrsm;pGm aqmufvkyfudk;uG,fxm;Mu onf/
  4. 4. 4 bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;udkvnf; rSefa&mif awmufaomtkwfcsyfjzifh aqmufvkyfMu/ rSefa&mifawmufaomtkwfcsyfudk [oFmjy'g;okwfum a&TaiGwdkUjzifhpDcs,f/ vSyaom aq;a&mifrsm;jzifhvnf;okwf/ ausmif;rsm;Murf;jyifudkvnf; aq;okwfí ta&mifwif xm;Mu/ xdkMurf;ay:ü tqef;wus,fjyKvkyfaom aumfaZmBuD;rsm; cif;xm;Muukef/ bk&ifheef;awmfudkvnf; bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;uJUodkU vSypGmaqmufvkyf/ bk&ifh eef;awmfudk bkef;BuD;ausmif;uJUodkU twkjyKí aqmufoavm? bkef;BuD;ausmif;udk bk&ifheef;awmfuJUokdU twkjyKíaqmufoavm uREkfyfwdkUrodcJU&ay/ uREkfyfwkdUodcJU&onfum; a,musfm;uav;rsm;onf ckESpfESpfom;t&G,fodkUa&muf vQif acgif;wkH;&dwfNyD;ouFef;pnf;Mu&/ toufESpfq,f t&G,fxdatmif udk&if0wfNyD;rS avmukwå&mpmayudk rwwfuRrf;vQif vl0wfjyefjyKMu&onf/ xdkudk&ifvlxGufwkdUonf qHyifr&SnfrSDumvtwGif; a&TjzihfjyKvkyfaom yef;EG,fyef; cufrsm; wyfqifxm;onfh OD;xkyfrsKd; ykHvfrsm;tbdk;wefaom ausmufrsm; pDcs,fxm;onfh OD;xkyfrsKd;wkdUudk aqmif;Mu/ <u,f0csrf;omvsuf trsKd;jrwfaomolwkdUonf BuHUOD;csKd ESifhwlaom OD;xkyfrsKd;wkdUudkjyKvkyfí aqmif;Mu/ qHyif&Snfvmaom tcsdefwGif OD;&pf acgif;aygif;rsm;udk aygif;Muonf/ OD;&pfacgif;aygif;rsm;onf yg;íacsmaom csnfrQifwkdU jzifh yef;yGifhyef;cufay:atmifjyKvkyfxm;aom yk0grsm;jzpfMu/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh udk&ifvl xGufrsm; r[kwfMuvQif ppfcsDwufaomtcgrS OD;xkyfrsm;udk aqmif;wwfMuonf/ bk&ifheef;awmfBuD;wGif a&TjzifhoGef;vkyfxm;aomacgif;avmif;jym;wck? aiGjzifhoGef; vkyfxm;aom acgif;avmif;jym;wck? opf,m;jzifh jyKvkyfxm;aom BuD;rm;vSonfh AkHBuD; wpfck&Sdonf/ xdkt&mwkdUudktrSwftom; trsKd;rsKd;jzifh aeUpOfwD;cwfay;&/ a&T0gjynf om;wkdUonf xdkwD;cwfoHudkMum;&ojzifh þum; tcsdefrnfrQ&SdNyD? þum;... bk&ifrIcif; ppfNyD? þum;tjypf&SdolwkdUudktjypfay;NyD? þum; &efolwdkU EdkifiHteD;tyg;odkU csOf;uyf vmNyDpojzifh odMu/ ppfjzpfrnfqdkvQif u&ufeuf eHUomwkH;rsm;udk rD;&IHUum ppfEdkifrnf&IH;rnfudk edrdwf aumufMu/ aA'ifwGufMu/ ewfudkylaZmfyoMu/ a&T0gjynfwGif ayw&mrQjrifhaom ewf&kyfBuD;wck&Sd/ trItcif;jzpfyGm;olrsm;onf xdkewf&kyfBuD;a&SUwGif eHUomwkH;rsm;udk rD;&IdHUvdkuf 'l;wkyf0yfwGm;um trI&IH;rnf Edkifrnfudk t"dXmefjyKMu/ EdkifiHwGif;ü uyfa&m*gqdkufa&mufvQif¤if;? &moDOwkazgufjyefjcif;? a&BuD;jcif;? oD;ESHysufpD;jcif; ponfwkdUjzpfyGm;vQif¤if;? a&T0gjynfbk&ifonf xdkewf&kyfBuD;a&SUodkU oGm;a&muf'l;wkyfum rif;usifhw&m;ESifhtnD usifhygrnf[k... awmif;yeft"dXmefjyK/ &mZ0wfaumifrsm;udk a&T0gom;wkdUonf taESmiftzGJUrjyKay/ BuD;av;aom &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefolrsm;udk ig;vkH;yl;xm;aomBudrfjzifh ausmjyifudk ig;csuf&dkufESuf/
  5. 5. 5 jypfrIao;i,fusL;vGefolrsm;udk ig;vkH;yl;Budrfjzifh okH;csuf&dkufESuf/ ckd;rIusL;vGefolrsm; onf BuD;av;aomjypfrIudk tpjyKí usL;vGefvmoljzpfaomaMumifh ao'Pftjypfay;/ a&T0gjynfwGif yJ? pyg;? ajymif;rsm;udk pdkufysKd;Mu/ BuHyifrsm;vnf; vlUajcovkH; cefUxGm;/ *sKHESifh ydkufqHyifrsm;raygufacs? pdkufysKd;jcif;vnf; r&SdMuacs/ a&TESifhaiGrsm;udkvnf; v0ef;ae0ef;ESifh vjcrf;o@mef jyKvkyfokH;pJGMu/ a&T0gjynf om;wkdUonf ntcsdefwGif tvif;a&mif&&efa&eHrsm; tjcm;aom wd&pämeftqDrsm;ESifh za,mif;rsm;udkcGufodkUxnfhvsuf xrif;ajcmufrsm; eHUomwkH;rsm;jzifh a&mxnfhrD;&IdUxGef;nSd Mu/ EdkifiHeD;jcif;rsm;ESifh ukefcsif;zvS,fMuaomtcg zGwfa&? 0g*Grf;? ovif;ausmuf/ ajra&waumif;rsm;jzifh zvS,fMu/ a&T0gjynfolrsm;onf qHyif&Snfxm;um qHxkH;-xkH;Muvsuf ykvJoG,frsm;.... ausmufrsuf&JwkdUjzifhpDjc,ftyfonfh a&TBudK;rsm;udkyefqifMu/ ta&miftrsKd;rsKd; qdk;xm;aom xrDudk0wfMu/ tusøay:wGifvnf; yg;vTmaomydk;wbufudk NcKHvTrf;xm; / vrf;xGufaomtcg ,yfawmifrsm;udk udkifaqmifMuonf/ rif;rIxrf;uawmfwkdU aemufü ,yfawmifudkif tajrmuftrsm;vdkufygMu&/ þonfum; vGefcJUonfhESpfaygif; waxmifausmfu a&T0gjynfudk a&mufbl;vmMuonfh w&kyftrsKd;om;wkdUrSwfwrf;jzpf/ txufygrSwfwrf;udk bwfNyD;Muaom &mZ0if0goemxkHolwdkif; a&T0gjynf taMumif;udk ydkípdwf0ifpm;apEdkifaom rSwfwrf;wck&Sdao;onf/ xdkrSwfwrf;udk vGefcJU onfh&Spfq,fhig;ESpfu zdkufcsftrnf&Sdaom t*FvdyfvlrsKd;wOD;ua&;/ a&S;tcg a&T0gjynfodkUa&mufbl;Muaom tD&efukefonfBuD;rsm; w&kyftrskd;om;rsm; rSwfwrf;ESifh t*FvdyfvlrsKd; ]zdkufcsf}rSwfwrf;onf ESpfaygif;udk;&mausmfuGmjcm;/ zdkufcsfuqdkavonf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf rGef*dktEG,fjzpfaMumif; odomxif&Sm; / vkH;aomOau©mif; usOf;aomezl;&Sd/ rsufaphae&mü txufrSatmufodkUoG,fusOf; us,fíjym;aom rsufBuD;aomyg;&dk;&Sd/ ar;&dk;BuD;xGm;[efr&Sd/ EIwfcrf;xla,mifESifh wif;wif;aph/ ar;wdk? ESmacgif;0us,f/ jym;/ rkwfqdwfarG; yg;odkif;arG;r&SdMu/ EIwfcrf;arG;oufouf BudK;usJ&Sd/ t&yf 5ay-cJGywfvnfü&SdMuí udk,fayguf vufa&muftcsKd;us/ ajcwHvufwH rQw/ wnfhrwfaomOau©mif; ajzmifhwef;aom yckH;vufjyif? us,fum;aom&iftkyf? odrfaomcg;&Sd/ <uufom;BuD;rsm;pkxGufaeaom ajcaxmufrsm;&Sd/ usef;cefoefpGrf; aom vlrsKd;jzpfaomaMumifh pdwfrESHUoludk,ft*FgcsKd,Gif;olenf;/
  6. 6. 6 rdrdudk,frdrd ,kHMunfpdwfcsjcif;udk rsufESmuaz:jyí usef;rmoefpGrf;aMumif;udk oGufvufaom ajcvSrf;uaz:jy/ qHyifudk xyfay:wGifwkH; qHxkH;udk ydwfacsm odkUr[kwf ydk;y0gjzifh &pfywfxm;/ &moDudkvkdufí csDxnfodkUr[kwf ouúvyftusøudk cg;txd zm;vsm;usapvsuf0wf/ cg;üajcovkH;txdzkH;tkyfaom csnfodkUr[kwf ydk;ycuf ac:onfht&mudk0wf/ wcgw&Hxdkykqdk; tpwzuf yckH;ay:üuydku&dkwifxm;/ tom;ndK/ tcsKdU0if;0g/ a&T0gjynftrsKd;orD;wkdUonf trsKd;om;rsm;xuf tom;0if;/ odrfarGUaom &kyf&nf&SdMu/ udk,fvkH;vSyajyjypfaMumh&Sif;/ oG,fvsaysmhaysmif;aomajcvuf&Sd/ xl;qef;onfum; a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf arT;aomopfacgufwrsKd;udk vSypGmjyKvkyf xm;onfh ausmufcyfxufwGif a&jzifhaoG;í rsufESmESifh udk,fvkH;udkvdrf;vl; rsufESmay: wGif pdwf&oavmuf vSypGmjc,fvl;/ xdkopfacguf ta&mifonf 0gazsmhvsuf vSy/ xdkopfacgufteHYUonf tvGef,Ofaus;pGmoif;ysHUysHU waiGUaiGUarT;/ rsufESmudk tvStyjyKjyif&mü a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf tjcm;aomvlrsKd;rsm;toD;oD; wkdUxuf xl;jcm;/ pm;&efjyKvkyfxm;onfh vbuf&Gufudk rsufckH;arT;qJG&mü tokH;jyK/ xdkt&Gufonf tom;jzL0if;olwkdU twGufndKarmif;armif;ta&mifjzifhap/ rJeufjywf xifjcif;r&Sd ajyjypf/ EIwfcrf;eDap&eftyifrSjzpfaom uGrf;&Guf? uGrf;oD;? &Sm;ap;ESifh ajrrSxGufaomxkH; wkdUudk a&mpyfpm;/ xdkodkUpm;jcif;onf EIwfcrf;wGif oif;ysHUaomteHUwrsKd; tvGefEl; nHUpGmpJGNrJusefaponfhtjyif EIwfcrf;udk pum;eDa&mifjzpfap/ uGrf;&GufESifhxkH;wkdUonf tom;taoG;wkdUykyfpyfaom teHUudktxl;Edkifeif;/ þodkUjzifh a&T0gjynfolwkdU tvStyvdrf;jc,frIonf jywfjywfxifxifr&SdapbJ tEkynmajrmuf/ urÇmay:wGif rnfonfhrdef;rrsKd;wkdUrS r&&SdEdkifaomtoif;ysHysHU&eHUydkif&Sifrsm;ESifh *kPf,lavmufaom trsKd;om;vdrf;jc,frIudk ydkifqdkifxm;olrsm;jzpfMu/ a&T0gjynfolwkdUqHyifonf &Snfvsm;rJeuf/ xdkqHyifudk *efUa*:0wfrIHESifh a'ge tyifajcmufwkdUygaom yef;owfonfhqDarG;jzifh aooyfpGmvdrf;usHí aemufodkUusvsuf xkH;/ xkdqHxkH;udk opfcGyef; py,fyef; pum;yef;wkdUjzifh vSypGm&pfukef;yefqifMu/ a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf jynfwGif;jzpftcsdwfydk;xrDudk0wfqifMu/ xrDudkcg;üwif; MuyfpGmcsyfxm;/ xrDonfcg;rS ajcovkH;txdomvQif &Snfvsm;zkH;tkyf/ xrDatmuf em;wGif a&TcsnfaiGcsnfESifh teufuefUvefUpif;rsm; ygaom yef;Eka&mif atmufem;p oDxm;/ xdkatmufem;ponf ajcz0g;atmufMurf;jyifwGif waycefUykHae/ xdkatmufem;udk a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf vrf;avQmuf&mü¤if; vSyaysmhEGJUpGmESifhyif EdkifEdkifeif;eif; odrf;Edkif/
  7. 7. 7 cg;csyf0wfxm;aom xrDtxufwGif &ifom;udkzkH;tkyfpnf;aESmifonfh eDarmif; aomt0wfpwck udk,fwGifywfxm;/ xdkt0wf tqkH;towftpudk vuf0Jbuf csKdif;atmufwGif csKd;acgufxdk;nSyf/ udk,ftxufydkif;ü cgom ydk; okdUr[kwf zJtusø&ifcGJudk 0wfqifMu/ yckH;xufü yg;vTmaom wbufwxnfonf rygvQifrjzpfaom NcKHvTr;fonfh tokH;taqmifwckjzpf / xdkUaemufajcaxmufwGif ydk;uwåDyg? csnfuwåDygwkdUjzifhjyKvkyfaom eDvGifonfh bdeyfudkpD;vdkufvQifl a&T0gjynfolwkdU qif,ifrIrSm NyD;jynfhpkH/ odkUaomf &Sdygao;onfh a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf vnfqGJESifhvuf0wfwef;qmwkdUudk 0wfwwfMuao;/ xdkvuf0wfwef;qmtm;vkH;udk a&TpifwGif ywåjrm;ESifh tjcm;tbdk; wefausmufrsuf&TJrsm;udk pDjc,fxm;Mu/ vnfqGJonfa&TpifESifh tbdk;wefvSaom ausmufrsuf&GJudkwukH; okdUr[kwf okH;ukH;rQjzpfí &ifvTrf;wef;qmonfa&Tpifü ausmuf rsuf&GJtrsm;tjym; pDjc,fxm;aom &ifwckvkH;tay:wGif? zkH;vTrf;Edkifonfh tvTm tcsyfBuD;jzpf/ vufaumufudk tcsKdUuwawmifqpfodkU wdkifatmif a&Ttwd0wfqifMu/ tcsKdUurl ywåjrm;ausmufrsuf&GJwkdUpDjc,fonfh tbdk;xdkufwefvGef;vSaom w&Hwnf; aomvufaumufudkom 0wfqifMu/ a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf urÇmü vGwfvyfcGifh tjynfh&&Sdaom trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpfMu/ a,mufsm;udkcspfcif&dkaoMuaomfvnf; a,mufsm;wkdUESifh xyfwlxyfrQmrqdkjyKvkyf/ wef;wlvnf; tvkyfvkyfMu/ xGef,ufpdkufysKd;jcif; jrif;pD;jcif;ESifh tjcm;Murf;wrf;aom tvkyftm;vkH;wkdUudk vkyfMuavonf/ odkUaomf.....a&T0gjynfolwdkUonf tvkyfrvkyfaom tvGwftcsdefwGif oGm;vmae xdkif&mü ,Ofaus;odrfarTUjcif;udk *kPf,lMu/ xdkUaMumifh a&T0gjynfolwkdUcg;úywfxm; aomxrDonf ajrjyifay:ü wayrQydkusaeaom tem;udkoDxyfxm;/ xdktem;onf 'l;qpfatmufajcrSpwifvsuf a&TcsnfaiGcsnf tpif;rsm;jzifh vSypGmcsKyfvkyfxm;/ &Snfvsm;aom xrDtem;ygonfh xrDudk0wfqifvsuf a&T0gjynfolwdkif; vQifjref jzwfvyfpGm tvkyfvkyfEdkif/ vrf;oGm;Edkif/ uckefEdkif/ odkUaomf....vrf;oGm;vQif ,Ofaus;zG,f&m&Sdonf/ þodkU,Ofaus;zG,f&mjyKEdkifjcif; udkvnf; wefbdk;xm;/ ajcwvSrf;vQif uka#woef;wefaom trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpfMuonf [k a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdUu rdrdwkdUtrsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf *kPf,lwwfMu/
  8. 8. 8 xdkUxufydkí ESpfoufzG,faumif;onfum; a&T0gjynfolkwdkUonf bmoma&; tBuD; tuJwdkU taESmiftzGJUrS¤if; ZmwftedrfhtjrifhwkdU tqD;twm;wdkUrS¤if;? uif;vGwfMu í wbufom;tay:ü [dE´LESifh r[mar'ifwkdUuJUodkUvnf; r,kHrMunf oHo,yGm;rsm; wwfjcif;r&Sd? Oa&mywdkufom;rsm;ay:ü [efBuD;yefBuD;jyKvkyfavhr&Sd? tjcm;aom bmom "avhxkH;pHrsm;udkvnf; &IHUcs&GHUrkef;avhr&Sd? tvGefaz:a&Tvsuf vlrSeforQtm;vkH;wkdUudk &dkaoudkif;&Idif;pGm av;av;pm;pm;qufqHwwf/ a&T0gjynfom; a,mufsm;rdef;rwdkif; wbufom;tm; &dkaoudkif;&Idif;rI vGwfvyfpGm aexdkifajymqdkrI ESpfvdkbG,f&m az:a&GrIwkdU&SdMu/ tqif;&JqkH; tEGrf;yg;qkH; jzpfaom olrsm;üyif &dk;om; rGefa&/ £ajE´&Sd/ auR;csifarG;csif/ &ufa&mpGm ay;urf;wwf / &Tif&Tifjyjyaexdkifwwf/ Muifemcifrifwf/ xdkvlrsKd;wkdU [moESifha&mifh&Jwif;wdrf rIudk jrif&olwdkif;tHMoMu&/ vltm;vkH;yifwifhawmifhwifhw,f&Sd/ tvGef<u,f0csrf; omvGef;aom olr&SdouJUodkU tvGefqif;&JvGef;olrsm;vnf; r&SdMu/ vlwa,muf tvkyfvkyfvQif wtdrfaxmifvkH; Nidrf;csrf;pGmxdkifpm;Edkif/ w&uf tvkyfvkyfvQif ig;&ufcefUtvkyfvkyfbJ xdkifpm;Edkif/ xdkUaMumifh a&T0gjynfoljynfom; taygif;wkdUonf yGJvrf;obifodkU twloGm;&mü jzpfap? c&D;twloGm;&müjzpfap? tm;vkH;twGuf ukefus&rnfhpm;&dwfudk olUxufigOD; atmif tvkt,ufjyKMuvsuf wa,mufwnf;u wm0ef,líxkwfay;/ a&T0gjynfü qif;&Jaomtdrfwtdrfjzpfapumrl rdrdwkdUtdrfokdU0ifa&mufwnf;cdkvm vQif vludkjzpfap w&dpämefudkjzpfap? trsKd;trnfrcGJjcm;bJ? tzdk;tcr,lbJ? tqifhtwef; tedrfhtjrifhra&G;bJ tpm;tpmauR; tdyf&mae&may;/ tdrfom;rsm;rpm;rD OD;pGmauR; jcif;vnf; jzpf/ tdrfom;rsm;rtdyfaom tdrfOD;cef;ü odyfjcif;vnf;jzpf/ xdkwnf;cdk aomtdrfrS {nfhonfjzpfol xGufroGm;rjcif; auR;xm;wwfMuonfvnf;jzpf/ udk{nfhonfonf rdrdþodkU wnf;cdkae&onfhtwGuf tvkyfvkyfay;&efvnf;rvdk? tbdk;tc ay;&efvnf;rvdk/ pm;NyD;tdyf tdyfNyD;pm;vsuf Nidrf;csrf;pGm rylryifaeEdkif/ tdrf&Sifonf udk{nfhonftm; rdrdtdrfOD;üwifí ocifwqlobG,f vkyfauR;jyKpkaevdrfh rnfjzpf/ tcsdefMumvmaomaMumifh tdrf&Sif cspfbG,faumif;aom orD;ysKdESifh eD;pyfvm vQif udk{nfhonfonf cspfa&;iifEdkifygao;/
  9. 9. 9 tdrf&SifodoGm;vQif rSm;aMumif; 0efcHvdkufygbd/ xdkUaemuftcspf wkwfaESmifcH& aomrdrdonf rdrd ESvkH;oD;yGwfudk þtdrfwGifxm;cJUí [if;vif;yGifhaom&if? trSwf onmuif;rJUaomudk,fjzifh þt&yfrSxGufcGmoGm;ygawmhrnf? rdrdusL;vGefrdonfhtjypf 'Pfudk þtdrfom;wkdUrsufuG,ft&yfü woufywfvkH; usdwfrSdwfcHpm;oGm;ygawmhrnf[k rsuf&nfcHxdk;íajymvdkufyg/ þodkUjyKvkyfjyvdkufrnfqdkygvQif udk{nfhonfonf rnfonfhvlrsKd;yifjzpfygap pdwfcs-vufcs xdktdrfxufwGif.....om;ruftjzpfESifhaeoGm;Edkif/ tu,fí xdktdrfu vufrcHbl;jzpfapOD; udk{nfhonftbdkUbmrSpdwfrylygESifh tjcm;a&T0golrsm;u udk{nfhonftm; tvGefMuifemoem;Muvsuf qGJac:oGm;Muvdrfhrnf jzpf/ pdwfcsygav... okdUaomf xl;jcm;csufwck&Sdonf/ a&T0gjynfolwdkif;onf tdrfaxmifa&; pD;yGm;a&; wdkUü vifjzpfolESifhwef;wltcGifhta&;&Sd/ vifwdkif;u r,m;wdkif;udk pD;yGm;buf[k todtrSwfjyK/ tdrfaxmifwGif;ypönf;udk vifr,m;ESpfOD;ydkifqdkif/ oabmcsif;rwdkuf qdkifvQif vifr,m;uGJMuvQif &Sdypönf;udk vifESifhr,m; o&ufaphxufjcrf;uJGcGJa0,lMu& / a&T0gjynfür,m;onf aomhudkifypönf;xdef;jzpf/ a&T0gjynfwGif a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdU vdkufemusifhokH;Mu&aom pnf;urf;owf rSwfcsufawG&Sd/ xdkpnf;urf;owfrSwfcsufwkdUü... vifonfr,m;udkrdrdESifh xyfwlxm;&/ Opömtyf&/ rdrdr,m;rSwyg; tjcm; rdef;rrsm;udk rjypfrSm;& 0wfpm;wefqmqif&/ jrwfEdk;Muifem&[laomtcsufrsm;&Sd/ xdkUtwlr,m;wkdUuvnf;.... tdrfwGif;trIvkyfaqmif&/ vif&SmazGaomypönf;udk pepfwusodrf;qnf;&/ rdrdvifrSwyg; tjcm;aoma,mufsm;rsm;ESifh razmufjyef&/ rdrdwkdUpD;yGm;ypönf;udk oifhavsmf pGmokH;pJG&/ ysif;&djcif;r&Sdap&[laom pnf;urf;csufwkdU&Sd/ xdkpnf;urf;csufwkdUt& a&T0gjynfolkwdkUonf urÇmürnfonfhlvrsKd;ESifhrQ EIdif;,SOf r&aom a,mufsm;ESifhwef;wltusKd;cHpm;cGifh/ &ifabmifwef;EdkifcGifh&&SdaeMu/ urÇmhtrsKd; orD;tm;vkH;wkdUtxJü tvGwfvyfqkH;aom trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpfMu/ okdUaomf a&T0gjynfoludk vdkcsifaom udk{nfhonftbdkUbmrQ rpdk;&drfygESifh oabm aumif;í usifemvdkufavsmvG,faom a&T0gjynfolwkdUonf
  10. 10. 10 rdrdwkdU,lrdaomvifu rdrdwkdU tay:ü a&T0gjynfom;vifwkdUuJUodkU rusifhokH;apumrl...... a&T0gjynfolwdkif;onf rdrdwkdU,lxm;onfh vifhtay:ü rdrdwkdUjyKvkyf&rnfh 0wå&m; rysufuGuf,kHrQru udk{nfhonfwkdUbmom"avhudkvnf; tvG,fwul vdkufavsm vufcHMuvdrfhrnfjzpf/ bmoma&;ESifh ywfoufí a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdUonf xdkif;vif;jynfom;? avmjynfom;? uarÁm'D;,m;jynfom;? jrefrmjynfom;wkdUESifh xyfwljzpf/ [dE´LjA[®PwdkUt,ltq [if;av;tdk;tESpfwGif a*gwrAk'¨qm;jrufjrufjzifh cyfay;xm;aom ax&m0g't,ludk ,lMu/ xdkUaMumifhtrsKd;rsm;? Zmwfrsm;udk cGJjcm;rI &Sdaomfvnf; jyif;xefrIr&Sd? rsm;jym;aom bmoma&;pnf;urf;csufrsm;&Sdaomfvnf; xdkpnf;urf;csufwkdUudk þodkUusL;vGefvQif aemifwrvGefü þykHcH&rnf? þokdUjyKvkyfvQif aemifwrvGefü þES,fcH&rnf[laom ,kHMunfaprIjzifh xdef;odrf;ay;/ a&T0gjynfom;bkef;awmfBuD;wkdUonf þtvGefMuifemwwf tvGef,kHMunfwwf? tvGefvdkufavQmwwf? tvGefaysmf&Tifwwfaom &dk;om;onfh a&T0gjynfom;wdkUtm; aemifwrvGefücH&pH&rnfh taMumif;rsm;udk wzGJUwEGJUajymMu/ rdrdwkdUudk,fwdkif wu,f a&mufvmodvm jrifvmouJUodkUvnf;ajym/ rdrdudk,fwdkif jyif;jyif;xefxef wu,f ,kHMunfMunfESifh ajymMujcif;vnf;jzpf/ þodkUjzifha&T0gjynfol jynfom;wkdUudk,fusifhw&m;rsm;udk aumif;rGefatmifxdef; odrf;vmcJUEdkifMuonf/ þonfwkdUum; vGefcJUaom&Spfq,fhig;ESpfcefUu a&T0gjynfudk t*FvdyfvlrsKd; wa,mufu jrif&aom tjrifwpdwfwa'ojzpf/ þrSwfwrf;awGtwdkif; [kwfonfqdkvQif a&T0gjynfonf vGefcJUonfh tESpfudk;&m ausmfu BuD;us,fcrf;em;vSaom wdk;wufonfhwdkif;jynfwjynfjzpfcJUí vGefcJUonfhtESpf udk;&maemufydkif;wGif ajymyavmufatmif wdk;wufrIr&Sd&yfwefUaeonf[k ,kHMunfEdkif / rSwfwrf; 2-rsKd;teuf yxrrSwfwrf; 2-ckü bk&iftaMumif;ESifh ppfwyfrsm; taMumif;yg/ tESpfudk;&mrQuGmjcm;NyD;aemuf a&T0gjynfokdUa&mufvmaom t*Fvdyf vlrsKd; ]zdkufcsf}a&;onfh 'kwd,rSwfwrf;wGif a&T0gjynfbk&ifESifh ppfwyfrsm;taMumif; ryg vmawmh/
  11. 11. 11 þonfudkaxmufí a&T0gjynfüxdktcsdefwGif bk&ifESifhppfwyfwdkUr&SdMuNyD[kod&/ a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdUvlaerIpHepf? pdwfaepdwfxm;ESifh qif,ifxkH;zGJUrIwdkUum; tESpf udk;&mtwGif; xl;xl;jcm;jcm;rajymif;vJ/ tajccHtm;jzifh xyfwlxyfrQavmufjzpf/ þodkU0wfpm;qif,ifrIESifh "avhxkH;pHrsm; rajymif;vJMuygbJvsuf a&T0gjynfwGif bmaMumifh tpOftquftkyfpdk;vmcJUMuaom rif;qufrsm; jywfoGm;&ygoenf;/ tcsKdUu awG;xifaumif;awG;xifMuayrnf/ a&T0gjynf&Sd bk&ifwkdUonf ya'o&mzf pepftwdkif; oufOD;qHydkif tkyfpdk;vmMuaom bk&ifrsm;jzpfMuí acwfESifh twlt&if;&Sifpepf vTrf;rdk;rIudk cH&aomaMumifh aysmufokOf;oGm;&ygonf[k qdkaumif; qdkMuayrnf/ þodkUqdkvQifvnf; rSefoifhoavmufrSefygvdrfhrnf/ okdUaomf .... bk&ifpepfaMumifh csnf; r[kwfyg/ t*FvefjynfESifhwuG xdkif;vif;paom tjcm;aomwdkif;jynftcsKdUü ,ckxufwdkif bk&ifxm;aompepfjzifh tkyfpdk;aeMuygao;/ okdUaomf....a&T0gjynfuJUodkU rjzpfMu/ ppfppfum; a&T0gjynfrif;quf jywfoGm;&jcif;onf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUtm; tjcm; aom wdkif;wyg;om;wkdUu tEdkiftxuf vma&mufpdk;rdk;MuaomaMumifhjzpf/ a&T0gjynf BuD; xD;usKd;pnfayguf jzpfvdkuf&vsuf a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wdkU olUuReftjzpfcHMu&ykH tjcif;t&monf vlwkdUjzpf&yfudk avhvmvdkol 0goem&SifwkdUtwGuf tvGefpdwf0ifpm; bG,faumif;/ tMurf;tm;jzifh a&T0gjynfBuD;wjynfvkH; olUuRefjzpfoGm;Mu&jcif; vkd&if;udk tusOf;csKyfazmfjy&aomf..... 3/ a&T0gjynfBuD;wGif pdk;pHvmMuaom rif;tm;vkH;wkdUteuf ESpf&mhckESpfBudrfajrmuf b0&Sifrif;w&m;BuD;vufxufüjzpfavonf rif;BuD;wGif rdzk&m;-om;-orD;-ajr; a,mufsm; ajr;rdef;rtm;vkH;pkpkaygif; 248-a,muf&Sd/ xdkrif;BuD;onf emrusef;&Sdav aomf rif;BuD;uG,fvGefvQif wdkif;jynfudk qufvuftkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfEdkifrnfholudk a&G;cs,f&ef twGuf
  12. 12. 12 tv,feef;rawmfrdzk&m;ESifhwuG wef;cdk;MoZmtmPm&Sdaom rSL;rwftm;vkH;wkdU acgif;csif;&dkufcwfwdkifyifMu/ rwdkifyifí rjzpfaomtajcodkUvnf; a&mufaeMu/ xdktcsdefua&T0gjynfudk EdkifiHjcm;om;aps;o,f vlrsKd;rsm;u wcsufrrSm;avESifh rSm;vQif wdkif;jynfyg odr;fvdkufrnf[k teD;rSuyfí apmifhaeavonf/ Muufoli,f tvIyfudk teD;üuyfvsufapmifhaeaom awmaMumifyg;BuD;ozG,fjzpf/ wcsdefu a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf/ rdrdwkdUa&T0gjynfuav;twGif;ü tcsif;csif;Adkvf qGJaeMu/ wcgw&HrdrdwkdUa&T0gjynfuav; teD;tyg;e,fpyftxd ausmfvGefAdkvfus Edkif/ þrQavmuf AdkvfusEdkifrIudkyif a&T0gjynfom;wkdUESifh bk&ifurdrdwkdUudk,frdrdwkdU ZrÁL'dyfuRef;toQifocifrsm; w&mhwyg;aom xD;aqmif;rif;taygif;wkdUu yPmawmf BuKdU&onf/ pMum0aw;rE¨wfrif;ESifhwdkif;awmf jynfawmfom;rsm;[k txifa&mufMu/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUodaom urÇmajrBuD;tus,ft0ef;uvnf; a&T0gjynfxuf tenf;i,frQomydkus,f/ e,fpyf,leefw&kyfrsm;e,f? wcgw&HrdrdwkdUu oGm;a&muftEdkif usifhEdkifonfh ,dk;',m;e,f? tjcm;wbufwGif a&T0gjynfom;wkdUtac: usnf;ukvm;;rsm; e,fESifh odef;CdKuRef; usefwbufwGif ork'´&mjyifus,fBuD; xdkork'´&mjyifus,fBuD;udk ul;jzwfvdkufrnfqdkvQif Amv0grS c- 0JBuD;xJodkU usa&mufNyD;aemuf t0DpdodkU wkwfwkwf xdatmifjrKyfonf/ urf;twdkif;ork'´&mjyifus,fBuD;/ awmifbufodkUvdkufvQif rmvm,kuRef;üqkH;rnf/ ygVdpmaywkdUüygaom wkdif;BuD;aomVoac:onfh wdkif;jynfBuD; q,fhajcmufjynfonf ewfwkdUuG,fazsmufvdkufaomaMumifh aysmufuG,favNyD/ þonfwdkUum; a&T0gjynfom;wkdUodaom urÇmajrBuD; tptqkH;jzpf/ a&T0g jynfom;wkdU avhvmusufrSwfonfhygVdpmaywkdUü acgrwdkif; a&mrwdkif;ESifhumod (umaoh)wdkif;wkdUyg/ xdkwdkif;wkdUudkvnf; ewfwkdUuG,fazsmufvdkufaomaMumifh aysmuf uG,fukefMuNyDjzpf&m a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf rdrdwkdUodaom urÇmajrtjyifwGif odkUr[kwf ArÁL'dyfuRef;ajrtjyifwGif rdrdwkdUomt,Ofaus;qkH; rdrdwkdUomtBuD;tus,fqkH;[k txif a&muf/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUodaom wdkif;jynfa&T0gjynfom;wdkUodaom vlrsKd;w&mhwyg;wkdU txJü jyifopf? t*Fvdyf? *smrPD? tDwvD? tar&du? tmz&du? MopaMw;vs? &oQm;? paom vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh xdkvlrsKd;wkdUwdkif;jynfrsm; ygMu/ xdkUaMumifh ZrÁL'dyfuRef; tjyif0,f rdrdwkdUom tBuD;us,fqkH; rdrdwkdUom tjrifhjrwf qkH;[k xifaeqJ? aygufa&mufvmMuaom ay:wl*D vlrsKd;tcsKdUwkdUudk awGUMu&onf/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu xdkvlrsKd;wkdUudk jzLaomta& ta&mif&Sdonfh
  13. 13. 13 ukvm;-ukvm;jzL[k todtrSwf jyKvdkufMu/ xdkUaemufjyifopf t*Fvdyftp&Sdonfjzifh awGUjrifMuaomfvnf; tm;vkH;ukvm;jzLwdkUonfvnf; t&dkif;tpdkif;rsm; rdpäm'dVdrsm;jzpfMuonf/ rdrdwkdUuJUodkU BuD;us,fjrifhjrwfaom wdkif;BuD;jynfBuD;om;rsm; r[kwfMu[k xifrSwfxm;Mu/ xdkodkU xifrSwfxm;ap&eftwGufvnf; a&T0gjynfom;wkdUü cdkifvkHaom taMumif;&Sd/ xdktaMumif;um;.....a&T0gjynfokdU aps;a&mif;&ef a&muf&SdvmMuukefaom ukvm; jzL[lorQwdkUonf wpwpESifha&T0gbk&if txHü0ifa&muf ppfrIxrf;Mu/ usKd;ysyfpGm cçpm;Mu/ ukvm;jzL[kac:aom vlrsKd;rsm;onf bdeyf0wfxm;aomacsjzifh? 'l;wkyfvsuf acgif;rQrarmfbJ OD;xyfvufpkHwifí ajrjyifükwkwfaESmif ypfcsxm;jcif;cH&aom arsmufjzL BuD;rsm;uJUokdU a&T0gbk&ifa&SUarSmufüa&S;,cifu cçpm;aeMuonf[k ,ckacwf a&T0g jynfom;wkdUodvQif tHUMoMuayrnf/ odkUaomf.... þtwdkif;yifjzpf/ rdrdwkdUa&T0gjynf ywfywfvnfrStjcm;wdkif;wyg;odkU ra&mufraygufbl;ao;aom e,fusOf;vSonfh a&T0g jynfom;wkdUrmeum; b0*fodkU cdkufvsuf&SdMu/ okdUaomf....1757-ckESpfavmufwGif rdrdwkdUtxifao;vmcJUaom t&dkif;tpdkif; udkukvm;jzLwkdUudk a&T0gjynfom;wdkUuowdxm;pjyKvmMuonf/ a&T0gjynfodkU ukvm;jzLrsm;vma&muf tajcpdkufcJUonfrSm 1600jynfhESpfavmufp / 1757-ckESpfavmufwGif wdkif;&if;om;tcsif;csif; jzpfMuaom ]a&Tajrjynf}om;wkdUESifh a&T0gjynfom;wkdU a&T0gEdkifiHtwGif;üyif rdrdwkdUtcsif;csif; wdkufcdkufppfjzpfMu/ xdktcsdefüyif yifv,fpyfuRef;wckay:wGif aexdkifcGifh&aom ukvm;jzLonf wEdkifiHxJom;tcsif;csif;udk EdkifrnfxifaombufodkU? ul;ajymif;tm;ay;/ [dkbufodkU vufeufa&mif;vdkuf? onfbufrS0ifa&muf wdkufcdkuf[efjyKvdkuf ponfjzifhvl;vma&muf ,ufcavmufqef/ xdkpOfu a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf? rdrdwkdUaoG;udk ukvm;jzLrsm;odatmif jyvdkufMu onf/ wuRef;vkH;ay:&Sd ukvm;jzLrsm;tm;vkH;wkdUudk wa,mufrusefowf okwfoifypf vdkufMuonf/ þodkUwa,mufrusef &Sif;ypfvdkufEdkifMujcif;onfvnf; a&T0gjynfom;wdkU rmewHcGefxlp&mtaMumif;wckjzpfvm/ rmewHcGefvlaeaom a&T0gjynfom;wkdUxHodkU ukvm;jzLrsm;u ukeful;oef;a&mif; 0,fcGifhESifh a&mif;0,fa&;pepfwckwnfaqmuf&ef ay;oem;cGifh awmif;cHwdk;vQKd;/
  14. 14. 14 ukvm;jzLwkdUonf a&T0gjynfom;wkdU pdwf&if;oabmudk odaeMuNyDjzpf/ ukvm; jzLwdkU ajrSmfvifhxm;Muonfhtwdkif; a&T0gjynfbk&ifuvnf; EIwfjzifhypfwifBudrf;armif; NyD;aemuf a&mif;0,fa&; pcrf;jyKvkyfaeEdkifcGifh ukvm;jzLwkdUudk ay;vdkuf/ okdUESifh ukvm;jzLwdkUu a&T0gjynfom;wkdU tajctaeudk teD;uyftuJcyfcGifh&/ vltm; vufeuftm;jznfhwif;ae/ wbufuvnf; refrlwuf<uarmufrmvSaom a&T0gvlrsKd;rsm;udk tBudKufay;vsuf edrfhuspGm vdkufavsmaygif;/ 1784-ckESpfavmufwGif ukvm;jzLwkdUu a&T0gjynfom;wkdUudk pwifwdkufcdkufEdkif&ef taMumif;qdkiftcgoifhvmMuonf/ xdkESpfwGif ZrÁL'dyfuRef;tjyifü w&mhwyg;aom xD;aqmif;rif;wkdU yPmBudKUjcif; cH&aom wyg;wnf;aom rif;[k rdrdudk,fudk,kHMunfxm;aom a&T0gjynfh&Sifbk&ifrif;w&m; BuD;onf ukvm;jzLwdkUajrSmufay;aomaMumifh x<uvmaom ]&u©dKuf}jynfudk oGm;a&muf wdkufcdkuf/ ukvm;jzLtm;udk;ESifh x<uykefuefaom ]&u©dKuf}wdkUu ukvm;jzLydkif ukvm;euf e,fxJodkU xGufajy;wdrf;a&Smif/ a&T0gjynfbk&ifu rdrdwkdUtm; ykefuefxGufajy;oludk vufrcH&/ vma&muftyfESH &rnf[k &mZoHay;/ ukvm;jzLwkdUu rdrdwkdUudktm;udk;í vma&mufcdkudk;oltm; xdkol &efvlvufodkU ay;tyf&efr&Sd/ xdkoludkumuG,fay;&efom&Sdonf[k jyefMum;/ þwGif a&T0gjynfbk&if wyfrawmfom;wkdUu ukvm;jzLydkife,fxJodkU csOf;eif;0ifa&mufvsuf &u©dKufbk&ifESifhtaygif;ygwkdUudk zrf;Mu/ xdkpOf ukvm;eufjynfudk tkyfpdk;xm;aom ukvm;jzLbk&ifcHu a&T0gjynfbk&ifESifh aphpyf&ef oHwrefvTwfao;/ okdUaomf...ZrÁL'dyfuRef;tjyifwGif wOD;wnf;aom {u&mZmfbk&if[k rdrdudk,frdrd todtrSwfjyKxm;aom a&T0gjynfbk&ifonf bk&iftcsif; csif; wef;wlolu vTwfaomoHwrefrsm; r[kwfaomaMumifh vufrcHvdkuf/ xdkUaemuf ukvm;jzLwkdUonf a&T0gjynfom;wkdU wdkuf&nfcdkuf&nfESifhtiftm;udk csifhcsdef&ef uoJyk@m;wkdUtm; ajrSmufyifhvufeufay;vsuf a&T0gjynfudk axmifxm; ykefuefapjyef/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu uoJwjynfvkH;udkzsufqD;ajcrIH;ypfMujyef/
  15. 15. 15 ukvm;jzLtm;udk;&Sdaeaom uoJbk&ifu ukvm;jzLydkifeuf ucsme,fxJodkU 0ifa&muf cdkvIHjyef/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu twif;0ifa&muf usL;ausmfbrf;qD;jyef/ þwGif ukvm;jzLwkdUu wdkufa&;cdkufa&;ü ukvm;eufwdkUudk wdkufcdkuf&ouJUodkU a&T0gjynfom;wkdUudk rdrdwdkUwdkufcdkuf&ef rvG,f[kodvmMu/ b0*fxdaatmifjrifhaom rmejyif;jyaom ZmwdaoG;Zmwdrmef? jzwfvwfoGufvufaom udk,fvufvIyf&Sm;rI&Sdonfh a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf tysif;xlaeonfhtcg tysif;xlaeMuvdrfhrnfjzpfaomfvnf; wdkufa&;cdkufa&;wkdUü &J&ifhjrefqefvdrfhrnf[k taMumif;&Sm tBuHjyKaeMuaom ukvm;jzL wkdUu BudKwifwGufMu/ ESpfESifhcsDítcsdef,lMu/ aps;a&mif;ovdk t&SLH;tjrwfxGuf/ wGufom; udkufaomtcsdefü a&T0gjynfom;wkdUydkifaom &u©dKufjynfESifh ukvm;jzL wkdUydkifaom ukvm;eufjynftMum; uRef;wckay:odkUvmí ukvm;jzLwkdUu ukvm;bk&if rif;jrwftvHudkpdkufxl/ þwGif a&T0gjynfESifhukvm;jzLwkdU xdkuRef;udk olydkifoifh igydkifoifh jiif;ckefMuí a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu ukvm;jzLwkdUudk wdkufcdkufzsufqD;vdkuf/ xdkESpfum;.....1824ckESpf jzpfavonf/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUESifh ukvm;jzLwkdU 2-ESpf eD;yg;rQwdkufcdkufMu/ rdrdywf0ef;usife,fy,f w0dkufudkom AdkvfvkyfvmcJUbl;aom a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf BuD;us,f&Snfvsm;aom pDrHudef;rsm; aumif;rGefaom vufeufrsm; pHepfusaom wdkufenf;cdkufenf;rsm;ESifh rwkdufcdkufwwfMu? &J&ifhrI? jzwfvwfrIwkdUudk tm;udk;vsuf wOD;csif;pD? wa,mufcsif;pD ol&Jaumif; qefqef wdkufenf;rsKd;om wdkufwwfolrsm;jzpfMu/ xkdUaMumifh 2-ESpfeD;yg;rQ Mumaomf....BudKwifpDrHwGufcsufxm;aom aps;onf ukvm;jzLwdkUudk a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu ppf&IH;/ &u©dKufjynfESifh yifv,furf;&dk;wef;e,f tjyif ppfp&dwf aiGwuka#udkvnf;vnf; a&T0gjynfom; wkdUu ukvm;jzLwkdUudk ay;vdkuf &/ a&T0gjynf okH;ykHwykHudkay;vdkuf&jcif;jzpfonf/ odkUaomf.....a&T0gjynfrif;ESifhwuG aom vlwkdUonfaemifw&ygoavm? rSefaomawG;ac:rIrsKd;udk awG;ac:wwfMuygNyDavm? aemifwvnf;r&Muao;yg/ tjzpfrSefudkvnf; rawG;ac:wwfMuao;yg/
  16. 16. 16 a&T0gjynfom;wkdUum; acgif;axmifNrJ b0ifcdkufrNrJ rdrdwkdUonf ukvm;jzLBuD;rsm; udkarhavsmhvmNyD; rdrdwkdUu oem;nSmwmojzifh rdrdwkdUa&T0gjynfü a&mif;0,fazmufum; cGifhay;xm;&onf[k xifrSwfaeMu/ rnfolrQtajctaerSefudk wu,fhjzpf&yftwdkif; rawG;awmMu/ xdkpOf a&T0gjynfom;wkdU &efatmifaejynftwGif;ü ukvm;jzL&SufyufESifh ukvm;jzLvl0pfwdkUudk a&T0gjynfom;jzpfaeMuaom a&T0gjynfbk&ifopömawmfcH ukvm;rJ ESpfa,mufwkdUu vlowfrI? vdrfvnfrI twif;t"r®vk,ufrIwkdUjzifh a&T0gjynfom; &efatmifaejynf NrdKUawmf0efxHokdUwdkif/ &efatmifaejynfawmf NrdKU0efu trIudkac:,lppfaq;NyD; rSefuefaomaMumifh ukvm;jzL&SufyufESihf ukvm;jzLvl0pfwkdUtay: 'PfaiGudk;axmifwyf&dkuf/ þwGif &efatmifaejynfjrpftwGif;ü ppfoabFmBuD;i,fwkdU &kwfw&ufa&mufvm Mu/ &efatmifaejynfNrdKU0efudk &mxl;rSjzKwfcsta&;,lay;&rnf[k ukvm;jzLaps;o,f wkdUuawmif;qdkvm/ a&T0gjynfbk&ifonf xdkawmif;qdkcsufudk vdkufavsmí &efatmifaejynf NrdKU0efudkjzKwfcsay;&/ xkdUaemufukvm;jzLaps;o,fwkdUESifh tqifajypGmqufqH&ef &efatmifaejynfawmfodkU NrdKUawmf0eftopf cefUtyfay;vdkuf/ xdktopfa&mufvmonfh NrdKUawmf0ef&Sd&mokdU &efatmifaejynfawmfjrpftwGif;ü ppfoabFmwkdUjzifh toifha&mufaeaom aps;o,fukvm;jzLppfAdkvf uGefrif'dkacG;bufu rdrdqDodkU vma&mufawGUqkH&ef tuf'Gyfac:onfh pum;jyefudkpmESifhvTwfvdkuf/ pum;jyeftuf'Gyfonf taz:ukvm;jzLppfom;rsm;ESifhtwl &efatmifaejynfawmf NrdKU0eftdrfodkU jrif;udk,fpDESifh apmfum;armfum; 0ifa&muf/ þwGif tdyfaysmfaeaom NrdKUawmf0eftopftdrfawmfapmifhwkdUu "m;ajrSmifjzifh axmufí xGufoGm;rvm; rxGufbl;vm;[kar;/ ukvm;jzLwkdUonf pDrHudef;ESifhom tEdkif,lvsufapmfum;armfum; jyKvkyf&Jolrsm; jzpfMu/ tu,fwOD;csif;wa,mufcsif; &ifqdkifMu&rnfqdkvQif rdrdwkdUu Edkifajcr&dSbJ owådESifh,SOfNydKif&Jol&Sm;yg;/ xdkUaMumifhvnf; rl;,pfvmaom tuf'GyfwkdUvlpkonf NrdKUawmf0ef tdrf0dkif; twGif; qJqJqdkqdk xGufajy;oGm;Mu/
  17. 17. 17 þwGif jrpfwGif;ü&SdaeMuaom ukvm;jzLppfoabFmwdkU AdkvfcsKyf uGefrif'dkacG; bufu &efatmifaejynfawmftvGefü qdkufuyfxm;aom a&T0gjynfbk&ifydkif a&eef; ,mOfomazmifpMum oabFmBuD;udk vk,loGm;/ xdkUaemufukvm;jzL&SufyufESifh ukvm;jzL vl0pfwkdUxHrS wyf&dkufaom 'PfaiGudk;axmifausmfudk jyefay;&rnf? NrdKUawmf0ef topfxHodkUpmvmydkUolwkdUudk tawGUrcH&kHru nSif;yef;vTwfvdkufaomaMumifh ppf&IH;pifu csKyfqdkxm;aom pmcsKyfygtwdkif; ppfEdkifaomukvm;jzLwkdUudk ppfEdkifaomolwkdU *kPfESifh tnD&efatmifaejynfawmfwGif vufcHqufqH&rnf/ þokH;csufudk a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu auseyfatmif jyKvkyfrSvk,loGm;aom a&T0gjynfbk&ifoabFmudk jyefay;NyD; rdrdwkdkU wdkufoabFmrsm;udkvnf; EIwfodrf;jyefoGm;rnfqkd/ þokH;csufpvkH;udk a&T0gjynfbk&ifESifh &efatmifaejynfawmf NrdKU0efwkdUu vdkufavsmjyefaomtcg ukvm;jzLwkdUu wqifhwufvmMuonf/ xdkwqifhwufí awmif;qdkcsufrsm;um; (1)rdrdwdkU wdkufoabFmawG &efatmif aejynfawmfjrpfwGif;odkU ta&mufcsDwufvmcJU&onfhtwGuf ukefusaomp&dwfwoef;udk ay;&ef/ (2) &efatmifaejynfawmfNrdKU0efopfu ukvm;jzLwdkU wdkufoabFm&Sd&m uGefrif'dk acG;bufxHodkU vma&mufOD;nTwfí taustvnfawmif;yefpum; ajym&ef[laom tcsuf 2 csufjzpf/ xdkESpfcsufteufwpftcsufonf ukvm;jzLwkdU aps;onfqefvSaom tokH;tEIH; jzpfí odyftaMumif;rxl;apumrl ESpftcsufonf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUrmeudk usL;vGef xdyg;vGef;vS/ xdkUaMumifh a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu vufeuftiftm;csif;rrQygbJESifh &IH;rnf[kodvsuf bk&ifESifhwuG wjynfawmifvkH;u xíwdkufMu/ xdkppfyGJwGif a&T0gjynfom;wkdU&SLH;í atmufa&T0gjynfwydkif;udk ukvm;jzLwkdUuodrf; ,l/ a&T0gjynfokH;ykHESpfykHonf ukvm;jzLwkdUvuf0,fodkU a&muf&SdavNyD/ ukvm;jzLESifh a&T0gjynfom;wkdU 'kwd,ppfyGJyifjzpfownf;/ a&T0gjynfBuD;udk pdk;pHvmcJUMuaom rif;tm;vkH;wkdUeuf ESpf&mhckESpfBudrfajrmuf pdk;pH& rnfh b0&Sifrif;w&m;BuD;onf rdrdpdk;rdk;tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfaeaom a&T0gjynfum; wdkif;wyg; om; ukvm;jzLwdkUvufwGif;odkU okH;ykHESpfykHrQay;xm;&vsuf rdrdonf
  18. 18. 18 okH;ykHwykHaom wdkif;jynfudkomvQif pdk;rdk;tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfí ae&ygwum;[k pdwfraumif;r&SdcJUav? igwkdU wdkif;jynfudk wdkif;wyg;om; ukvm;jzLwkdUonf rw&m;ojzifh okH;ykHESpfykHrQodrf;ydkuf xm;NyD; igwkdUvGwfvyfrIudk Ncdrf;acsmuf aeusygyaum[k wcgrQ ESvkH;romr,mr&Sdav þum; a&TY0gjynfom;wkdUrsKd;&dk;p&dkufppfjzpf/ rif;w&m;BuD;onf tvGefvQifNidrf;Nidrf;csrf;csrf;jzifh aysmfaysmfyg;yg;aeEdkifwwfol jzpfonf/ þodkUrdrdwdkif;jynfudk okH;ykHESpfykHrQ olwyg;vufxJodkU ay;xm;ae&onfh txJuyif rdrdudk,frdrd aemifwrvGefaomb0ü ,ckxufomaom pMum0aw;rif;BuD; jzpfvm&ef omoema&;bufu usKd;yrf;tm;xkwfonf/ b0ul;aumif;rGefa&;twGuf jzLpifaompdwfxm;rsKd;udkxm;onf/ wbufuvnf; rdrdjzpfvm&aom rif;b0wGif wdkif;jynfokH;ykHwykHrQaom ajrBuD;udkom ydkifqdkifae&apumrl a&ajrUoeif; jynfh&Sifrif; [laom trnfESifhvdkufavsm&ef rsm;jym;aomrdzk&m;wkdUudk vuf0Jvuf,mywfywfvnf xm;vsuf tpGrf;ukefpnf;pdrf&pfvdkufao;onf/ þodkUjzifh rdzk&m; om;orD;ajr; pkpkaygif; 248 a,muf&Sdvmonf/ rif;w&m;BuD;onf igwdkUtm;wdkif;wyg;om;wdkUuteD;uyfvsuf <uufoli,fudk aMumiftdkacsmif;ouJUodkU acsmif;ajrmif;Ncdrf;ajcmufrIcHae&ygyaum[k owd&awmfrrl/ b0&Sifrif;w&m;BuD;onf rnfonfhukokdvf rnfonfhtvSL'gef;awGudk jyKvkyfoGm;onf [laom emrnfudkomcH,lvdkawmfrl/ xdkUaMumifhvnf; b0&Sifrif;w&m;BuD;onf rdrdrsm;jym;vSaom om;awGtxJü rnfolonf rdrdt&dyft&mudk wnfwefUpGmqufcHEdkifrnf[k ewf&Gmvm;onfhwdkifatmif vTJtyfay;jcif;jyKawmfrrlEdkifcJU/ þtjyKtrlrsm;onf tvGefa&T0gjynfom; NyDoaomtjyKtrlrsm;jzpf/ a&T0gjynfom;wpkHwa,muftdrfay:okdU {nfhonfhwOD;wa,mufvmonfqdkygpdkU xdka&T0gjynfom;onf tqdkyg{nfhonftm; 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;ompGm{nfhcHrnfjzpfonf/ xdkUaemuf {nfhonfonf tdrfay:urqif;bJ tdrfokH;ykHESpfykHcefUudk ae&mcsJUí ,lxm;onfqdkygpdkU/ tdrf&Sifa&T0gjynfom;onf acwåcPomvQif ndKjiifrI&SDNyD;aemuf? tcsdeftenf; i,ftwGif;ü arharhaysmufaysmufjzpfNyD;vQif rdrdae&aomtdrf okH;ykHwykHrQaom ae&m uav;üyif aysmfaysmf&Tif&TifaeoGm;vdrfhrnfjzpf/
  19. 19. 19 xdkaemuf rdrdonf t&G,fvGefvsuf om;orD;ESifhwuGtdk;tdrfwkdUudk pGefUypfaoqkH; &awmhrnfqdkygpdkU/ a&T0gjynfom;onf aoqkH;&efeD;uyfvmaomtcsdef odkUa&mufrS þtdrfü rdrdae& onfhtpdwftydkif;uav;udk rnfolUtm;tyfESHvQif oifhavQmfygvdrfhrnfvJ[k owd&vm vdrfhrnfjzpf/ xdkokdUowd&vmaomtcsdefü bmrQrjyKvkyfEdkifawmhNyD/ þonfudkvnf; a&T0gjynfom;wkdUü ajzazsmuf&efaq;enf;aumif;&Sd/ owå0gwkdUonf rBuHpnfbJESifhvnf; jzpfwwfMu/ BuHpnfygvsufESifhvnf; ysufwwfMu/ uHpDrH&m-uHypfcs&mudkomvQif cHMu&onf/ þw&m;onf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUtwGuf pdwfajyaysmuf&ef bmrqdkcGifhvTwfEdkif&ef &&Sdxm;aom aq;enf;aumif;vufokH;pum;BuD;yifjzpf/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdU ESpf&mhckESpfBudrfajrmuf b0&Sifrif;w&m;BuD;onf þw&m; awmfudk atmifharhESvkH;oGif;&if;Nidrf;csrf;pGm ewfxD;pH&eftwGuf a&S;&IawmfrlaeavNyD/ þwGif tv,feef;rawmf rdzk,m;BuD;ESifh trwfBuD;OD;zsif;wkdU acgif;&dkif;&dkufMu& onf/ xdktcsdefu tv,feef;rawmf rdzk,m;BuD;ESifh trwfBuD; OD;zsif;wkdUonf a&T0gjynf tm; ukvm;jzLwkdUNcdrf;acsmufvmaeNyDjzpfaMumif;udk 'kwd,owdxm;rdolrsm;jzpfMuonf? yxr owdxm;rdolu rdrdjyKvkyfcsifonfudk rjyKvkyfvdkuf&bJ uG,fvGefoGm;&Sm&aom rif;w&m;BuD;nD tdrfa&SUudk,fawmfBuD;jzpf/ tdrfa&SUudk,fawmfBuD;onf a&T0gjynfBuD; okH;ykHESpfykHcefUudk ukvm;jzLwkdUu vk,l xm;onfhtwGuf tcJraMujzpfae&Sm/ wOD;csif;wa,mufcsif; owådcsif; rnfolrQ,SOfNydKifír&onfh a&T0gjynfom;wkdUudk ukvm;jzLwkdUu bmhaMumifh apmfum;armfum; vma&muftEdkifusifh0efU tEdkifusifhEdkifMuyg oenf;[k ppfjrpfudk&Sm/ bmhaMumifh tEdkifusihfEdkifMu-usifh0efUMuonf[k &dyfpm;rdvmaomtcg ukvm;jzL wkdUuJUodkU pnf;pepfESifh avhusifhoifMum;aom a&T0gjynfom;ppfwyfBuD;zGJUpnf;/ t&nf wlwef;wlaom vufeufrsm;udk jyKvkyfEkdif&ef vufeuf&kHwnfaqmufzdkUjyK/ ukvm;jzL wdkUudk a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu
  20. 20. 20 t&SLH;ay;vmcJUMu&onfum; vufeuftiftm;csif; rrQaom aMumifh[k tdrfa&SUudk,fawmfBuD;uodvmonf/ rdrdwdkUonf aemufqkH;tajcü ukvm;jzLwkdUudk wdkufrxkwfEdkifao;onfhwdkifatmif rdrdwkdUtm; ukvm;jzLwkdUu qufvufNcdrf;acsmufrI rjyKvkyf0efUbJ &dkaocefUjim;vmMuap &ef[k &nf&G,f/ tdrfa&SUudk,fawmfBuD;usKd;yrf;csufudk olvQKdtaxmufwkdUjzifh tNrJwef; apmifhMunfhaeMuaom ukvm;jzLwkdUu Mum;odMu/ þwGif a&T0gjynfom;NyDopGm aoG;w<u<ujzifh b0ifjrifhvSaom rif;w&m;BuD; om;ESpfa,mufudk ukvm;jzLwkdUu wdwfwqdwf ajrSmufyifhtultnDay;Mu/ tdrfa&SUudk,fawmfBuD;onf rif;w&m;BuD;uG,fvGefvQif bk&ifwufjzpfvdrfhrnf/ xdktcsdefü rif;w&m;BuD; om;awmfwkdUonf xD;eef;udk qufcHpdk;pH&ef tdrfrufrQ ruf&vdrfhrnf[kwf? þtjzpfqdk;wkdUrS &kef;xGufvdkygvQif rdrdwkdUonf om;awmfwkdUtm; toufESifhvJí ulnDMuygrnf[k wdwfqdwfpGmuwday;Mu/ þwGif aoG;ajrmuf<uaeaom a&T0gjynfbk&ifom;awmfESpfa,mufwkdUonf OD;&D;awmf tdrfa&SUrif;om;ESifh zcifbk&ifudk vkyfBuHí eef;vk&ef wdkufcdkufykefuefMu/ xdkykefuefrIwGif wrsKd;om;vkH;udk u,fwif&ef tpDtpOfjyKNyD;jzpfaom tdrfa&SU udk,fawmfBuD; uG,fvGef&onf? rif;om;ESpfa,mufudk ukvm;jzLwkdUu xGufajy;Edkif&ef tultnDay;vdkufMuonf/ þokdUjzifhrif;om;ESpfa,muf wdkif;wyg;okdU vGifhxGufoGm;&NyD; vQif a&T0gjynftwGuf u,fwif&SifwOD; qkH;&IH;epfem&/ xdku,fwif&SifBuD;aemuf a&T0gjynfusa&mufvwHUaom tEå&m,fudk BudKwif odjrifMuolwkdUrSm trwfBuD;OD;zsif;ESifh tv,feef;rawmf rdzk,m;wdkUjzpfMuonf/ xdkolESpfa,mufwkdUonf rdrdwkdUa&T0gjynfu bmrQBudKwifjyifqifrI BudK;pm;rIrsm; r&SdMuygbJESifh ppfudkvdkvm;í"g;xufaomrif;om;wkdUudk eef;wifvQifa&T0gjynfESifhukvm; jzLwdkU ppfjzpfMuí okH;ykHwykHrQom usef&Sdawmhaom a&T0gjynfBuD; ukvm;jzLwkdU vufatmufwGif vkH;vkH;qkH;yg;&acsawmhrnf[k awG;/ xdkUaMumifh toufvnf;i,fí rdrdwdkUpDrHajymqdk&modkUvnf;ygrnfjzpfaom tqdwf tawmufuif;onfh rif;w&m;BuD;om;i,f udk&ifvlxGufuav;udk eef;wifMu&efpDrH onf/
  21. 21. 21 xdkodkUpDrH&mü tcuftcJwck&Sdonf/ xdktcuftcJum; "m;xufaoma&T0gjynfom; nDawmfaemifawmf rif;om;wkdU&SdaeMuygvsuf þodkUpDrHvQif rnfolurQ Nidrfoufat; csrf;pGm oD;cHaeMuvdrfhrnfr[kwf? xdkUaMumifh xdk"m;xufaom rif;om;wkdUaESmifh,SufrI rS uif;a0;&ef pDrHudef;topfwck xyfrHjyKMu&jyefonf/ xdkpDrHudef;topfrSm vG,fvS/ ewf&Gmrvm;ao;aom rif;w&m;BuD; trdefUESifh om;awmf ajr;awmftm;vkH;wkdUudk twGif;awmfodkU ac:,lpk&kH;vdkufonf/ xdkUaemuf rif;w&m;BuD;xGufrvmbJ eef;wGif;vufpGJawmfawGxGufvmí rif;w&m;BuD; om;-ajr;wkdUudk ajcusOf;pGJ&dkufvsuf ajrmufO,smOfawmf aMu;wkdufodkU ac:,lcsKyfaESmifvdkufonf/ a&T0gjynfBuD;tajctaeonf ukef;acgifacgifwGif jcpfjcpfylaeaomae&mif atmufü &Sdae&onfh a&tdkifi,f toGifjzifh&Sdaeavonf/ okdUaomf þodkU&Sdae&onfudk a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdUtxJü &dyfpm;rdol enf;yg; vS/ þtpDtpOfjzifh bk&ifrif;w&m;BuD; ewf&Gmvm;aomf.....om;awmf udk&ifvlxGuf uav;u a&T0gjynf bk&ifjzpfvm&onf/ tv,feef;rawmf rdzk&m;orD;udkvufqGJ vsuf eef;odrf;yGJcHvdkuf&onf/ þwGifbkrodbrod tdrfrufrufouJUodkU bk&ifwufjzpfvm&aom udk&ifvlxGuf uav;udk vufokH;awmfiwkwfu csufjcif;q&marG;ypfvdkuf/ bk&ifwa,mufvkH; udkykdifq&mwOD;tjzpf arG;xm;vdkufEdkifrnfqdkvQif rdrdtwGuf rnfrQwef;cdk;MoZmwdk;wufvmEdkifonfudk iwkwfonf a&T0gjynfom;NyDopGm yg;eyfod&Sd/ xdkMoZmtmPm&Sd&molwa,mufudk q&mtjzpf &atmifarG;&rnfqdkjcif;rSmvnf; vG,fulaomt&mr[kwf vkyf&nfBuH&nfESifh pGefUpm;0HUaomowåd&SdygrS wefcdk;MoZm&Sdaom q&mwa,mufudk &atmifarG;EdkifMuonf/ iwkwfonf vkyf&nfBuH&nfESifh pGefUpm;0HUaomowåd&Sdoljzpfonf/ xdkUaMumifh q&mbk&ifuav; tm;udk;cspfcifrI&atmif enf;vrf;&Smonf/ xdkpOfq&mbk&ifuav; jzpfoltNrJaMumuf&GHU xdwfvefUae&aom tcsufwcsufudkawGUonf/ xdktcsufum; ajrmufO,smOfaMu;wdkufü
  22. 22. 22 csKyfaESmifxm;Muaom bk&ifuav;aemifawmfyg;rsm; pkpkaygif; 40- ausmfwkdUjzpfonf/ xdkaemifawmftrawmf r,D;awmfwkdUonf bk&ifuav;ESifhEIdif;,SOfvdkufvQif a>ra[muf a>rayG;ESifh a&a>rjrufavQmwdkUwrQuGmjcm;onf/ udk&ifvlxGuf bk&ifuav; ua&a>rjrufvQm..... xdkUaMumifhvnf; bk&ifuav;onf aemifawmf trawmfESifhr,D;awmfwkdUudk xm;&eftwGuf eef;awmfBuD; taemufrsufESmwGif pnf&SnfwHcg;vrf;rawmfawmif buf? a&G;vuf 0JuGuftwGif; wm40-ausmf&Sdaom av;awmifh0if;&majrü tdrfawmfrsm; aqmufvkyfay;&efpDpOf/ xdktdrfawmfrsm;tjyifrS cdkifcefUvkHNcKHaom tkwf0if;tumum í tjyifodkUrxGufEdkif&ef tapmifhtxdef;ESifh xm;bkdU&nf&G,f/ þodkU&nf&G,faqmuf vkyfaeqJ vufokH;awmfudkif iwkwfwkdUu? eef;yg;r0 eef;a&rv,fao;aom.... udk&if vlxGufbk&ifuav;udk udpöwckvmajym/ bk&ifhr,fawmftwGuf aqmufvkyfNyD;pD;aom tdrfjzLawmfudk r,fawmfodkU tyf&ef tcrf;tem;eD;vmaomaMumifh? tdrfjzLawmf acgif;&ifü&Sdaom aMu;wdkufrS aemifawmf rif;om;wdkUudk r*FvmtcsdeftcgtwGif; axmifwGif;tusOf;wdkufodkU acwåajymif;a&TU csKyfaESmifcGifhay;ygrnfhtaMumif;jzpf/ udk&ifvlxGufbk&ifu tvG,fwulcGifhjyKvdkuf/ a&T0gjynfom;wdkUeef;wnf ouú&Zf 1240-jynfh wydkUwGJvqef; 10-&uf nae 6-em&DcefUwGif vufeufudkif 400ESifh Muyfrwfí axmifwGif;tusOf;wdkufodkU rif;om; rif;ajr; 40-ausmfwkdUudk ajymif;/ tpOftvm&Sdonfum; rif;ydkifpdk;ydkif;r[mqD r[maoG;jzpfvQif axmifwGif; tusOf;wdkufokdUrcs&? owfrnfholudkrS axmifwGif;tusOf;wdkufodkUydkU&/ xdkUaMumifh xdkaeUn 9em&dausmfwGif iwkwfESifh nDiajrmifwkdUu rif;om;? rif;ajr; 40ausmfwkdUudk azsmufzsufokwfoifypfvdkufMu/ udk&ifvlxGufbk&ifuav;u odíar;aomf þaxmifwGif;tusOf;wdkufonf azsmufzsuf&rnfh r[mqDr[maoG;wkdUudkrS? ydkU&onfhae&mjzpfaomaMumifh atmufvl &JrufwkdUyGJ&atmif jyKvkyfvdkufMuygonf[k avQmuf/ eef;&nfr0ao;aom udk&ifvlxGufi,fonf ESvkH;pdwfrcsrf;rajrU jzpfvdkuf&aomf vnf; iwkwfudkta&;r,l/ rdrdudkcspfí rrSm;oifh&mürSm;onf[k
  23. 23. 23 cGifhvTwf/ þonf vnf; a&T0gjynfom;q&mtjzpf tarGcHMu&olwdkU tpOftvm twdkif;jzpfí bk&ifuav; udktjypfqdkbG,f&mr&Sd/ þokdUjzifh iwkwfonf udk&ifvlxGuf bk&ifvli,fudkq&mtjzpf arG;vdkufonf/ þwGif i,fEkaoG;<uaom bk&ifuawmfav;u iwkwfudkrsufaphusvm/ bk&if uawmfrsufaphuscH&jcif;onf iwkwftwGuf bk&ifuav;udk q&mtjzpfarG;&onf xufydkíaumif;aom tcGifhta&;aumif;wckjzpf/ taMumif;rl bk&ifuawmfonf tppt&m&mwkdUü udk&ifvlxGuf bk&ifuav; xuf ydkíxufjruf/ a&T0gjynfolNyDo/ þokH;ykHwykHrQom&Sdaom a&T0gjynfü bk&if uawmfjzpfvm&jcif;udkyifvQif ZrÁL;'dwfuRef;tjyif0,f wOD;wnf;aom {u&mZf bk&if uawmfBuD;jzpfvm&ouJUodkU xifrswf/ þodkUaoG;<u xufjrufvSaom bk&ifuawmfuav;onf udk&ifvlxGufbk&if uav;udk &kyfao;uJUodkU oabmxm;NyD;vQif BudKufovdkBudK;qGJypf? rdrd,kHMunfolrSef orQudk &mxl;BuD;rsm;ay;ap/ eef;wGif;ü BuD;rm;aom tajymif;tvGJrsm;udk jyKvkyfypf / xdkokdUjyKvkyf&mwGif bk&ifuawmfuav;onf rdrdtudkawmf OD;&D;awmf 40ausmfudk owf&Jjzwf&Jaom iwkwftm; vufudkifxm;/ rdrdwdkUtm;uvefuqefvkyfrnfholrSef orQudkvnf; iwkwfvufodkUydkUtyf/ iwkwfudkvnf; bmrqdk0ifa&mufpGufzufEdkifonfh tcGifhxl;cH trIxrf;t&mxrf;tjzpfxm;/ þokdUiwkwfonf bk&ifuav;xufydkí "m;xufaom i,fEkaoG;<uonfh bk&if uawmf vufokH;jzpfvm&/ rif;aoG;rif;om;wa,mufuJUodkUjzpfvm&/ vuf&JZuf&J jyKvkyf0HUaomiwkwfonf "m;xufaom bk&ifuawmfav;udk ocifr tjzpf arG;vdkufEdkifjcif;um; a&T0gjynfBuD; ysufpD;&eftaMumif; t&if;tjrpfwck jzpfavonf/ a&T0gjynfrSL;BuD; rwfBuD;wkdUonf bk&ifuawmfu udk&ifvlxGufbk&ifuav; trdefUudk tokH;jyKvsuf aAgif;awmfNidrfh pdwfawmfodaom tdrfawmfygvlnHUrsm;udk &mxl; BuD; &mxl;cH ay;jcif;rsm;udk uefUuGufMu/ b@mwdkuf&Sd aiGaMu;rsm;udk bk&ifuawmfu xifovdkokH;pJGjcif;ESifh ywfoufí vnf; ajymqdkwm;jrpfMu/ iwkwfudkvufudkif&xm;aom bk&ifuawmfonf xdkokdUwm;jrpfajymqdkMuolrsm;udk csufjcif;ta&;,ljcif; zrf;qD;jcif;?
  24. 24. 24 &mxl;avQmcsypfjcif;wdkUudkjyK/ xdktxJwGif a&eHUom NrdKUpm; 0efBuD; zefcg; NrdKUpm;rif;BuD; jynfopfNrdKUpm; 0efBuD;paom olwdkUyifvQifygMu/ xdk yk*¾dKvfBuD;wkdUum;? ynmOpöm tacRt&HBuD;rm;aomolrsm;wdkUjzpfMu/ t&G,f a&mufp uwnf;u a&T0gjynf aumif;usKd;csrf;omudk aqmif7Gufvmolrsm;jzpfMu/ a&T0gjynfa&SUa&;udkawG;vsuf udk&ifvlxGuf i,fudkeef;wifay;cJUMuaom rif;BuD; OD;zsif;ESifh tv,feef;rawmfrdzk,m;BuD;wkdUonf rdrdwkdUajrSmfvifhrxm;onfh jzpf&yf rsm;ESifh &ifqdkifaeMu&/ tv,feef;rawmfrdzk,m;BuD;onf rdrdwkdUBudK;qGJ&muç&rnfh bk&ifudk oabm aumif;aom rdrdorD;BuD;ESifhay;jrm; rdzk,m;jyKap/ odkUaomf xufjrufaom rdrd orD;vwfonf i,fEdkif&D;pm;jzpfaom udk&ifvlxGuf bk&iftm; rdrdukdyg rdzk,m;jyK&rnf[k twif;tEdkifusifh/ ,cktcg udk&ifvlxGufbk&ifonf oabmaumif;aom rdrdorD;BuD;udk taqmif wckESifh oD;jcm;cGJxm;í rdrdorD;vwfESifhtwlaeMu/ xdkUxuf rif;BuD;OD;zsif;ESifh rdrdwkdUBudK;qGJwdkif;uçvdrfhrnf[k xifcJU&aom udk&if vlxGufbk&ifonf rdrdwdkUxufuyfí rdrdwdkUxuf ydkaMumufae&aom rdrdorD;vwf bk&ifuawmf BudK;qGJwdkif; uçae&&Sm/ þtaMumif;jzpf&yfonf a&T0gjynfBuD;twGuf Mur®mqdk;ESifh &ifqdkifMu&rnfh taMumif;jzpf&yfjzpf/ i,fEkaoG;<uaom bk&ifuawmfuav;onf oabmaumif; El;nHUvSaom udk&if vlxGufbk&ifi,ftm; tEdkifhxuftwif;,lvdkuf&kHrQru rif;BuD;OD;zsif;udkvnf; *&krpdkuf? rdciftv,feef;rawmf rdzk,m;BuD; pum;udkvnf; puwnf;u em;raxmifbJ iwkwf uJUodkUaom vufpGJawmfudkifrsKd;udk teD;üxm;í tokH;jyKvsuf rmewvlvlvTwfaxmifae / bk&ifuawmfuav;MoZmonf udk&ifvlxGuf bk&ifi,ftay:ü vTrf;rdk;xm; onfESifhtrQ bk&if teD;wGif aMumif;usKd;ajrSmfjrifwwfonfhyk*¾dKvfrsm; r&SdEdkifMuawmhbJ ta0;okdUvGifhyg;ukefMu&/ þonfvnf; a&T0gjynfom;wdkU &dk;&mtusifhjzpfí tjypf rqdkxdkuf? xdkaMumifh &SdaomolwkdUuajymqdkMuí bk&ifuem;axmifrnf jyKavwdkif; bk&if uawmfzsufvQif ysufMu&/ aemufqkH;übk&if teD;tyg;wdkUü bmrqdkacgif;NidwfMu rnfh yk*¾dKvfwkdUcsnf;
  25. 25. 25 0dkif;aeMu/ udk&ifvlxGufbk&iftay:ü MoZmay;EdkifolwkdUu bk&if uawmfESifh eD;pyfol todkif;t0dkif;awGcsnf; jzpfMu/ þeef;wGif;ta&;taMumif;jzpf&yfwkdUudk a&T0gjynfom;wdkUudk,fwdkif yCPe rod&Sd Mu&aomfvnf; teD;üuyfíapmifhaeaom ukvm;jzLaMumifyg;BuD;u tao;pdwfod/ ukvm;jzLolvQKd tufzf&pf'av 1897 ck {NyDv 19&ufaeUpGJESifh a&T0gjynfudk odrf;ydkuf xm;Muaom ukvm;jzLrsm;xHodkU tpD&ifcHpOf ____a&Teef;awmf wGif;üvnf; rnDrnGwfjzpfvsufyif&Sdao;/ bk&ifr,fawmfu ewf&GmpH rif;w&m;BuD; tv,f eef;rawmfrdzk,m;BuD;odkU om;awmfvrf;vGJvdkufonfudk u,fq,fawmfrl&ef awmif;yef/ eef;rawmfbk&m;uvnf; oGefoif&zefrsm;í NiD;aiGUawmfrlaMumif;trdefU&Sd/ udk&if vlxGufbk&ifuawmfuvnf; bk&ifhESrawmfESifh tcsif;rsm;Mu/ xdkbk&ifuawmfonf bk&ifhr,fawmfESifhvnf; oifhjrwf[efr&Sd rdrdr,fawmfESifh vnf;ausauseyfeyf&Sd[efrwl vufxufawmfa[mif;u rSL;BuD;rwfBuD;rsm;onf nHUzsif; vGef;aom udk&ifvlxGufbk&ifESifhbk&ifhtay:udk MoZmvTrf;rdk;íwuf<ub0ifajrmufvGef; aom bk&ifuawmfwkdUudk vkH;0aMueyfrIr&SdMuaomfvnf; rnfolrQ oGefoifowday;jcif; rjyK0HUMu/ ,cktcsdefü a&T0gbk&ifvufatmufwGif&Sdaom ppfwyftrsKd;rsKd;ESifh vlOD;a& pm&if;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpf/ eef;NrdKUtwGif;bufü rm&wifajcvQifwyf ajrmufbufü 850 awmifbufü 350tm;vkH;aygif; 1201...."g;0,fajcvQifwyf ajrmufbufwGif 600? awmifbufwGif 500-aygif; 1100/ &mhig;q,fajcvQifwyf -ajrmufbuf 700? awmifbuf 500-aygif; 1200/ a&TjynfrSefuif;ajcvQifwyf tm;vkH;aygif; 700/ ewf&Sifa&G; ajcvQifwyf tm;vkH;aygif; 700/ eef;NrdKUtjyifbufü/ aMumif;wyf-,mbuf 600 0Jbuf 700- tm;vkH;aygif; 1300/ &GJwyf ,mbuf 550? 0Jbuf 650 tm;vkH;aygif; 1200/
  26. 26. 26 ewfpkwyf ,mbuf 750? 0Jbuf 550 tm;vkH;aygif; 1300/ tjcm;aom aomif;ajrmif;wyfrsm;....a&GvSHwyf 350- uif;'g;wyf 350? a&Tjynf wyf 400? ol&JBuD;wyf 600? vif;Zif;wyf 350? ukvm;ysKdwyf (cefUrSef;) 400? 'dkif;wyf (cefUrSef;) 400? wHcg;eDwyf(cefUrSef;) 400? vS&JBuD;wyf (cefUrSef;) 700/ jrif;wyfrsm; teD;pyfqkH;cefUrSef;xm;onf/ a&TjynfwHcGefjrif;wyf 500? a&Tjynf&efatmifjrif;wyf 500? &Jbufjrif;wyf 500? uonf;jrif;wyf 500? a&T0gjynfausmfjrif;wyf 500/ tajrmufwyf.... r*Fvmtajrmuf 500 a&T0gjynfom;wkdUouf&Sdtiftm;onf þrQomjzpfMuonf/ okdUaomf taMumif; &Sdvmí a&T0gjynfom;wkdUxkH;pHtwdkif; "m;jym; &dkufac:rnfqdkvQift&G,f&Sdaom a,mufsm;wdkif; rdef;rwdkif;ppfom;jzpfEdkifonf/ a&T0gjynfü bk&iftusOf;om;rsm;txJü oHajcusOf;cwfí xm;&aom rdef;rrsm;&Sdaeonfudk axmufcsifhí a&T0gjynfrdef;rwkdUudk txifrao;tyf? ,ckyifvQif a&T0gjynfbk&ifudkBudK;udkifaeolrSm bk&ifuawmfjzpf/ okdUaomf uREkfyfwkdUonf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUESifh wdkufMu&rnfqdkvQif teD;uyfí wdkufMu&rnfudkom aMumuf&GHUbG,f&Sd/ ta0;rSaeí wdkuf&eftwGuf a&T0gjynfom;wkdU udk vkH;0aMumuf&efr&Sd? a&T0gjynfom;wkdU tokH;jyKaom aoewfrsm; tajrmufrsm;onf tvGefnHUzsif;vS/ ukvm;jzLwkdUonf a&T0gjynftajctaeudk þodkUvQif tao;pdyfod/ xdkUaMumifh a&T0gjynfom;wkdUudk wdkufavmufaom wdkufEdkifaom tiftm;pkNyD;vQif tiftm;&SdonfESifhwNydKifeuf wriftaMumif;&Smí a&T0gjynfudk vma&mufwdkufcdkuf/ xdkodkU rwdkufcdkufrDtcsdefuav;üyifvQif rif;BuD;OD;zsif;onf ukvm;jzLwkdU taMumif;&Smcsufudk vdkufavsmí ppfNydKifrIat;Nidrf;apNyD;vQif tiftm;jznfhwif;&ef rdrdwkdU bufrS ulnDrnfhEdkifiHrsm;&SmazG&ef tBuHOmPfay;ao;/ okdU&mwGif i,fEkaoG;<uaom bk&ifuawmfuav;onf rif;BuD;OD;zsif;tm; onfavmuf aMumufwwfvQif..... a,mufsm;vkyfraeygeJUawmh oDv&Sifom0wfvdkufyg awmh[kqdk/ xdkUaemufrif;BuD;OD;zsif;tdrfodkU xrD,yfawmifoeyfcg;wkH; ausmufjyif ponfwkdUudk ydkUvdkuf/
  27. 27. 27 aemufqkH; ppfjzpfMuaomtcg bk&ifuawmfuav; vuf&kH;ppfAdkvfwkdUonf a&T0g0wDjrpf&dk;wavQmufü tcsuftcsmae&mwdkif;wkdUwGif a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu ,rf;rIefU xdk;aoewfjzifh¤if;? ,rf;rIefUxdk; tajrmufjzifh¤if; ypfcwfwdkufcdkuf/ odkU&mwGif a&T0gjynfom;wkdUaoewfwcsufwGif ukvm;jzLwkdUu aoewfq,fcsuf cefUypfcwfEdkif/ ukvm;jzLwdkUaoewfum; ,rf;rIefUxdk;aoewfr[kwf? usnfxdk;aoewf rsm;csnf;jzpfMu/ xdkUtwl ukvm;jzLwkdU ppfoabFmtay:rS tajrmufrsm;onfvnf; usnfxdk;tajrmufawGcsnf;jzpfMu/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu tajrmufwcsufypfvQif ukvm;jzLwkdUu tajrmuftcsufESpfq,fcefU ypfcwfEdkif/ tajrmufqHwkdUuvnf; aygufuJGaom tajrmufqHrsm;jzpfMuvQif a&T0gjynfom;wkdUcHwyfywfywfvnfwGif 0dkif;&H aygufaeMuaom xef;yifrsm;onf wcetwGif; tydkif;ydkif;jywfusvsuf &Sif;vif;oGm;/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUtjrifwGif a&T0gjynfom;wkdUaypmrsm;ü yg&SdMuaom odMum;rif; 0&Zdefvufeufudk rsufjrifawGUBuKH&bdouJUodkUjzpf/ onfawmhrSyifvQif a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf ZrÁL'dwfuRef;tay:wGif {u&mZf bk&if rif;w&m;BuD; ewfppfonfwrQ xifrSwfcJUaom rdrdwkdUudk,fudk tajctaerSeftwdkif; odvmMu/ odkUaomf xdkodkUodvmMuonfhtcsdefum; aESmif;vGef;vSavNyD/ xD;usKd;pnfayguf? olUvufatmufü? uRefoaygufjzpfNyD; ESpf&Snfvçrsm;MumrS &aomtodjzpfownf;/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf ukvm;jzLwkdU vufatmufüatmufydkif; 122 ESpf txuf ydkif; 63ESpfrQ uRefjzpfcJUMu&NyD;onfhaemuf tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkifonfh vGwfvyfaom a&t0gjynftjzpfodkU a&muf&SdvmMujyef/ olUuRefjzpfaeMu&onfhtcsdefumvtwGif; ZrÁL'dyfuRef;[lí igwdkUxifouJUodkU r[kwfygwum;[k odvmMu/ ork'´&mxJwGif t0DpdokdUa&mufatmifydkUaqmifwwfMu onfh Amv0grkc0JqdkonfrSm r&Sdygwum;[k odvmMu/ ork'´&mtwGif;&Sd uRef;rsm;udk vGefajrmufaomf aeUpHíncH&onfh tol&u,f ewforD;wkdU... ewfbkHewfeef;wkdUum; r&SdNyD xdkewforD;wkdUtoGifESifh qifqifwlaom w[DwDuRef; [ma0uRef;wdkUom &SdMu [kodvmMu/ jrifhrdk&fawmifudkvSnfhywfoGm;vsuf&Sdaom aeewf&xm;onf awmifuRef;üaexGuf vQif ajrmufuRef;ü ae0ifcsdefjzpfí ta&SUuRef;wGif aerTef;wnfhNyD; taemufuRef;ünoef; acgiftcsdefodkU a&mufonf[kod&SdcJUMu&mrS vnfaeaomurÇmajrBuD;onf wESpfvQif aeudkwywf&atmif ywfaejcif;ygwum;[k odvmMu/
  28. 28. 28 ZrÁL'dyfuRef;tvkH;udk tpdk;&aom pMum0aw;rif;BuD; [lonf aer0ifonfhtifyg ,mudk tkyfpdk;oGm;cJUaom t*Fvdyf0dwdk&d, bk&ifrBuD;avmufrQ rBuD;us,fygwum;[k od&SdvmMu/ taMumif;rla&S;tcgu ZrÁL'dyfuRef;[krSwfxifcJUaomt&monf tif'd,w jynfaxmifvkH;rQ rjynfhav/ oGm;vdk&mokdUtvG,fwula&mufEdkifaom pMum&wem[k wifpm;okH;xm;onfh bD;wyfvSnf;onf yefumwyf,mOf &[wfav,mOf *sufav,mOfwkdUudk rqdkxm;ESifh armfawmfum; armfawmfqdkifu,fwdkUavmufrQ r[kwfao;ygwum;[k odvmMu/ ta&SUtaemufESifh ajrmufbufjcrf;wkdUwGif ,lZemwpfaxmifpDtnDtrQ&Sdí awmifjcrf;rSmrl ,lZemav;axmif us,f0ef;vsuf vSnf;OD;ücif;tyfonfh vSnf;uyf o@mefuJUodkU wnf&Sdaom tcsif;,lZemwaomif; t0ef;,lZemokH;aomif;&Sdonfh ZAÁL'dyf uRef;[lonf tif'd,jynfuav;rQomjzpfygaomfaum[k ,cka&T0gjynfom;wkdUu odvmMu/ taMumif;rl ajcmufwdkifESifh wm-400 rQ&Sdaom w,lZemvQif t*Fvdyfrdkif 12 rdkif 5zmvkHESifh *dkufw&mh&Spfq,frQom&Sd/ ZAÁLuRef;tjyifwckvkH; t0ef;,lZemwpfaomif; &Sdonf t*Fvdyfrdkif okH;odef;&Spfaomif;waxmif&Spf&mhq,frdkif wzgvkHESifh *dkufw&mrQom &Sd/ ,cktif'd,jynftus,ft0ef;rdkifaygif;um; woef;ESpfodef; 6aomif; 5axmif ckESpf&m ajcmufq,fhokH;rdkif&Sdavonf/ xdkUaMumifh tif'd,wjynfvkH;ESifhwuG urÇmht&yf &yfwkdUudk aer0ifEdkifonfhtus,ft0ef;udk tkyfpdk;aecJUaom 0dwdk&d,bk&ifrBuD;onf pMum0aw;rif;qdkolwkdUxuf us,fjyefUaomajrBuD;udk ydkifpdk;oljzpfae/ þodkUvufawGUtodrsKd;wkdUaMumifh a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf tif'd,rS&&Sdaom ygVd pmaywdkUüyg&Sdonfh pMum0VmrQomr[kwfyJ wu,fhpMum0Vm tppfuvnf;od&SdvmMu / pMum0VmqdkwmBuD;ü um&Hxm;aom wHwdkif;[lonfvnf;r&Sd pMum0VmwHwdkif; wGif oydwfvkH;cefU&Sdaom pmvkH;BuD;rsm;jzifh a&;om;xm;onfh ynm&yfwdkUqdkonfrSmvnf; wHwdkif;r&SdaomaMumifhr&Sd/ tu,fppfppfurÇmajrjyifBuD;ay:wGif wnfwefUaeaom ta&SUpl;pl;t&yfESifh wnfwefUaeaom taemufpl;pl;t&yfvnf;r&Sd aea&mif0ifvm&mbufESifh aea&mif uG,faysmuf&mbufom&Sd/ tcsdeftcg[lonfrSmvnf; tm;vkH;wnDwnf; wNydKifwnf;r&Sd aeudkywf&if; vnfae&aom urÇmajrBuD;ay:odkU aeusa&muf&mt&yfü aeusa&mufonfh tcsdefudk
  29. 29. 29 rSwfxm;&onfhtcsdefomvQif tcsdeftjzpfESifh&Sd/ xdkUaMumifh urÇmajrjyifay:ü aea&mif xdawGUrIonf wae&mESifhwae&mrwlnD&um; tcsdeftcgvnf; wae&mESifhwae&m rwl nDMu/ Ak'¨0g'DwkdU txG#ftjrwfaeUwckjzpfaom uqkefvjynfhaeUü a&T0gjynfom; wkdUonf xdkaeUaeUvnf 10em&DwGif qGrf;awmfwifjcif; oHCmawmfrsm;udk qGrf;a<u;jcif; jyKvkyfMurnfqdkygpdkU/ xdkUtwl a&T0gjynf ta&SUbuf 'D*&Dudkq,fuGmaom Ak'¨0g'Dwdkif;jynfwjynfu þtwdkif; a&T0gjynfESifhwcsdefwnf; wqufwnf; BudK;rJUaMu;eef;jzifh tcsdefnSdí jyKvkyf MurnfqdkvQif xdkwdkif;jynfrS qGrf;awmfwifí oHCmawmfwkdUudk qGrf;auR;aomtcsdefonf uqkefvjynfhaeUnae 4 em&Düjzpfayvdrfhrnf/ þodkUvQif urÇmajrjyifü aeudktrSwftom; jyKxm;onfhtcsdefonf ajrBuD; wae&mESifhwae&m q,fhig;'D*&DuGma0;wdkif; wem&DrQa&SUaemufuGmjcm;vQuf&SdaMumif; udk a&T0gjynfom;wkdUodvmMu/ xdkUaMumifhtif'd,rS ygVdpmaywkdUjzifh a&maESmygvmaomtcsdefudk rSefuefpGmrSwf om;pdwfydkif;vsuf vlwkdUuHMur®mudk BudKwifa[majym edrdwfbwfMuonfh twwfynm onf acwfopf a&T0gjynfom; vli,fwkdUtbdkU rrSwfEdkifawmh[kodvmMu/ taMumif;rl urÇmajrjyifwckvkH; rSefaomtcsdefr&Sd rdrdwkdUajrae&mESifh rdrdwkdUajr ae&modkU a&muf0ifvmonfhaea&mifusrItay:ü uefUowfxm;aomtcsdefwkdUudk rdrdwkdU twGuf tcsdeftrSef[k todtrSwfjyKaeMu&aomaMumifhjzpf/ a&T0gjynfom;wkdUtbdkU þodkUod&SdvmMujcif;onf a&T0gjynfBuD;wckvkH; olUuRef b0rS vGwfajrmufvmMu&rnfh edrdwfaumif;wckjzpfcJU&/ tu,fpifppf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUum; olUuRefcHvdkolrsm;vnf;r[kwfMu? usef;rmoef pGrf; jzwfvwfolrsm;jzpfMu/ okdUaomf...pm;aomuf&ef qHurylryifvkHavmufpGm&&Sd aeaomaMumifh qHaygaomaMumifh at;at;vllvlNidrf;Nidrf;csrf;csrf;aevdkolrsm;csnf;jzpfMu / tysif;xlMu/ tysif;xlaomol[lorQonf tyifyef;rcHvdkMu? tacsmifvdkufcsif tacsmifvdkcsif Mu/
  30. 30. 30 xdkodkUtacsmifvdkufcsif tacsmifvdkcsifaom olwdkif;odyfrBudK;pm;bJtaqmif uav;pç tif;uav;pç vufzGJUuav;p aqmifxm;&kHrQESifh tvdkvdkudpöNyD;Nidrf;atmifjrif Edkifonf[lonfh t&mrsKd;udk ,kHMunfvdkufpm;vdkvm;Mu/ rnfonfhtcsdeftcgü rnfodkUjyKvkyfvQif atmifjrifrnf[laomtcgay; ,Mwmay; wkdUudk ,kHMunfvdkufemMu/ rdrdwkdUNrdKU&GmaejynfwkdUudk umuG,fbdkU jyKvkyfusKd;pm;ae&ef rvdk&avatmif tcsdef tcgr*FvmwkdUESifhudkufnDpGm ae&ma&G;cs,frI ajrae&m&SmazGrI tpDt&iftif;tdkifrEåmef wkdUjzifh wcrf;wem;pD&ifrI ponfwkdUudk vkyfaqmifMuvsuf NrdKUjywnfjcif; xD;eef;pdkufxl jcif; ponfwkdUudk jyKvkyfMu/ a&T0gjynf&mZ0ifwavQmufvkH; xD;eef;a&; ppfrufa&; tm;vkH;wkdUü þtcgr*Fvm a&G;cs,frI edrdwfbwfMum;rI ponfwkdU zkH;vTrf;vmcJUMu/ bkef;vuf&kef;ESifh taqmif tzGJUwkdUudk ,kHMunfvGef;cJUMu/ bk&ifESifhwuG a&T0gjynfom;tm;vkH;wkdUonf usKd;pm;rI tyifyef;cHrIrsm; avQmhenf;vmMuvQuf bmrQrvkyfbJ bmrQr&SmazGbJ rdrdwkdUtajctae rSwyg; tjcm;olrsm;tajctaeudk ravhvmMubJ rdrdwkdUwkdif;jynf rdrdwkdUtiftm; csnf; txifBuD;aeMu/ xdkUaMumifhvnf; a&T0gjynfwjynfvkH; olUuRefjzpfcJUMu&jcif;jzpf / ,ckrl olUuRefjzpfvmcJUMu&aom a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf urÇmudkvnf; odavNyD a&T0gudkvnf;odavNyD/ u0mhwdkif;jynfBuD;wkdU aMumufrufzG,faumif;aom ppfNydKifrIrsm; udkvnf;odavNyD/ udk,fwdkifyg0ifívnf; wdkufcdkufbl;avNyD/ xdkUaMumifh Oyg'gefawG tpGJawG rjyKvkyfbJ aqmifxm;&kHjzifh tvdktvdkatmifjrif onf[kqdkaom taqmiftzGJUawGudk pGefUvTwfMuvsuf rdrdwkdUudk,fwdkif acR;eJUaoG;eJU &if;vsuf wyifwyef; wdkufcdkufcJUBudK;pm;cJUMuvsuf acwfrSDaomvli,fwpkwkdUu a&T0g wjynfaxmifvkH;udk vIHUaqmfpnf;&kH;um olUuReftjzpfrSu,fwifvdkufEdkifcJU/ okdUaomfa&T0gjynfom;tm;vkH;vdkvdk wu,fvufawGUrsufjrifod&SdvmMu&aom trSefw&m;wkdUudk vufcHMuygNyDavm/ &mZ0iftp ESpfaygif;axmifhokH;&mausmfrQ t&dk;xJOd;aPSmufxJodkU pJG0ifvmcJUMu& aom awG;ac:pGJvef;rIrsKd;awGludk pGefUvTwfEdkifMuygNyDavm/ þonfwdkUudk a&T0gjynfBuD; ,ckrsufarSmuftjzpfwkdUu tajzay;aeMu/
  31. 31. 31 urÇmESifhcsDí jzpfvdkufMu&aom ppfyGJBuD;tNyD;ü olUuRefb0rSvGwfvyfvmMuukef aom a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf xdkodkUvGwfvyfvm&onfudkyif aMumifawmifawmif? a,mif awmifawmifjzpfaeMu/ &GmvkH;uRwfrD;avmifcH&NyD;p vma&mufa0iSMuonfhqefqD tdk;cGuf txnft0wf wkdUudk pk&kH;pk&kH;Esifh wkdUa0SU,liifaeMuukefaom &Gmom;rsm;onf xdk&&Sdvmonfh qef qD tdk;cGuf t0wftxnfuav;wkdUudk 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omqkyfudkif ayGUydkufvsuf rdrdwkdUonf a&SUtbdkUwGif rdrdwkdUaea&; pm;a&; &yfwnfEdkifa&;twGuf rnfuJUokdUpwifwnfaxmif &ygrnfenf;[k &ifxJü vIyf&Sm;&bdouJUodkU.... ppfBuD;twGif; wdkufcdkufMu& ysufpD;Mu&NyD;rS vGwfvyfa&;&vmMu&aom a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonfvnf;.... xdk&vmonfh vGwfvyfa&;uav;udk ydkufayGUMuvsuf rdrdwkdUonf rnfuJUodkU qufvufxlaxmifMu&ygrnfenf;[k &ifwckHckH&Sd&if; awG;awmMuukef/ odkUaomf xdkodkUawG;awmMuolrsm; xdkodkU&ifckefMuolrsm;um;? a&T0gjynfol jynfom;tm;vkH;r[kwfMu? tenf;tusOf;rQjzpfMu/ xdktenf;tusOf;üvnf; vlESpfrsKd;yg0if/ yxrtrsKd;onf vGwfvyfaoma&T0g jynfBuD;udk udk,fwdkif0ifa&mufxlaxmifay;Murnfholrsm;jzpfMuí? 'kwd,trsKd;tpm;onf a&T0gjynfBuD; vGwfvyfa&;&onfudkyif 0rf;ajrmufyDwdjzpf aevQuf xlaxmifay;&mwGifudk,fwdkifryg0ifbJ tjyifrSapmifhxdef;ay;vdkolrsm;jzpf/ xdkESpfrsKd;teuf yxrtrsKd;onf OD;a&tm;jzifh rsm;jym;í'kwd,trsKd;ta&twGuf onf OD;a&tvGefeJ/ usefaom a&T0gjynfol jynfom;wkdUum; a&T0gjynfom;wkdU"avhp&dkuftwdkif; vGwfvyfa&;twGufwdkufcdkufpOfu wjynfaxmifvkH; a&maESmyg0ifwdkufcdkufcJUMuaomf vnf; wdkufckdufNyD;aomtcg vGwfvyfa&;&vQifvnf; udpör&Sdrxl;jcm;? rdrdtwGuf xl;xl;jcm;jcm;vdktyfonfum; wyifwyef;tvkyfrvkyfMubJ vIyfcg a&GUumrQjzifh rylryif aumif;aumif;0wf aumif;aumif;pm; aumif;aumif;NzKH; aumif; aumif;aysmfEdkifbkdUjzpf/ xdkUaMumifh a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdUonf vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdjcif;aMumifhcHpm;&onfh &ifüvIyf&Sm;rIudk ajymjywwfolr&Sdoavmufenf;/ a&T0gjynfom;wpkHwa,mufonf pGyfpGJcHae&aom jypfrItwGuf w&m;&kH;wkdUrS uGif;vkH;uRwfvTwfvdkufNyD[kod&aomtcg &ifxJürnfodkUcHpm;Mu&onfudkod/ ajymjyEdkif pGrf;/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;ü vlBuD;rdbwkdU wdkufwGef;rIaMumifh w0gESpf0gMumonftxd &SifomraP0wfaeMu&&mrS bkef;awmfBuD;uxGufcGifhay;vdkufojzifh &SifvlxGuf&rnf[k od&aomolwkdUonf xdkodkUod&onfhtcsdefü &ifwGif;0,f rnfodkUvIyf&Sm;&onfudk &SifomraP0wfbl;aom a&T0gjynfom;wdkif;od/ ajymjyEdkifpGrf;/
  32. 32. 32 xdkUtwl rarQmfvifhbJaxmifrS tvTwfcH&olrsm; rdrdcspfolcGifhay;csuft& a&S;OD; tBudrfcspfolESifh awGUcGifh&olrsm; qdwfuG,f&mürawGUbl;Muao;aomcspfolcsif; rdb oabmwlnDcsufjzifh r*Fvmaqmif&onfh r*FvmOD;nudk BuKHawGU&bl;olrsm;? xDaygufol rsm;ESifh a&SUOD;pGm r*¾Zif;üpmrlygvmNyD[kod&aom pmay0goemygolrsm; ponfponfwkdU onf rdrdwkdU&ifürnfodkUvQif vIyf&Sm;onf rnfodkUcHpm;&onfudk ajymjyEdkifolcsnf;jzpf/ okdUaomf xdkvltm;vkH;wdkUonf rdrdwdkUa&T0gjynfBuD; vGwfvyfvmavNyD[k odNyD;onfholrsm;csnf;jzpfaomfvnf; xdkokdUvGwfvyfygNyD;[laom ausnmcsufudk Mum;Mu& pOfu &ifxJü rnfodkUvIyf&Sm;xdcdkufygovJ[kar;vQif rnfolrQaumif;pGm rajymwwfovdk &SdaeMu/ tvGefqkH;awG;awmajymEdkifovdk &Sdolrsm;pum;twdkif;azmfjy&aomf.... &dk;&dk;ajym&,if 0rf;omovdkvdkawmh&SdwmayghAsm odyfawmhrxl;jcm;vSygbl;.... [laomtajzyifjzpf/ vGwfvyfa&;&NyD[laom cHpm;csufudk aygufayguf&Sm&Sm pyfpkaeolum; &Jabmf iqdk;xufcdkifjzpf/ &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifu þodkUpyfpyfpkpk awGUolwdkif;odkU ar;jref;okawoejyKaejcif; ü taMumif;&Sd/ a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdUonf tu,fvnf;rdrdwkdUudk,fwdkif olUuRefatmufu vGwf ajrmufvmaom vGwfvyfaom wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;jzpfvmcJUMuygvsuf xdkodkUvGwfvyf vm&jcif;udk rnfolrQxl;xl;jcm;jcm; cHpm;ESpfodrfhrIrsKd; rjzpf[kqdkcJUvQif xdkolwkdUonf rvGwfvyfvQifvnf; rnfodkUrQxdcdkufwkHvIyfvdrfhrnfr[kwf[k &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifu,kH Munf/ xdkUjyif,ck&&Sdxm;aom vGwfvyfa&;BuD;qkH;&SLH;oGm;rnfqdkvQifvnf; odyfxdcdkuf emusnf;Murnfhvlrsm; jzpf[efrwl[k ,kHMunf/ okdUaomf &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifonf a&T0gjynfBuD;vGwfvyfvmojzifh 0rf;ajrmufaysmf &Tifaeaom olrsm;udkvnf;awGU&ygao;/ xdkolwkdUum; a&T0gjynfBuD; vGwfvyf&ef usKd;yrf;&mü a&SUwef;rSyg0ifcJUolrsm;jzpfjcif;aMumifh ,cka&T0gjynfBuD;vGwfvyfaomtcg ,if;a&T0gjynfBuD;udk igwkdUtkyfcsKyfoifhonf[k tkyfcsKyfa&;tmPmudk vuf0,fudkifxm;ol rsm; jzpfaMumif;udkawGUae&/ &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifawGae&aomolwkdUonf vGwfvyfa&;&aomaeUokdUa&mufwdkif; BuD;us,fcrf;em;aom t&dktaocHyGJBuD;udk vkyfMu/ BuD;us,fcrf;em;aom pifjrifhBuD;udk ta&;wBuD;tNyD;aqmufvkyfMuNyD;vQif xdkpifjrifhBuD;ay:ü 0wfaumif;qifvSwkdUjzifh awmufawmufajymifajymif 0wfqifae&,l Muí rdrdwkdUtkyfcsKyfa&;,Eå,m;BuD;twGif;ü 0ifa&mufaqmif&GufaeMu&onfh olrsm;udk vrf;rBuD;ay:rS tzGJUvdkufcsDwufapvsuf pifjrifhBuD;bufodkUvSnfhí t&dkdtaojyKoGm;ap /
  33. 33. 33 'gudk a&T0gjynfwdkif;oljynfom;wkdUu vma&mufMunfh&Iap&/ þodkUMunfh&Iap jcif;jzifh a&T0gjynfom;wdkUu rdrdwkdUtm; cefUjim;&dkaovmvdrfhrnf[k xifaomaMumifhvnf; þodkUt&dktaocHíjyjcif;jzpf/ okdUaomf a&T0gjynfom;wkdUu xdkolwkdUxifovdk tm;vkH;cefUjim;&dkaorI jzpfvmjcif; r&SdbJ vGwfvyfa&; &wm[moif;wkdUaumif;pm;wmbJ[k r&IpdrfhrIawGjzpfMu/ xdkolwkdU þvdkt&dktaocHaerIudk awGUMuaomaMumifh tm;usvmvsuf rdrdwkdU vnf; aemifwBudrfwGif xdkolwkdUuJUodkU t&dktaocHvlwef;pm;rsKd;awG jzpfavatmif tkyfcsKyfa&;tmPm vuf0,f&&Sdavatmif taMumif;&SdvmvQif vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJBuD;udk a&SUqkH;u0ifEGJrnf[laompdwfrsKd; ray:aygufMu/ taMumif;rl vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJ qifETJaeMupOfu rdrdwkdUESifhtwl ykef;atmif;ajy; vTm;t&ufrl;aeMuaom vltcsKdUudk xdkpifjrifhay:üawGUae&aomaMumifhjzpf/ xdkolwkdUonf vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;p pyful; rwful;tcsdefwGif... tkyfcsKyfa&;tmPm&&SdaeMuaom olwkdUudkaxmufcHtm;ay;aeMujcif; tvdkawmf Muvdkufvkyfay;Mujcif;paom bufawmfom;rsm;tjzpf 0ifa&mufaqmif&Gufay;cJUMuaom aMumifh.... wajz;ajz;tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJUBuD;xJokdU a&mufoGm;Muum ,ckxdkpifjrifhBuD;ay:ü tcefUom;awGUaeMu&jcif; jzpf/ xdkUaMumifhtcsKdUwkdUuvnf; tkyfcsKyfa&;tmPm &&SdolwkdUudkupfvsuf bmrqdk tvdkawmfusvdkufvkyfay;vsif igwkdUvnf; þpifjrifhBuD;ay:rS tcefUom; t&dktaocHEdkif Muaom vlwa,mufjzpfvmEdkifonf[k awG;awmtm;usvmMu/ a&T0gjynftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfu þvdkawG;Edkif tm;usEdkifatmifvnf; tcGifhta&; ay;xm;/ þvdktm;Muvmukefaom olwkdUonf rdrddukdaxmufcHrnfh vltiftm;udk &Edkif aomenf;ESifharG;vsuf tkyfcsKyfa&;twGif;wGif &SdaeonfhtzGJUtpnf;wckckjzifhyl;aygif;í rnfolUaemufu vltiftm;rsm;onf[k tjcm;tzGJUwkdUESifh av;ESpfwpfBudrf rJcsif;NydKifvsuf tEdkif,lNyD;vQif tkyfcsKyfa&;tmPm&&SdNyD; þpifjrifhay:odkUwufí t&dktaocH,lEdkifaom tcGifhtvrf; a&T0gjynftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfü&Sd/ xdkUaMumifh vGwfvyfa&; t&omudk NrJprf;vdkMuaom a&T0gjynfom;wkdUonf þtwdkif;jyKvkyfvmukefMu/ &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifonf tawmfESvkH;pdwf0rf; rcsrf;rajrUjzpfae/ þvdkjzpfrS vGwfvyfa&;tusKd;cHpm;&onf[k xifaeMujcif;udk rausreyfjzpfae/ þrQpdwfxm; EkHeJUaom rdrdwkdUa&T0gjynfol jynfom;rsm;udkMunfhvsuf tvdkvdkpdwfaygufae/ &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifonf rdrda&SUwGifvIyfvIyf&G&Tjrifae&aom a&T0gjynfoljynfom; wkdUudk a'gopdwfjzifh ndrfoufMunfh/ rsufESmwckvkH; npfykyfykyfjzpfae/ rsufvkH;awGjym a0vm/
  34. 34. 34 AdkvfrSL;ixufrsufonf &Snfvsm;aom vufwefBuD;udk a0SU&rf;vsuf pdwfvufaygh yg;pGm jrpfqdyfodkUqif;vmonf/ aEGOD;av&l;onf jrpfqdyfü wjzL;jzL;wdkufae/ qdyfurf;wGif&Sdaom 0g;&kHyif oHowfyif vrkyif BuD;i,fwkdUonf avtvmwGiftNydKiftqdkif z&dkz&JujyaeMu/ jrpfqdyfwHwm;ücsnfxm;aom ig;q,fygorÁefi,fu urf;xdyfrS uçjyaeMuaom opfyif wkdUuçBudk;udk acgif;ndwfpnf;vdkufaeonf/ orÁefOD;zkH;ay:wGif AdkvfrSL; ivkH;nDESifhiqdk;xufcdkifwkdUxdkifaeMu/ AdkvfrSL;ivkH;nDonf iSufuav;rsm;atmfouJUokdU avcRefae/ &Jabmfiqdk;xuf url pnf;rus 0g;rus tcspfoDcsif;wyk'fudk wdk;wdk;qdkaeonf/ orÁefi,fonf olwkdUudk aemfhcgaemhfcg pnf;vdkufNrJvdkuf/ olwdkUudk,fawGrSmorÁefOD;ay:ü a&SUxdk;aemufiifvIyf &rf;aeMuonf/ ]a[;vlawG tr,fZdrfusaevdkufMuwm usKyfjzifhb,faysmufoGm;MuvJvdkU....} urf;ay:rSwHwm;rSavQmufvmaom AdkvfrSL;ixufrsufu vSrf;atmfvdkufjcif;jzpf / xdkUaemufwHwm;ay:rSaeí orÁefay:odkU avQmqif;vdkufonf/ orÁefOD;onf a&xJü rvIyf&rf;0efUawmhbJ ysyf0yfvsuf yJUaxmifvm/ AdkvfrSL;ixufrsufonf t&yf&Snfoljzpf av&m vlydefaomfvnf; olUt&dk;um;av;vS/ xdkUaemuf okH;a,mufom;orÁefOD;ü pkNyKHxdkifaeMuaomaMumifh axmifaeaom orÁefyJUonf wjzwfjzwf &dkufcwfaeonfh vIdif;ajy;uav;aMumifh vIyfcgaeonf/ &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkif tcspfoDcsif;vnf; &yfoGm;onf/ AdkvfrSL;ivkH;nD iSufuav;awG atmfovdk avcRefoHvnf;&yfoGm;onf/ okH;a,mufom; wdwfqdwfae Mu/ urf;xdyf&SdopfyifwkdUonf uNrJuçaeMu/ orÁefi,furl acgif;Nidrfhípnf;rvdkuf Edkifawmh? yJUpifudk&rf;cgvsuf yifv,fuRef;olvdkjrL;/ 0g;&kHyifESifhopf&GufwkdUudk avwdkuf aomtoHonf qlnHvsuf wdwfqdwfouJUokdUxif/ &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifwdkU okH;a,mufom;vkH; jzL;jzL;wdkufaomavwGif opf&Gufcsif; &dkufcwfaom toHudkem;pdkufaeMu/ uGrf;oD;awmBuD;qDrS av;wGJUwGJU usL;&ifhvdkufaom OMozdktoHonf qdyfurf;wckvkH;udkydkí MunfEl;atmifjyKay;bdodkU&Sd/ AdkvfrSL;xufrsufonf &Snfvsm;aom ajcwHvufwHBuD;udk orÁefOD;zkH;ay:ü oufawmifhoufom ypfykHícs/ rsufESmonfaumif;uifodkUarmh/ ab;odkU um;qefU xm;aomvufwef;BuD;ESpfacsmif;onf Oau©mif;udko,fydk;xm;&aom ykckH;us,fBuD;tm; usm;uefay;xm;bdodkU&Sd/ jymaomaumif;uifwGif *Grf;ykHBuD;ESifhwlaom wdrfqkyfBuD;rsm; vGifhaeMu/
  35. 35. 35 ]usKyfawmhAsm wu,fvdkU raobJusefaetkH;r,fqdk&if at;at;aq;aq; pmbwf aer,f....} rsufESmudkaumif;uifodkUarmf&if; rvIyf&Sm;bJajymvdkufjcif;jzpf/ ]usKyfuawmhopfyifpdkufr,fAs? yifv,fxJu uRef;uav;wuRef;uRef;rSm oGm;yD; at;at;csrf;csrf;wa,mufxJ opfyifpdkufaer,f arG;jrLa&;vJvkyfr,f....} AdkvfrSL;ivkH;nDqE´jzpfonf? xdkUaemufwdwfqdwfoGm;? &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifqD u rnfonfhtoHrQxGufrvm/ AdkvfrSL;ESpfa,mufwdkU rausreyfjzpfae[ef&Sd/ þokH;a,mufwkdUonf vuf&Sdtqifhtwef;csif;rwlaomfvnf; wOD;ESifhwOD; av;pm;aom &if;ESD;aomcspfcifaom tcsif;csif;&Jabmfpdwfjyif;xefaom twlvkyfaz: vkyfbufjzpf/ a&T0gjynfBuD; olUuReftjzpfrS vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf usKd;yrf;Mu&mü wOD;xuf wOD; rausmfvGefaom t&nfwl &Jabmf&Jbufjzpf/ tcsif;csif;awGUqkH cifrifMu&onf vnf; þa&T0gjynfBuD;vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf vufeufudkifwdkufcdkuf&ef a&T0gjynfvli,f uav;rsm; wdwfwqdwf pwifpnf;&kH;pka0;MupOfuwnf;ujzpf/ okdUaomf....&Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifonf a&T0gjynfom; vlqef;wpfa,mufjzpf/ olonfpnf;urf;twGif;ü aeEdkifpGrf;&Sdolr[kwf/ okdUaomfpnf;urf;csufr&SdygrS okdUr[kwfpnf;urf;csuftjyifbufrSaeí pnf;urf; udktvdkvdk apmifhxdef;wwfoljzpf/ xdkUaMumifh &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifonf a&T0gjynf vGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfom; wa,muf r[kwfcJU? okdU&mwGifolonf a&T0gjynfajrEkuRef;ay:t&yf&Sd a&T0gaysmufusm; wyfzGJUom;tm;vkH;wkdU acgif;aqmifjzpf/ xdktcsdefu AdkvfrSL;ixufrsufESifh AdkvfrSL;ivkH;nDwdkUonf urÇmhppfMurf;tpdk;& vufatmufü w&m;0ifppfAdkvfBuD;rsm;tjzpf ta,mifaqmifMu&if; a&T0gjynfvGwfvyf a&;udk usKd;yrf;vsuf&SdaeMupOf &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifurl rdrdajymufusm;wyfom;ausmfwdkU jzifh urÇmhppfMurf;tpdk;&udk cyfajymifajymifwdkufcdkufvmcJUí 2 ESpfjynfhvkvktcsdefüjzpf/ AdkvfrSL;ESpfa,mufwkdUonf tjcm;&Jabmf &JbufwkdUESifhtwl a&T0gjynfvGwf ajrmufa&;twGuf rnfodkUaom enf;y&d,m,fwkdUjzifh wdkufcdkufvQifoifhawmfrnf[k aqG;aEG;qkH;jzwf&efESifh olUudk,fol &Jabmf[kemrnfwyfxm;aom vkyfaz:vkyfbuf iqdk; xufcdkifudk vufeufcJ,rf;wkdU jznfhwif;ay;&ef? þiqdk;xufcdkif aysmufusm;pcrf;odkU wdwfwqdwfa&muf&SdaeMujcif;jzpf/ &Jabmf&JbufpdwfESifh rdrdwdkUcspfcifcJUMuaom iqdk;xufcdkifonfae&mwdkif;vdkvdk rdrdwdkUuJUodkU vlawG;rawG;bJ zDvmqefUusif awG;wwfoltrsm;ESifhrwlol uefUvefUorm; [kAdkvfrSL;ESpfa,mufwkdUuxifMu/
  36. 36. 36 xdkUaMumifh rdrdwdkUudk taxmuftulray;bJ wdwfwdwfqdwfqdwf&Sdaeaom iqdk;xufcdkifudk ,drf;wdkufxm;ouJUodkU NydKifwlvSnfhMunfhvdkuf/ ]cifAsm;aum.....} &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifu ajrUajrUrQNyKH;/ xdkUaemuftoHrxGufyJ acgif;udkajz;ajz; &rf;cg/ AdkvfrSL;ESpfOD;wkdUu rauseyfMu/ ]cifAsm;tbBuD;rSbJ vlqdkwm &nf&G,fcsuf&Sd&w,fAs} ]udk,fhvltvum;vlyg olutifrwefpnf;ysuf urf;ysufaecsifwJUvl b,fawmhrS BudKwifowfrSwfxm;wJU twdkif;vdkufemEdkifr,fh vlrsKd;r[kwfygbl;} þrQru ESpfa,mufom;wa,mufwayguf ajymMu/ ar;Mu/ Budrf;Mu/ AdkvfrSL;ESpfa,mufvkH; &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifESifh qkHpnf;&wdkif; þodkUtEdkifusifh& twif; tMuyfjyKvkyfar;jref;&onfudk aysmf/ t&omwckjzpf/ wenf;tm;jzifh rdrdwdkU&Jabmf udk vlvdkawG;wwfatmif rdrdwkdUutwif;tMuyf0dkif;0ef;jyKjyifay;aeMuonf/ aumif;rI ukodkvfwckjyKvkyfaeMuonf[k xifrSwfMu/ ]uJ....ajymprf;....cifAsm; bmhaMumifh vlwa,mufvdk? aemufNyD;&if bmawGquf vkyfr,fvdkU tpDtpOfr&Sdcsif&wmvJ....} ]tvum;ygAsm 'Dvlua&T0gjynfBuD;vGwfvyfNyD;&if iga&T0gjynfvGwfvyfatmif vkyfwkef;u ygwJUtaumifuGqdkNyD; &mxl;awGbmawG0if,lbdkUpdwful;aewmyg....} þonfudkawmh iqdk;xufcdkifrcHr&yfEdkif iqdk;xufcdkifrsufESmonf csmueJ AdkvfrSL;xufrsufbufodkU a&mufoGm;/ AkdvfrSL;xufrsufuvnf; iqdk;xufcdkifudk rsufESm&JoGm;atmif jyKvkyfEdkifvdkufojzifh 0rf;ompdwfESifhMunfh/ xdktMunfhudkjrif&rS iqdk;xufcdkif ysufaeaomrsufESmu jyefaumif;vm/ ][mAsm....'DvdkawmhrajymMueJUAsm/ cifAsm;wkdUwrif0dkif;ajymaerSef;od&ufeJUudk em;axmifvkdUr&bl;....} ][kkwfw,f cifAsm;'DvdkawG;aerSmbJ/ 'gaMumifhuRefawmfwkdUudk zGifhrajym0HUwmaygh/ EdkUrIwf&ifajymrSm uRefawmfvJtckrS pOf;pm;rdw,f.....} AdkvfrSL;ivkH;nDu AdkvfrSL;ixufrsuf xda&mufaompum;udk 0ifpGufaxmufcH/ xdkUaemufESpfa,mufom; twdkif;0dkif;ar;Mu/ Mumaomfiqdk;xufcdkifupdwfr&SnfpGmjzifh AdkvfrSL;ESpfa,mufrsufESmudk armfMunfhonf/ ]rkwfygbl; usaemfwkdUu bmawGBudKwifawG;awmbdkUvdkao;vJ? tm;vkH;aoukef Mu&rSmbJrIwfvm;/ cifAsm;tbBuD;rSbJ 'DvdkawmfvSefa&;vkyforQ vlawGtm;vkH; tukefbJaoukefMu &awmhrSmvm;? cifAsm;awmfawmf tajrSmftjrif&SdwJUvl/ ]b,fheJUrao&rSmvJAs? usaemfu cifAsm;wkdUvdk uHorm;r[kwfzl;? rD;cJudkif&ifylr,f? "g;eJUxdk;&ifaygufr,f? bdeyfcRwfyD; ql;ykHay:eif;&if pl;r,f'gbJ? cifAsm;pOf;pm;Munfhygvm; vufeuftiftm; vltiftm; ppfoufb,fvdkrSrwlEdkifwJU urÇmhxdyfwef;vuf,mpGef;eJU vuf0JpGef;EdkifiHBuD;ESpfckudk wckNyD;wckqufwdkufaevdkU
  37. 37. 37 usaemfwdkUaorukefMubl;qdk&if tJ'DvlnmwmAs? wu,fwdkufrJUvludkr[kwfzl;/ tJ'Dawmhusaemhf tbdkUbmrSawG;awm aebdkUrvdkbl;? 'DwdkufyGJBuD;NyD;wJUaemuf usaemfvJ&SdrSmr[kwfzl;/ ]wu,fvdkU&Sd&ifaumAsm...} ]&Sdudkr&Sd&bl;As &Sd&ifvlnmbJ....} okdUaomf &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifESifhwuG AdkvfrSL;ESpfa,muf tygt0if &SnfjrifhpGm aygif;oif;vmcJU&aom &Jabmf&JbufokH;a,mufvkH; raocJUMuyg/ ]a[;...vl.....cifAsm;raobl;aemf bmvJcifAsm;vlnmbJ.....} ta&;awmfykHacwå&yfem;csdefü uGJuGmae&onfh cspf&JabmfwdkU awGUvQifawGUjcif; EIwfqufvdkufMuaompum;jzpf/ avjzL;jzL;vmonfh om,maomjrpfqdyfü tcsif;csif;trSwfrxifaemufajymif&ef pvmcJUMuonfudk rarhMu/ xdkaemufajymif&efp&mrS xGufvmaomtawG;tac:av;wpfckonf &Jabmf &JbufokH;a,mufvkH; ESvkH;om;üepfjrKyfpGJ0ifaeMu/ xdkUaMumifh AdkvfrSL;xufrsufonf &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifudkawGUvQifawGUjcif; þokdUþES,f&efpvdkufjcif;jzpf/ ][kwfw,fAsm....usaemf vlnmjzpfrSmbmvJ? tokH;rusbl;Asm? usaemf udk,fhudk,fudk awmfawmfpdwfqdk;aew,fAs? usaemfvlnHU? usaemfaMumufwwfw,f? wdkufyGJawGawGUwdkif; rwdkufawmhr&Sdbl;ayghAsm? 'gayrJUudk,fhudk,fudk raoatmif wdkufaew,f? b,fawmh ESdyfrwkH;? usaemfrpGefygbl;} &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifu wu,fpdwfxdcdkufpGmESifh ajymvdkufjcif;jzpf/ rsufESmavoH ESifh vIyf&Sm;rIwkdUudk jrif&jcif;jzifh þtwdkif;pdwfxdcdkufvmonfrSm &uftawmfMumNyD[k cefUrSef;Edkif/ ][m....cifAsm;[mt&l;bJAs? ppfwdkufygw,fqdkrS b,fppfom;u udk,fhudk,fudk udk,faoatmifwdkufrvJ? wbufutaumifawGrsm;rsm;aoNyD; udk,f&Sifusefaeatmif wdkufMurSmayghAs? cifAsm;wdkufyGJwckckjzpfr,fqdk&if rwdkufbJeJU a&SmifvmcJUbl;vdkUvm;....} &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifonf AdkvfrSL;xufrsuf rsufESmudkai;aMumifaMumifMunfh vsuf acgif;Nidwf/ aemufrSa&mufvmí xdktar;tajzudkbmrQ rodvdkuf&aom AdkvfrSL;ivkH;nDu vSrf;atmf/ ]bmhvJAsKdU bmvJAsKdU 'DvlbmawGxyfnmaewmwkH; olajymwmbJrIwfvm; raobJ usefae,ifvlnmqdkwm tckolraobJ usefw,f} teD;odkUa&mufonfESifh AdkvfrSL; ixufrsufu AdkvfrSL;ivkH;nDbufokdUvSnfhvsuf iqdk;xufcdkif cHpm;ae&csufudk&Sif;jy/ xdkUaemuf r,kHMunfEdkifaom rsufESmjzifh iqdk;xufcdkifbufodkUvSnfh/ ]aeygtkH;...cifAsm; wu,fhudkwdkufyGJawGbmawG awGUr,fqdk,if a&SmifcJUbl;ovm;}
  38. 38. 38 acgif;idkufpdkufESifh awGa0vsuf&Sdaom iqdk;xufcdkifu yifhoufESifhtwl rsufvTm ryifhbJ acgif;Nidwf/ AdkvfrSL;ESpfa,mufvkH; pdwfxdcdkufukefMu ]pdwf"mwfwuf<uvGef;vSaom &Jabmf &Jbufwa,mufonf þrQaoG;aMumif nHUzsif;cJUygonf[k 0efcHaeaomaMumifh ,lBuKH;r& jzpfaeMu/ b,fvdkjzpfNyD;a&SmifcJUwmwkH;? b,fwdkufyGJawGrSma&SmifcJUwmwkH;/ iqdk;xufcdkifonf BuD;pGmaemifw&ae[ef rsufESmjzifh jznf;nSif;pGmacgif;armh/ xdkUaemuf AdkvfrSL;ESpfa,mufbufodkU rMunfhbJ a&SUwnfhwnfhodkUai;pdkufNidrfouf/ ta&;awmfykHwavQmufvkH;ygbJAsm..... wu,fawmh usaemf[maoG;aMumifNyD; ao&rSmaMumufaewmygbJ? usaemfhajymufMum;awGeJU usaemf[m udk,fuEdkifavmufr,fh yGJrsKd;udkrSa&G;wdkufw,f? udk,furEdkifavmuf&if eJeJyg;yg;taESmuft,Sufay;NyD;? udk,fhvl awGa&m udk,fa&mraoatmif a&Smifa&Smifajy;wmcsnf;bJ? udk,fhbufuvlawG aoukef r,fh wdkufyGJrsKd;qdk&if b,fawmhrS....} cifAsm;tbBuD;? cifAsm;tbBuD; awmfawmfaomufokH;ruswJUvl? 'Dvlawmfawmf tlw,f/ ppfwdkufygw,fqdkrS udk,fhudk,fudkaoatmifwdkufwmrSr[kwfbJ/ Edkifatmifwdkuf wmAs/ ajymufusm;qdkwm tNyD;owftEdkift&SLH;udk tqkH;tjzwfay;EdkifatmifwdkufwJU wdkufyGJrsKd;r[kwfzl;qdkwm cifAsm;bJajymufusm;wdkufenf;pmtkyfawG a&;cJUw,frIwfvm;} tJ'gem;rvnfcifwkef;ua&;wm tJ'Dvdka&;wmudku usaemfhrSm rpGefU0HUbl;/ aMumufwJUoabm ygaew,f? ajymufusm;qdkwm[m axmufyHUa&;wyfwkdU o,f,lydkU aqmifa&;wyfwdkUr&SdwJUtwGuf tvG,fwula&SmifEdkif&Sm;Edkif? 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufEdkifatmif okH;a,mifig;a,mufq,fhig;a,mufxufrydk&bl;? wbufwyfrBuD;awG&JU vufeuf&du©m pdwf"mwfwdkUudkysufpD;atmif zsufqD;aESmuf,Sufa&;wyfoufoufjzpfw,f/... tifrwefaocsmavmufwJU tcsdefeJUae&mrsKd;udk wGufom;rdrS Edkifavmufw,fvdkU vJ wdusaocsmrS jyefUaewJUajymufusm;wyfzGJUawGtm;vkH;udk tcsdef;tcsufay;NyD; wbuf uwyfBuD;xuf BuD;us,faomwyfzGJUBuD;udk jzpfapvsuf tNyD;tydkifajcrIef;wdkufcdkufEdkifcGifh &Sdw,fqdkwmawG[m r[kwfbl;? wckrSr[kwfawmhbl;? tJ'DpmawG a&;uwnf;u usaemf [maMumufvdkU t'DtBuHrsKd;avmuf&wm.... wu,fawmhtJ'Dvdkr[kwfbl; ajymufusm;acgif;aqmifqdkwJU vlawG[m tJ'gawG wwf&rJUtjyif wu,fht&nftcsif; tbufbufujynfh0wJUvlrsKd;jzpf&r,f? wyfcGJvdkuf wyf&if;vdkufudk &efolrodatmif wae&muwae&mudk tjrefqkH;a&TUajymif;o,faqmif oGm;EdkifwJUt&nftcsif;&Sd&r,f? &du©mb,fvdk&Smay;yg? wyfudkb,fvdka&TUay;ygvdkU udk,fhbufu ppfXmecsKyfudkwdwdusus nTefMum;tBuHOmPfay;EdkifwJU t&nftcsif;&Sd&r,f? yD;awmhwbufu
  39. 39. 39 wyfawG&JUtcsuftcsmawGudk rajrSmfvifhbJ wdkufyGJBuD;awGqifNyD; tNyD; owfatmif ajcrIef;wdkufcdkuf? aemuf'Dae&mu csufjcif;aysmufoGm;? tJ'DvdkwdkufEdkifrS wu,fhaysmufusm;As...tckawmhAsKdU...} ]cifAsm;tb? cifAsm;tb? cifAsm;tbBuD;tJ'Dvdkjzpfvdrfhr,f? tJ'DvdkjzpfzdkUtwGuf tcka&T0gjynfBuD;vGwfvyfa&;&w,fxm;tkH;? tJ'DvdkvGwfvyfa&;&NyD; tESpfESpfq,fMum wmawmif tJ'DwyfrsKd;rjzpfao;bl;? vufeufudkzefwD;ay;Edkifw,fxm; &du©maxmufyHUEdkif w,fxm;/ o,f,lydkUaqmif;a&; vdkovdkvkyfay;Edkifw,fxm;? usKyfwdkUtpdk;&&JU A[dkwyf rawmfXmecsKyfu tJ'gawG vkyfay;Edkifw,fxm;/ usKyfwdkUrjzpfEdkifao;bl;/ 'DrSmudk,fhvl tJ'DwyfrsKd;wckjzpfbdkUtwGuf wyfxJrSm OD;aqmif&rJUtMuyfu AdkvfrSL;txdppfAdkvf ppfom;awG jynfhpkHatmifarG;,lbdkUb,favmufcJcJ,Of;,Of; a&G;cs,f&w,fqdkwm cifAsm; em;rvnfbl;? olwkdUudk&bdkUtwGuf vlESpfq,fokH;q,favmufrSmrS wa,mufavmuf &atmif tawmfa&G;xkwf,l&wm? yD;awmhtJ'Da&G;xkwfxm;wJU vlawG&JUtoufuvJ q,fhav;ESpf q,fhig;ESpfavmuf&SdwJU vli,fuav;awG aemufyD;awmh olwkdUwyfxJrSm q,fESpfq,fhESpfESpfavmuf tjyif;avhusifhay;? uJ...tJ'Dvdkvkyf,l&wJU wyfzGJUBuD;rsKd;udk cifAsm;tbBuD; cifAsm;zGJUvdkU&vdrfhr,f....'DrSmudk,fhvl tJ'gu tckppfBuD;wGif;rSmrS pçay: vmwJUwyfrsKd;? urÇmay:rSmtckrS EdkifiHBuD;okH;EdkifiHavmuf prf;oyfzGJUxm;Edkifao;wm odvm;} &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifonf bmrQjyefrajymaomfvnf; rodromacgif;&rf;ae/ rsufESmüvnf; rauseyfaom toGiftjyifay:ae/ AdkvfrSL;xufrsufu &Jabmf iqdk;xufcdkifpdwfxdcdkufaeonfudkod/ uJygav-'gawGvGefcJUMuygNyD? 'DvdkvGefvmNyD;cJUwJUudpöxJrSm igrao&aumif;vm; qdkwJU &l;aMumifaMumiftawG;rsKd;vJ awG;raecsifprf;ygeJU? cifAsm;em;vnfxm;bkdUu ppfqdkwmao&atmifwdkufwmrIwfzl;? Edkif&atmifwdkufwm udk,fhudk,fudkaocsif&kHeJUawmh 'gavmuftyifyef;cHNyD; ppfwdkufaebdkUrvdkygbl;? 'Dtwdkif;owfaoypfvdkufvJ&w,f? 'gbJ? tJ'Dawmh cifAsm;&JU tawG;tac:awG[m eJeJaMumifaew,f aq;pm;tkH;/ okH;a,mufom;awGUonfESifh xkH;pHtwdkif; &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifESifh jiif;MuckefMu onf/ &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifudk rcHcsifatmifajymMuonf/ þodkUvQif awmfawmfESifhpum; aumif;odkUra&mufbJ qlqlnHjzpfaeMu/ xdkUaemufrS ,ckrdrdwdkUqufvufvkyfMu&rnfh vkyfief;taMumif;udk aqG;aEG;Mu onf/ vlxkBuD;w&yfvkH;u ppf'Pfudkqufvuf rcHEdkifMuawmhbJ NiD;aiGUvmMuNyDjzpfaom aMumifh vufeufudkifwdkufyGJudk acwå&yfqdkif;NyD;vQif a&T0gjynfwckvkH;udk jyefvnfpnf;&kH; &effvlxkudk tkH<uatmifvIHUaqmfí EdkifiHjcm;om;wdkUqufvuftkyfcsKyfrIudk rauseyfaMumif; qE´jyoydwfarSmuf&ef
  40. 40. 40 xdkokdUr&ygrS rdrdwkdUtajctae rdrdwkdUESifhwdkufyGJqif&rnfh wbuf u&efoltajctae? urÇmhtajctaewkdUudk csifhcsdefvsuf vufeufudkifpGJ&ef ponfwkdUudk wdkifyifMu/ xdkokdUwdkifyifMuNyD;aemuf xkH;pHtwdkif; azmufvmMujyef/ AdkvfrSL;ivkH;nDu vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;vQif bmvkyfrvJ[k&Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifudkar;/ ,ckwBudrfawmh &Jabmf iqdk;xufcdkifujyefajzonf/ a&T0gjynfBuD; vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;&if usaemft&yfom;vkyfr,f/ tckwm0ef&Sd&SdeJU £ajE´odu©mBuD;awGvkyfae&orQ tJ[dktcsdefrSm &dk;&dk;a&T0gjynft&yfom; atmufwef;pm; wa,mufvdk rl;r,f &rf;r,f vGwfvGwfvyfvyfaer,f? udk,fh0rf;pm udk&Smpm;r,f? usaemf 0goemygwJUxrif;iwfwwfwJU yef;csDa&;wJUtvkyfwkdU pma&;wJUtvkyfwkdU vkyfpm;r,f? cifAsm;wkdUeJUtaygif;toif;rvkyfawmhbl;}uJ/ tJ'gvlaygpDrHudef;ayghAs? cifAsm;ajymwJUtxJrSm....bmwdk;wufrIygovJ? wdkif;jynf twGuf vlrsKd;twGufbm&SdovJ? a[musKyfwkdUu opfyifpdkufr,f arG;jrLa&;vkyfr,f? teJqkH;Asm awmifay:om;awG? ukef;jrifhom;awG &Sd&mudkoGm;NyD; olwkdUudkzGHUNzdK;atmifvkyf r,f? aq;ukay;r,f...uJcifAsm;eJUruGmvm;/ ][kwfwmayghAsm uGmwmaygh...cifAsm;wkdUESpfa,mufu wu,fhvlawmfwu,fh rsKd;cspfyk*¾dKvfBuD;awGbJ? usaemfuolvdkigvdkvlrsKd;xJu vlwa,mufyJ/ usaemftJ'grsKd;awG vkyfay;Edkifvdrfhr,fvdkU b,fwkef;urS usaemfhudk,fusaemfrxifbl;/ ,ckwcsDürcHcsifatmif pçvmMuaom AdkvfrSL;ESpfa,mufwkdU rcHr&yfEdkifjzpfoGm;Mu / jyefacsí rNyD;EdkifbJ&SdoGm;Mu/ þvdkESifhvlcsif;uGJMujyefum rdrdwkdUwm0eftoD;oD;udk rdrdwdkUaqmif&GufMujyef/ pnf;&kH;Mu vIHUaqmfMu qE´jyMu &mZoHay;Mu ajcvGefvufvGefjzpfMuNyD;onfh aemuf a&T0gjynfBuD;udk wESpftwGif; vGwfvyfa&;ay;ygawmhrnf[k ab;MuyfeHMuyf jzpfae&aom ukvm;jzLwkdUu uwdpmcsKyf csKyfMu&onf/ okdUaomf ravQmhao;bJ aemufqkH;xdk;aom tjyif;qkH;vufoD;csuftjzpfESifh a&T0gjynfom;OD;aumufuspfudk ukvm; jzLwkdUu ajrmufay;Mujyef/ a&T0gwjynfvkH; ausmfMum;aom awmfvSefa&;acgif; aqmifwOD;wnfwefUudk,SOfNydKifwdkufcdkifapjyef/ þwGifab;&efxifjyif;aom a&T0gjynf vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJ rkefwdkif;BuD;twGif; ü a&T0gjynfacgif;aqmif....OD;wnfwefUonf a&T0gjynfom;OD;iaumufuspf vkyfBuH rIudkcHvdkuf&&Sm/ þowif;udkMum;odvdkufMu&aom a&T0gjynfol jynfom;wkdUonf [,f...[laom toHudkjyKvsuf aoG;&l;aoG;wef;wkdUjzifh tdrfa&SUvrf;rodkUajy;qif;Mu/ xdkUaemuf ]'dkU b,fES,fvkyfMurvJ}[laom rsufESmrsKd;jzifh tcsif;csif;pdwfxdcdkufpGmMunfhMu/ wdkufyGJütcsdefjynfhyg0ifaeMu&aom a&T0gjynfom;awmfvSefa&;orm;wkdUurl 0dkif;vmonfhrsufa&udk ajcmufcrf;apvsuf wdkufyGJudkt&Sdefra&SmUap&eftwGuf acgif;aqmifOD;wnfwefUae&mü odu©morm"d&Sdaom OD;uHay;udktpm;xdk;wifMu/ þwGifa&T0gjynfvli,fawmfvSefa&;orm;wkdUu raMureyfjzpfMuonf/
  41. 41. 41 a&T0gjynfvli,fawmfvSefa&;orm;wkdUonf vli,fNyDNyD uav;tawG;awG;í uav;tjrifESifhqkH;jzwf/ xdkvli,fwkdUonf NyD;vGefcJUaomppfBuD;twGif;u OD;uHay;udk vlaysmhvlnHUwa,muftjzpfESifhomjrifMu/ ,ckvdk wdkufyGJrsKd;ü OD;uHay;udkwifvdkufjcif; onf ppfbk&ifupm;&mü ewf&kyfw&kyfxyfwifvdkuf&ouJUokdU &Sdvdrhfrnf[kqdkMu/ vlBuD;ydkif;url ,ckvdkESvkH;&nfjzifh wdkufae&onfhtcsdefrsKd;ü OD;uHay;onf OD;wnf wefUxufydkí oifhavQmfao;onf[k ,kHMunfaeMu/ ,ckOD;uHay;jyKvkyf&rnfh tvkyfonf tqifoifhykHqGJNyD; ypönf;pkaqmif;NyD; jzwfawmufNyD; pa&G;xGif;NyD;&Sdaeaom t&m0w¦KwdkUudk ykHwGifMunfhvsuf olUae&mESifhol wyfqifí vGwfvyfa&; AdrmefBuD; jzpfay:vmatmif apckdif;ay;&kHrQjzpf/ xdkaqmif&GufcsufrsKd;twGuf pdwfjrefudk,fjref yk*¾dKvfwdkUxuf OD;uHay;uydkrdkoifhawmfonf[k qdkMu/ xdktqdkudk vli,fydkif;trsm;pku vkH;0rBudKuf? a&T0gjynfvli,fydkif;onf rdrdwkdU ppfbk&ifckHü t&kyfwck jyefwif&rnfhtwGuf ewf&kyfxuf ppfuJ&kyfudkom wifvdkMu/ xdkolwkdUtxJwGif &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifvnf;yg/ tmabmftwdkif;azmfjy&aomf... ]'D ixpfeJUawmh &SifjzpfbdkU cJ,Of;vScsnf...wJU....} AdkvfrSL;xufrsufu &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifudk axmufcHNyD; AdkvfrSL;ivkH;nDurl &Jabmf iqdk;xufcdkifwkdUESifhrwlay/ odkUaomf AdkvfrSL;ivkH;nD awG;xifcsufu ydkrSef/ &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifwkdUonf b,fvdkrSajrSmfvifh,kHMunfrIr&SdbJ wu,fvGwfvyfa&;&Muawmhrnf[kodvmMu/ a&T0gjynfBuD;udk a&T0gjynfom;rsm;u vGJajymif;,lí vGwfvyfaoma&T0gjynftjzpf urÇmodkU ausnmrnfhtcsdefyif owif;pmxJüygvm/ &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifonf &ifwckHckHjzifhxdkowif;udkbwfae/ owif;pmbwfí rqkH;rDüyif ppfAdkvfrSL;BuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkif rdwfaqGESpfa,mufwkdU a&mufvm/ olwkdUonfwa,mufESifhwa,muf NAKH;ueJpum;rajymEdkifMubJ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm uJGuGmaeMuaom cspfoltcsif;csif; rajrSmfvifhbJawGUvdkufMu&bdodkU wa,mufrsufESm wa,mufMunfhvsuf ai;pdkufaeMu/ olwkdUrsufESmonf NyKH;aeMu/ olwkdUrsufvkH; onf ta&mifawmufvsuf rsuf&nfrsm;&pf0JaeMu/ olwkdU&ifwGif;ü vIyf&Sm;aeMu/ twefMumatmif þodkUMuufaoaoovdk &SdMu&mrS &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifu a&S;OD; pGmvIyf&Sm;vdkuf/ ]vmAsm txJ0ifxdkifMuAsm? xrif;Murf;eJUyJjyKwfvJ&Sdw,f tqifoifhbJ? a[h vbuf&nfMurf;,lcJUygawmh...} &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifu wbufodkUvSnfhí vSrf;atmfvdkuf/ 0ifvmaom AdkvfrSL; xufrsufwkdUu rxdkifMu? ae&mrSra&GUMu/
  42. 42. 42 ]usKyfwdkUcifAsm;vmac:wm um;ygvmw,f vkyfAsm tusø0wf} &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifonf rnfodkUrQ ar;jref;ppfaq;raebJ &Syftusø0wf&i;fqif; vdkufoGm;/ okH;a,mufom;pum;wcGef;rQ rajymMubJ a&T0gjynf &efEdkifaejynfawmf BuD;rS vrf;BuD;vrf;i,f toG,foG,fwkdUudk [dk0if'DxGuf vrf;aphavmufatmif vSnfhywf armif;/ vrf;wavQmufvkH; udk,fhtawG;ESifhudk,f NidrfoufaeMu/ okH;a,mufom;vkH;wkdU &ifonf azmfrjyEdkifonfh vIyf&Sm;rIrsKd;jzifh vIyf&Sm;aeMu/ um;onf&efEdkifaejynfawmf qdyfurf;wae&müxdk;qdkuf&yf/ okH;a,muf om;vkH;um;xJrS a&SUqifhaemufqifhxGufvm Mu/ &efEdkifaejynfawmfjrpfonf rD;cdk;rsm; jrLrsm;jzifh &Da0ae/ jrpfwGif;rSavonf urf;qDodkUwjzL;jzL;wdkufcwf/ ]usaemfwkdU a&T0gjynfBuD;vGwfvyfNyDaemf....} &Jabmfiqdk;xufckdifu vIyf&Sm;aomtoHjzifh csKyfcsKyfwD;wD;ajymvdkuf/ AdkvfrSL; xufrsufu ]av;&ufaeUreufav;em&DavmufrSyg}[k 0ifaxmuf/ AdkvfrSL;ivkH;nDu bmrQrajymbJ &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifESifhAdkvfrSL;xufrsufwdkU rsufESmudkMunfhíae/ okH;a,mufom;wkdU rsufvkH;ü tNyKH;ESifhtwl rsuf&nfrsm;&pf0JaeMu/ 0rf;omMunfEl;rI onf&ifxJü aqGUaqGUckHatmifvIyf&Sm;aeMu/ ]at;Asm usaemfwkdUa&T0gjynfom;awGtaeeJU wm0efausMuNyD 'ku©at;oGm;yD.....} &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifrsufvkH;xJrS rsuf&nfaygufawGvdrfhusvm/ toHuvnf;qdkU epfovdk0ifae/ iqdk;xufcdkifonf rsuf&nfudkokwfvdkufNyD;aemufNyKH;/ ]usaemfvJ aemufqdk,if usaemfr,m;orD;om;pkHeJUvGwfvGwfvyfvyfaeEdkifNyD; bmwm0efrSr&Sdawmhbl;} AdkvfrSL;ESpfa,mufu &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifudk NyKH;íMunhfMu&if; rsuf&nfokwfvdkuf Mu/ xdkUaemufwa,mufujrpfbufodkU vufnTefvdkufonf/ ][dk oabFmBuD;eJUjyefrSmbJ? usKyfwkdUa&T0gjynfrSm vmpdkufxm;wJU olwkdUtvHudk tJ'D oabFmBuD;eJU olwdkUwdkif;jynfudk olwkdUjyef,loGm;MurSmbJ....} okH;a,mufom;wkdU oabFmBuD;udk ai;armNidrfoufaeMu/ wufopfpaevkvif onf xdkolwkdUMunfhaeqJüyif jrLrIHa0ha0htay:rS oabFmBuD;udk a&T&nfzsef;ay;/ zdwfusoGm;aom a&T&onf oabFmBuD;ab;jrpfxJodkU usa&mufcg wjzwfjzwf vIyf&Sm;aeMuonfh vIdif;MuufcGyfuav;rsm;udk pdefem;uGyfay;xm;vdkuf/ xdkMunfarmbG,ftvSrS okH;a,mufvkH;owd&vmonfESifh yifhoufBuD;rsm; NydKifwl rIwfxkwfvdkufMu/ avuav;wjzL;jzL;wGif uRef;urf;ezl;ü touf&SL&onfyif ,ckrS t&omwrsKd;csnf;vdkjzpfae/
  43. 43. 43 'DuaeUreufcifAsm;wkdUudk usaemfwckckauR;rvdkU? 'gaMumifhwrifvdkufac:wm? [dka&mufrS pm;&if;aomuf&if; pum;ajymMuaygh/ AdkvfrSL;ivkH;nDu um;&Sd&modkUvufjyvdkuf/ xdkUaemuf crf;em;aom qdkifwck twGif;odUa&mufMuonf/ vlawGMunfh&onfrSm tm;vkH;NyKH;&TifopfvGifaeMu/ aps;a&mif;olwkdUudkMunfh& onfrSmvnf; aysmfp&mBuD;jzpfae/ pm;bG,faomufbG,fwdkUuvnf; t&om&SdvSygbd awmif;/ rdrdudk,fü0wfxm;onfht0wfyifvQif ,aeUrSydkíoufoufomom acsmifacsmif csdcsd &SdaeMu/ vlcsif;awGUwdkif; wa,mufESifhwa,muf rcHcsifatmifajymavh pavh&SdMu aom xdkokH;a,mufwkdUonf xdkaeUtbdkU wOD;ESifhwOD; &efpbdkUyifowdr&Muawmh/ okH;a,mufvkH; 0rf;ajrmufrIjzifh rl;,pfaeMu/ NrdKUbk&m;yGJodkU awm&GmrS wufvmonfh olrsm;yrm xdkaeUwaeUvkH;tcsdefukefrS tdrfjyefa&mufMu/ &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifonf yifhoufudk rIwfxkwf/ xdkUaemuf rdrdwa,mufwnf; NyKH;aerdonfudkowd&/ vGefcJUonfhtwdwfonf &Jabmfiqdk;xufcdkifudk cPwmNyKH;ap Edkif/ rdrdwdkUonf a&T0gjynfBuD;udk trsm;enf;wl udk,fwdkifwdkufcdkufcJU,kHomru a&T0g jynfBuD; vGwfvyfawmhrnf[kod&aomtcg rsuf&nfvnfatmif pdwfvIyf&Sm;0rf;omcJUbl; / &ifüxdwfxdwfzdkvsuf wrsKd;wzkHcsnf;jzpfcJUbl;yg/ ,ckrdrdawGUBuKHaeMu&aom a&T0gjynfoljynfom;wkdUum;... 5/ aeUq,fem&DcefU&SdavNyD/ iqdk;xufcdkifonf yef;csDq&m OD;ixifjrifh tdrfcef;usOf;uav;odkU eHeuf7- em&D cGJcefUuwnf;u a&muf&Sdpum;ajymae&m ,cktxd tjrifrjywfMuao;/ trSefrSm iqdk;xufcdkifu em;axmiform; yef;csDq&m OD;ixifjrifhu tajymorm;? ,cktcsdefü iqdk;xufcdkifonfeHeufpm eHeuf? npmn &SmazGpm;aomufae&/ rdrdwwfajrmufaomyef;csD'DZdkif;a&;qGJ&onfhtvkyfrsKd;udk &wvSnfh? r&wvSnfh&SmazGvkyf udkif/ rmeBuD;oljzpfapumrl tcgaygif;rsm;pGm rdrdESifhwdkufcJUcdkufcJUbl;aom&Jabmf &Jbuf wkdU twif;tMuyfay;urf;axmufyHUrIudk vufcHvdkuf&onfhtBudrfrsm;&Sd/ pifppfiqdk;xufcdkifonf tcgaygif;rsm;pGm xrif;&ufcsef a&&ufrSefESifh aecJUonf csnf;jzpf/ rdrdomvQifr[kwfrdrdr,m; tdkxufvSudkvnf; þtwdkif;aeap/ orD;i,f tdkjzLvGudkvnf; þtwdkif;iwfap/
  44. 44. 44 iqdk;xufcdkifwdkUtdrfodkU vma&mufvnfywfMuaom todrdwfaqGwdkUonf iqdk;xufcdkif tajctaeudk tuJcwfrdMuaomtcg a&SUOD;pGmiqdk;xufcdkifudk tvkyfwckvkyf&ef wdkufwGef;Mu/ tvkyfrvkyfavaumif;vm;[k tjypfwifMu/ usaemf tvkyfvkyfaewmbJrIwfvm;? usaemfvkyfwwfwJUtvkyfeJU usaemfxrif; pm;bdkUtwGuf aeUwdkif;&SmaewmbJ? 'ghxufb,fheJUvkyf&tkH;rwkH;/ iqdk;xufcdkifaygif;a[mif; oif;a[mif;rdwfaqGwdkUu iqdk;xufcdkifudk tvGef xlaomxdkif;aom vltçvltewa,muftaejzifh MunfhMu/ tawmfnHUaomvl wa,muf[k rSwfcsufcsMu/ ]cifAsm;awmfawmfa&SmfwJUvlbJ? cifAsm;wkdUvufeufudkifwdkufcdkufaeMuwkH;u xrif; uav;vmydkU? awmufwluav;eJUwzufurf;ydkUay;/ vrf;uav;jyay;vkyfcJUbl;wJUolawG awmif tckppfAdkvfBuD;awGjzpfEdkifNyD; cifAsm;bmrS rjzpfEdkifwmawmh rvkyfvdkUayghAs/ uJygAsm cifAsm;tJ'gawG bmvdkUrvkyfwmvJ... iqdk;xufckdifonf þvdktajymrsKd;cHvdkuf&wdkif; &l;oGm;rwwfa'gowBuD;jzpf/ ajymvmoltm; &dkufawmhESufawmhrnfh rsufvkH;jzifhMunfhcg yufyufpufpuf armif;vTwf wwf/ xdktcg ajymrdolwkdUu rnfodkUrQ rpOf;pm;wwfonfhrsufESmrsKd;jzifh jyL;aMumifpGm Munfhvsuf ta0;odkU xGufcGmoGm;&onfcsnf;jzpf/ iqdk;xufcdkifomvQif þodkUr[kwf iqdk;xufcdkiforD;i,f tdkjzLvGçuvnf; þenf;ESifESifjzpf/ iqdk;xufcdkifwkdUtajctaeudk odaom&Jabmf&JbufwkdUu iqdk;xufcdkifudk ay;urf;axmufyHUvQif vufrcHrnfpdk;aomaMumifh tdrfüokH;avmufpGJavmufonfh aiGwkdU udk uav;i,ftm;rkefUbdk;ay;onfyrm uav;i,fvufxJodkUxnfhay;/ þokdUay;rdonfESifh uav;i,fonf a'gowBuD;atmf[pf/ aMumuf&GHUbG,fwck udk vufxJodkUxnfhvdkufonfES,f xdwfvefUwMum;vTifhypfwwf/ rdcif&Sd&modkU ajy;0yf ykef;uyfaewwf/ tcsKdUtwGif;odjzpfMuaom &Jabmf&JbufwkdUurl iqdk;xufcdkiftdrfodkU acwå wnf;cdkouJUodkU a&mufvmwwf/ xdkUaemufrdrdtwGuf iqdk;xufcdkifwkdUtm; 'ku©ray; vdk[kqdkum qefqDNiKyfMuuftef ponfwkdUudk wvpmESpfvpmcefU0,fvmwwf/ xdkUaemuf okH;av;&ufcefU twlaexdkifpm;aomufNyD;vQif taMumif;wpkHwckjy vsuf ta&;BuD;av[efjzifh jyefoGm;wwf/ þodkUjzifh iqdk;xufcdkifonf tjcm;a&T0gjynfom;rsm;ESifh rwlaomtawG;tac: taetxdkifwdkUjzifh qif;&JNidKjiifpGmae/ ,aeUeHeufvnf; iqdk;xufcdkifonf rdrd&ayguf&vrf;&Sdonfh tvkyfXmersm;odkU aiGaus;&Sm&ef xGufcJU/
  45. 45. 45 tdrfü iqdk;xufcdkifjyefrS xrif;csuf&rnfjzpfonf/ aeom;usvsuf&Sdaom iqdk; xufcdkifr,m; ]tdkxufvS}onf iqdk;xufcdkifjyefcsdefü rjyefvQif rnfonfhtcgrQ arQmfavhr&Sd taMumif;rnDnGwfí jyefrvmjcif;jzpfonf[kod/ xdktcg uav;i,fESifhtwl a&aEG;BudKaomufjcif;? uav;i,fqmavmifonfudk arhaysmufap&ef twlupm;jcif;? ykHajymjyjcif;paomenf;trsKd;rsKd;jyKvkyfí aemufqkH;wGif uav;i,ftm;tdyfaeap/ xrif;qmvQif rsm;rsm;tdyfay;u xrif;qmrSef;rod[lao oifcef;pmudk udk,f awGUodae/ qefaygaoma&T0gjynfü ppfBuD;tNyD;vGwfvyfa&;t&wGif iqdk;xufcdkifwkdU vifr,m;om;orD;pkonf þtwdkif; xrif;r0aomolrsm;jzpfaeMu/ ,ckvnf; eHeufuwnf;uxGufvmaom iqdk;xufcdkifonf eHeufpmbdk;&Edkif&ef twGuf &SmazGír&aomtcg rdrdbmvkyf&ygrnfenf;[k acgif;ylatmifpOf;pm;/ rnfodkUrQ &&m&vrf;rjrifaomtcg xdktjzpfqdk;udkarhazsmuf&ef yef;csDq&mOD;ixifjrifhtdrf odkU0ifí pum;ajym/ OD;ixifjrifhajymjyaom yef;csDESifhywfoufonfh ynm&yfrsm; taMumif;udk em;axmif/ þokdUem;axmifaejcif;jzifh iqdk;xufcdkiftbdkU rdrdvkyfudkifpm;aomufae&aom yef;csDynm&yftwGuf todw&m;vnf;wkd;/ tdrfüusef&pfMuaom r,m; tdkxufvSESifh orD;wdkU qmqmavmifavmif apmifharQmfaeMurnfh taMumif;udkvnf;awG;awm&ef tcsdef r&aomaMumifh pdwfcsrf;om/ iqdk;xufcdkifonfb,furS &ayguf&vrf;rjrifwdkif; þvdk tcsdefjzKef;wwf/ þodkUtcsdefjzKef;NyD;aemuf vla&mpdwfygtem;&NyD;aomtcg iqdk;xufcdkifonf aemufwpfBudrf tBuHtpnftopfxkwfí xGufjyef/ &SmazGjyef/ tenf;qkH; tjcm; aomyef;csDjzifh toufarG;0rf;aMumif;jyKonfh qdkifrsm;odkUvSnfhvnfvsuf aeUpm;jzpfap ykwfjywfjzpfap tvkyfvkyf/ xdkodkUtvkyfvkyfojzifh&vmaom vkyfconfrvkHravmuf&Sdaeonfhtcg rdrdbmrQ rpm;bJ r,m;ESifhorD;pm;aomuf&ef xrif;ausmfxkyfponfwdkUudk 0,fvmauR;/ rdrdrlum; qmojzifhpm;aumufcJUonf/ odkUr[kwftjcm;olu auR;arG;aomaMumifh pm;vmcJU&onf ponfjzifh ajymvsuf tiwfcHaewwf/ þodkUjyKzefrsm;aomtcg iqdk;xufcdkifr,m;u rdrdvif iqdk;xufcdkifonf yef;csD q&m OD;ixifjrifhwkdUtdrfü tcsdefjzKef;wwfaMumif;udkvnf;od/ tcgaygif;rsm;pGm tiwf cHaewwfaMumif;udkvnf;od/ xdkUaMumifhrdrdudk,fwdkifwbufwvrf;rS ta&mif;t0,f jyKvkyf&ef aiGaMu;pkaqmif;/ þodkUaiGaMu;t&if;tESD;pkaqmif;wdkif; tdkxufvSESfih iqdk;xufcdkifwkdUpum;rsm;& onfcsnf;jzpf/ iqdk;xufcdkifum; t&if;tESD;pkaqmif;jcif;udkrBudKuf/
  46. 46. 46 iqdk;xufcdkifrBudKufonfhtwdkif; tdkxufvStbdkUvnf; t&if;tESD;pkaqmif;í& onfr&Sd? taMumif;rlt&if;jyKvkyf&ef rvkHavmufrSDyif 0ifaiGr&SdonfhaeU&ufwkdUESifh BuKHBudKufcg okH;pJGypfvdkuf&onfcsnf;jzpf/ ,aeUtbdkUum; xdkodkUokHpJG&efyifr&Sdawmhay/ iqdk;xufcdkifonf yef;csDq&mOD;ixifjrifh pum;pjywfoGm;onfESifh rdrdxGufoGm; &ef oifhavQmfavNyDvm;[k cg;qefUvdkuf/ xdktwGif; tdrfa&SUü um;wpD; qdkufvmvsuf um;ay:rS r,m;tdkxufvS qif;vm/ iqdk;xufckdifwdkUvufeufudkif vSnfhvnfusufpm;cJUaome,frSjzpfvsuf iqdk;xufcdkifudk tvGefawGUvdkonfqdkaom olu ,ckvdkuf&Smay;yg&ef ajymaeojzifh vdkuf&Smay;onf[kajym/ xdkpOf um;ay:rSqif;vmolESpfa,mufudk awGU&/ wa,mufum; iqdk;xufcdkif wkdUvlpkudk tNrJwef; auR;arG;jyKpkcJUbl;onfh apwem&Sif tzGm;BuD;jzpf/ wa,mufum; iqdk;xufcdkifppf&Jabmfa[mif; aus;&Gmwm0efcH wOD;jzpf/ oref;wufaeaom ajcaxmufjzifh tvGefvrf;oGm;jrefvsuf uRJyckH;xaomvuf BuD;jzifh tvGefavSavSmfaumif;oljzpfaom aus;&Gmwm0efcH jynfolUppf&JabmfBuD;onf ,ckarmfawmfum;udk udk,fwdkifarmif;ívm/ ][m;...tmp&d usaemfwkdUjzifh awGUrSawGUyghrvm;vdkU} vlykHygwaoG;warG; jzpfvmaom &JabmfBuD;onf pum;tokH;tEIH;ygwrsKd;wrnf jzpfvm/ iqdk;xufcdkifonf xdkvlBuD;*sydk;qefqef awmom;vlv,fqefqef ajymvdkfuf aomtokH;tEIef;udkodyfrBudKufvS/ odkUaomf tzGm;BuD; ,ciftcsKd;tpm;twdkif; aysmhnufNyKH;csKdaom rsufESmudk jrif&onfhtwGufabmufajymrnfh pum;vkH;rsm; wefU&yfoGm;/ tzGm;BuD;onf iqdk; xufcdkifteD;odkUa&mufvm/ ]igharmif eJeJydefoGm;w,faemf vluawmht&ifykHyef;rysufbl; trjzifhtJ'DvdkawGU& wm 0rf;omvdkufwm.... tzGm;BuD;onf rnfonfh&Jabmfudkrqdk tvGefMuifem,k,aomavoHjzifh ,cifuwnf;u þtwdkif;ajymwwf/ xrif;yGJa&SUa&muf auR;arG;wwf/ &Jabmf &Jbufrsm;tay:ü aqGrsKd;&if;csmuJUodkU tvGefapwemo'¨gw&m;&Sdaom tzGm;BuD;jzpf/ ,ck &Jabmf&Jbufa[mif;rsm;u tvGefawGUcsif&SmMuojzifh tdrfrSapmifhaeMuonf [k tzGm;BuD;uqdk/ iqdk;xufcdkiftdrfokdUjyefa&mufaomtcg tzGm;BuD;ajymonfhtwdkif; apmifhaeMuonfh &Jabmf&JbufawGudk tdrfuav;ESifhwvkH;tjynfhawGU/ awmom; v,form;rsm;awmNrdKUuav;ay:rS ausmif;om;rsm; aps;o,frsm;ponfwkdUjzpfMu/ odkUaomf xdkolwkdUonf ,cifykH[efrsKd; ,cif0wfpm;qif,ifykHrsKd; r&SdMuawmh/

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