WBS Basic Concepts of Bar Chart Scheduling &Network Use of MicrosoftPERT & Project software CPMS-Curve
VARIOUS STAGES OF PROJECT PAVE A PATH FOR SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION STATUS UPDATING THROUGH NETWORK AND GIVING EARLY WARNINGS DATA COLLECTION PLANNING & SCHEDULINGTHINKING
Project :A project is the means of converting a vision, a dream or aneed to reality.A Project is a set of activities which are networked in anorder and aimed at achieving the defined goals for whichthe project is undertaken. Upon completion of all theactivities, the goals of the project will be achieved.Management : Management is the technique ofunderstanding the problems, needs and controlling the useof Resources, Cost, Time, Scope and Quality.Project Management : It is an art of controlling the cost,time, manpower and hardware & software resourcesinvolved in the project.“Completion of Project on time within Budget withoutcomprising Quality”
Project Management PlanAll the detailed planning work done for differentaspects of the project is integrated into one single planknown as the Project Management Plan.This plan is used to control the project and acts as thebaseline plan for the project. Once the plan is finalisedby the project manager and his team it should beapproved by the projects sponsor.The Project Management Plan establishes the projects:Why; What; Who; When; How and How much
The „Why‟ is from the business case.„Why‟ and „What‟ are management statement of the successcriteria and should be agreed with the project sponsor.The Who shows – who will do the work and stakeholderawareness of project.The „When‟ deals with the schedules and phasing for theproject.The „How‟ which is the project manager vision to implementproject from beginning to end – IT requirements, the tools andtechniques to be used, validation of the project deliverables,technical issues, risk management, resources, procurement,quality needs etc.The „How Much‟ covers the costs and budgets of the project.
STAGES PLANNING Most important phase of the project management.SCHEDULING Planning is an art and science of converting a set of objectives toCONTROLLING realization through a series of steps executed in an organized and CLOSING predicted way so that there will be less requirement of changes in the plan later on. The old saying “Plan the work, Work the plan”
STAGES PLANNING Scheduling Phase is the process of formalizing the planned activities, SCHEDULING assigning the durations, resources and sequence of occurrence in consultation with the teamCONTROLLING members. CLOSING Planning and Scheduling phases are under taken before the actual project starts.
STAGES PLANNING Controlling phase is undertaken during the actual project implementation.SCHEDULING Project controlling is a mechanism established to determine deviations from the project base schedule, to re-plan & rescheduleCONTROLLING during implementation to compensate the deviations on the basis of commissioning minima, flow of resources like CLOSING finance, manpower, equipment & application techniques.
STAGES PLANNING Closing phase is the last phase of the project which brings close out of the complete project. Whatever the projectSCHEDULING requirements are pre-defined, during this phase the total delivery is made and it is accepted by the customer.CONTROLLING Maximum conflicts can arise in the project during this phase between those who have CLOSING worked to deliver the outcome (contractor) and those who are accepting the results of the work (customer).
WBS• For effectively plan and manage the work, the entire scope of the total project is reviewed and decomposed or broken down into discrete tasks giving rise to what is known as the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).• WBS is a task oriented family tree, which forms the foundation tool or backbone for planning and controlling the entire project. The WBS provides a graphical representation of all the project activities.• The lowest level of the WBS is the work package which is a group of activities. At the work package level, it should be possible to assign the work, estimate its duration and cost and also keep a track of the projects progress.
WBSWBS Levels:Level 1 (L1) - The highest or the top-most level of the WBS isgenerally referred to as Level 1 of the WBS. This will be a single taskwhich is the Project or Project Name.Level 2 (L2)- This can be based on the project phase, the productof the project or the organizational departments.If level 2 is based on Project, Tasks are Engineering, Manufacturing,Construction and Testing & Commissioning.Parent-child relationshipEach level of the WBS has a parent-child relationship. The parenttask in the WBS will finish only after all its children tasks arecomplete.
WBS TYPICAL WBS OF A PROJECT OVERALL PROJECTENGINEERING PROCUREMENT CONSTRUCTION SITE MOBILISATION PLACEMENT OFBASIC ENGINEERING ORDER ON VENDORS CIVIL WORK DETAILED ENGINEERING MANUFACTURING & Civil work for Civil work for DELIVERY Piling work Main equipment Aux. Facilities PROJECT ENGINERING STRUCTURAL STEEL WORK EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION PIPING INSTALLATION ELEC. INSTALLATION EQUIPMENT RECEIVED AT SITE INSTRUMEN. INSTALLATION ( …%) INSULATION & PAINTING COLD COMMISSIONING HOT COMMISSIONING
Bar Chart Bar Chart• Representation It is the graphical representation of the various activities with respect to its time-bound for completion for any project.• It consists of two (2) coordinates. Ordinate(X-axis) represents the duration of time required for completion of activities. Abscissa(Y-axis) represents the jobs to be performed. The length of the bar shows the time required by the activity for its completion.
Typical Bar Bar ChartSl. Chart Duration in Months ActivitiesNo. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 121. AWARD OF CONTRACT2. SURVEY WORK3. EXCAVATION4. FOUNDATION & WALLS5. SLAB CASTING6. BRICK WORK7. PLUMBING & ELECTRICAL WORK8. FINISHING WORK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Duration in Months Y X
NetworkIn today’s globalized market place, to stay ahead of all meansfacing tremendous pressure.“Time is crucial, Time is money”.An excellent but delayed project means cost overruns.In this scenario proper scheduling of the project is even moreof a concern than ever before in managing the project.Many of us have heard of the term networks in relationto projects.What is the project network? What role does it play inmanaging the project?A project network can be described as:A set of activities or the schedule of all the activities required tocomplete the aims and goals of the project in stipulated time.A graphical or a schematic display that shows the logicalrelationships and sequence of all the activities that arerequired to be done in the project in the shortest possible timeframe.
NetworkWhat is an Activity ?Differences one can attribute to distinguish a living being from anon-living being can perhaps lie in the word activity.From being in state A to go to state B, we would need some kindof force or energy to move. An activity requires physical or mentalenergy.An activity in a project is the:-•Lowest level of effort consuming time and resources.•Has a definable start and finish.•Performs a part of the total work package .In other words, to achieve work in the project it would requireperformance of one or many activities.
NetworkDuration of an activity: The amount of time needed to complete an activity. The original duration is the planned estimate, and the remaining duration is the number of work periods to finish activity.Zero date : It is the go-ahead date of a project or the date of start of a project.Milestone : Milestones add significant value to project scheduling which can only be a Start type or Finish type & doesnt have any duration.Constraint : A Scheduling restriction you impose on the Start or Finish of an activity. Constraints are used to reflect real Project requirement for example all outdoor activities must be completed before the onset of monsoon etc.
Logical relationships NetworkLet us examine two activities A and B:A is the independent activity and B is the dependent activity.This means that A is the preceding activity and B is the succeedingactivity.How many different types of logical combinations can there bebetween the two activities A and B?Activity A can have started or have finished. Based on these 2possible combinations of activity A, activity B can either start orfinish as well.This means that there can be 4 possible combinations of activity Bwhich is dependent on activity A.These 4 logical combinations are shown below:A can finish and B can start thereafter (Finish to Start).A can start and B can start thereafter (Start to Start).A can start and B can finish thereafter (Start to Finish).A can finish and B can finish thereafter (Finish to Finish).
NetworkLogical relationshipsFinish to Start Dependency (F-S)The independent activity A must finish before B can start. The arrow shows the from to relationship.Generally in a project about 70 to 80% of dependency relationship is of finish-start type.Start to Start Dependency (S-S)The independent activity A must start before activity B can start. The arrowshows the from to relationship.The from activity must start before the to activity can start
Logical relationships NetworkStart to Finish Dependency (S-F)A must start before B can finish.The arrow shows the from to relationship.The from activity must start before the to activity can finishFinish-to-Finish Dependency (F-F)A has to be completed before B can finish.The arrow shows the from to relationship.the from activity must finish before the to activity can finish
NetworkLead & Lag Lead and lag are activity relationships that are used as special modifiers to advance or delay the succeeding activity. Lead: This is a modification of a logical relationship between two activities, which allows an acceleration of the successor activity. For example, in a Finish to Start dependency, with a 14 days lead, the successor activity can start 14 days before the predecessor activity has finished. A lead means that the succeeding activity will start earlier than it otherwise would have. Lag: A modification of a logical relationship, which delays the successor activity. For example, in a Finish to Start dependency, with a 14 days lag, the successor activity cannot start until 14 days after the predecessor has finished. A lag means that the succeeding activity will start later than it otherwise would have.
NetworkForward Pass The Calculation of Early dates for a project. The Forward Pass starts from the beginning of the Project and continues to the end to calculate the Earliest Start and Finish dates for each activity.EARLY START (ES) The date a project is scheduled to start. EARLY FINISH (EF) The date a project is scheduled to start.
NetworkBackward Pass The Calculation of Late dates of activities in a network. The calculation begins with the latest Early finish date of the last activity or the imposed Project finish date, if one exists, and works backwards to the first activity in the project.LATE START (LS) The latest start date an activity can start without delaying the finish date of a projectLATE FINISH (LF) The latest finish date an activity can finish without delaying the completion of the project.
NetworkFLOAT :This is the amount of time that an activity may be delayed from itsearly start without delaying the project finish date. Float is a mathematical calculation and can change as theproject progresses and these changes are incorporated in theproject plan.Float is the measure of the sluggishness in starting an activity.TOTAL FLOAT (TF)The duration of time that an activity can be delayed or extendedwithout delaying the project completion date. TF = LS - ES = LF - EF, If TF = 0, then activity is on critical path.FREE FLOAT (FF) It is the length of time that can delay the Early Start of an activity without delaying the early start of a Successor activity. It is never less than zero.
NetworkShown above is a Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) network of 8activities - A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. The duration of each activity is shownin the node.As we go from left to right in the forward pass, let us calculate the ES andEF of these 8 activities.
Network Activity AA is the first activity of the network and its duration is 1 week.The earliest time when activity A can begin is at week 0 (zero).Generally 0 is taken as the default start time instead of 1. In effect A will start on day1 of week 1.The earliest finish time (EF) = Early Start of the activity + Duration of the activityEF = 0+1 = 1 Activity B
NetworkBar Charts• ADVANTAGES Easy to prepare Eye catching Good for early planning Good for small scale projects• LIMITATIONS Do not show relationships between activities and hence do not illustrate project network. Do not assist data preparation and analysis. Do not show effects of changes or delays.
NetworkComparison between Bar-charts & Network • Activities pertaining to a network are inter-related with sequence, whereas bar-chart fails to indicate clearly the interdependencies among the various activities. • Network can highlight the critical activities along the critical path, whereas bar-chart cannot do the same. • Better & detailed planning is possible with the help of network. • Float ( Slack time ) in each activity can be achieved from network analysis, which in turn helps in judging the criticality of the activities. This type of control measure is not possible in a bar-chart.
PERTProgram Evaluation and Review Technique The consultants, Booz-Allen & Hamilton developed the concept of PERT while supporting the Polaris program. They came out with the concept of using a 3 time weighted estimate to determine the duration of an activity instead of the single time estimates that was in use. This concept was especially useful for those activities where uncertainties were of a high degree. The 3 time estimates used in Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) system considers the following three aspects: Optimistic (O) duration estimate for completing an activity Most Likely (ML) duration estimate for completing an activity Pessimistic (P) duration estimate to complete an activity.
PERTEstimated Duration Time Estimate for an activity is:[1 x Optimistic duration estimate + 4 x Most Likely duration estimate +1 x Pessimistic duration estimate] / by 6Estimated Duration of an activity = [Optimistic + 4 x Most Likely +Pessimistic] / 6My Optimistic time for commuting is 30 minutes; Most Likely time forcommuting is 40 minutes; Pessimistically speaking, it may take upto 70minutes in the worst scenario of traffic jams etc.Using the 3 time estimates of PERT method, the Estimated time for thisactivity is:[30 minutes + (4 x 40 minutes) + 70 minutes] / 6 which come to 43.3minutes.
CPMCritical path• The critical path is the longest path in the network and shows the earliest date by which the project can be completed. There can be more than 1 critical path in the project .• An activity is critical if the total float is equal to zero.• Any delay in start or completion of the critical path activities delays the overall project completion.To arrive at the projects critical path we must have a list of:• All the activities required to complete the project• The time duration of each activity• The dependencies between these activities
Critical path CPMLet us look at the example we have covered earlier of a projectnetwork comprising of 8 activities from A to H. The critical Path inthis example had 4 activities A, E, G and H.The total project duration as per our network calculations came to20 weeks
S-Curve A Sample Monthly Progress Report Progress reporting is done through different formats and curves.31
S-CurveWhat is “S Curve”S- Curve is the graphic display of cumulative progressplotted against time.Ideal S - Curve is a sinusoidal curve based on thefollowing formulae: Y = [1 - sin(x/xn*180 + 90 ) *50] Y – Percent progress x – Period at which s-curve value required xn – Total periodThe name is derived from the S like nature of the curve.
S-Curve Progress distribution curve Peak Period Cumulative progress Curve Plotted in a different scaleProgress Starting Period Finishing Period Time It is an ideal distribution curve. Depending upon the various guiding factors it may vary.
S-CurveNote :Previous distribution is an idealone. Depending on nature andlocation of job this distributionmay vary. The experience ofconcerned project manager willplay a vital role in deciding theprojected distribution of progressof any activity during its span ofimplementation.
• MSP is a Project Management (PM)tool .• Gantt Chart is famous Toolbar in MSP.• Left side of Gantt Chart window shows the Activities with relations•Right side of Gantt Chart shows the timescale & Bars with relationships.Let us consider an example :Construction of House using MSP Software