Fire prevention planning


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This is a presentation compiled using inputs from the Internet. This presentation aims at understanding fire, and preventing it.

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Fire prevention planning

  1. 1. Fire Prevention Planning Deltran
  2. 2. HOW FIRES START… • Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation or burning of fuel. It needs three elements to occur. -Fuel: Fuel can be any combustible material- solid, liquid or gas. Most solids and liquids become a vapor or gas before they will burn. -Oxygen: The air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen. Fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16% percent oxygen. -Heat: Heat is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur.
  3. 3. Chemistry of Fire Fire Tetrahedron In order for fire to occur four things must be present, Oxygen, Fuel, Heat, and a Chemical Chain Reaction. This is represented by the Fire Tetrahedron. When any of the four items are removed, the fire will go out. Fire extinguishers function by removing one of the four components of the Fire Tetrahedron. 3
  4. 4. •The following is a brief description of each element and their interaction: •Fuel - May be any combustible material. Can be a solid, liquid, or gas. Typically solids and liquids must be heated to the point where they are converted into a vapor or gas before they will burn. •Oxygen - There must be at least 16% oxygen present for a fire to burn. This is usually not a problem since the air we breath is about 21% oxygen. •Heat - Heat is the energy needed to increase the fuel’s temperature to the point where sufficient vapors are produced for ignition to occur. •Chemical Reaction - The chemical chain reaction know as fire occurs when fuel, oxygen and heat are present in the right conditions and amounts.
  5. 5. THE FOUR STAGES OF COMBUSTION Explosions excepted, most fires have quite humble beginnings and grow through four stages: Incipient Stage - At this stage, decomposition is occurring at the surface of the fuel due to the influence of some form of heat. Products of combustion given off at this stage are invisible to the eye. Smoldering Stage - At this stage, up to 10% of the decomposing products released at the surface of the fuel are visible. Flaming Stage - Vapors from the decomposing fuel have ignited and are at the stage where flames are self propagating. Heat Stage - At this stage the burning has progressed to the point where the fire is still small but generating sufficient heat to warm the air immediately around the fire, sending warm products of combustion upwards by convection. 5
  6. 6. THE FOUR STAGES OF COMBUSTION ▪ The time required for a fire to develop through the first two stages is usually quite long when compared to the last two. ▪ Depending on conditions, the time involved going through all stages may be anything from seconds to days. 6
  7. 7. THE CHEMISTRY OF FIRE EXTINCTION The principles consist of the elimination of one or more of the four elements. These principles are: COOLING ▪ The most commonly used fire fighting medium is water. Water absorbs heat from the fire and cools the fuel to a temperature where it no longer produces flammable vapors. SMOTHERING ▪ By excluding the oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere, the fire will be extinguished. 7
  8. 8. THE CHEMISTRY OF FIRE EXTINCTION STARVATION ▪ Starvation is achieved by removal of the fuel burning in the fire. Sometimes combustible material can be removed such as by shutting off gas valves or fuel flows. STOP CHAIN REACTION ▪ Stop or interrupt the chain reaction between the fuel, heat and oxygen the fire will be extinguished. ▪ Specific methods of extinguishing fires often involve a combination of more than one of the four principles 8
  9. 9. HOW FIRES ARE CLASSIFIED CLASS A: Ordinary combustibles or fibrous material such as Wood, paper, cloth, rubber and some plastics. CLASS B: Flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, paint, paint thinner and propane. Deltran
  10. 10. Cont… CLASS C: Energized electrical equipment, such as appliances, Switches, panel boxes and power tools. CLASS D: Certain combustible metals, such as magnesium, Titanium, potassium and sodium. These metals burn at high temperatures and give off sufficient oxygen to support combustion. They may react violently with water or other chemicals, and must be handled with care. Deltran
  11. 11. Overview ▪ Elements of Fire Prevention Planning ▪ Identifying fire hazards ▪ Prevention Strategy ▪ Related Training Deltran
  12. 12. Elements of Fire Prevention Planning ▪ List all major fire hazards. ▪ Proper control of hazardous materials ▪ including flammable and combustible liquids. ▪ Control potential ignition sources. ▪ List fire protection equipment. ▪ Regular inspection and maintenance. ▪ Responsible employees for fuel sources. Deltran
  13. 13. Identify the Hazards ▪ Scrap, waste materials, dust, trash ▪ When these items are allowed to accumulate, the risk of fire is increased. ▪ Under the right conditions, the buildup of dust from wood, plastic, or certain metal operations can lead to a fire or explosion. Deltran
  14. 14. Identify the Hazards – Combustible Materials ▪ Ordinary combustible materials, like paper, cardboard, wood, and products made from these materials can present a fire hazard when they are allowed to accumulate or are stored improperly. ▪ Foam or plastic cups, utensils, materials close to heat sources burn rapidly and give off dense, toxic, black smoke. ▪ Oily rags or other materials soaked in oil can spontaneously combust if placed in areas where the air does not circulate. Deltran
  15. 15. How does a solid burn? Takes place as wood, coal, conveyor belts or any carbon based products decomposes from the action of the heat Remember, it is the vapors that burn, not the solid. Deltran
  16. 16. Identify the Hazards – Flammable materials ▪ Flammable materials ▪ The unsafe use, storage, dispensing, or disposal of flammable materials can be a prime source of fires and explosions. ▪ Read labels of all spray cans to identify those with flammable gas-propellants. ▪ Butane and propane are the most common and should never be exposed to heat or flames. Deltran
  17. 17. Diesel fuel precautions : Flammable or combustible liquid spillage or leakage shall be removed in a timely manner or controlled to prevent a fire hazard. All diesel-powered machines are required to have at least one 10A:60B:C portable fire extinguisher Two portable fire extinguishers must be installed when a 5 gallon diesel fuel safety can is carried on the vehicle Deltran
  18. 18. Identify the Hazards - Electrical issues ▪ Electrical issues ▪ Extension cords and multiple plug adapters may only be used for temporary operations. ▪ Overloaded circuits, damaged wiring, and defective switches and outlets can all lead to electrical fires. ▪ Placing space heaters near, or in contact with, combustible materials poses a fire hazard. ▪ Small portable fans can pose a fire hazard if they are placed near combustible materials, or where the blades of the fan can easily catch items. ▪ Damaged wiring on portable fans, and mounting portable fans in walls also increase your fire risk. Deltran
  19. 19. Identify the Hazards – Hot Work ▪ Any operation involving heated materials or open flames can present a fire hazard. ▪ Hot work procedures have been developed and are part of this program. ▪ Machines that are not lubricated properly can overheat and start a fire. ▪ Electrical problems and equipment defects can lead to a fire. Deltran
  20. 20. Identify the Hazards ▪ Careless Smoking ▪ Smoking is prohibited in facilities owned or leased by the university. ▪ Some exceptions are made for certain residential facilities. ▪ Outdoors, discarded smoking materials carelessly tossed in waste containers or into landscaping can easily start a fire. Deltran
  21. 21. Deltran
  22. 22. Prevention Strategy – House Keeping - 1 ▪ The accumulation of combustible materials (such as cardboard boxes, magazines, and paper products) is prohibited. ▪ Combustible material must not be stored any closer than 36” from a heating appliance or electrical light. ▪ Properly dispose of items no longer in use. ▪ Store materials at least 24” from the ceiling ▪ Portable fire extinguishers cannot be obstructed, and must be clearly visible with notification signs displayed. Deltran
  23. 23. Prevention Strategy – House Keeping - 2 ▪ Keep passageways clear of obstacles, including furniture and other equipment. ▪ Maintain premises free of unneeded and unnecessary combustible materials. Deltran
  24. 24. Prevention Strategy – Fire rated doors ▪ Fire-rated doors must not be blocked open with wedges, stoppers, or anything else! ▪ These doors are to remain closed to reduce fire and smoke spread through the rest of the building. Deltran
  25. 25. Prevention Strategy – Electrical - 1 ▪ Inspect all wiring, switches and plugs for damage. ▪ Repair must be performed by an “Electrical Qualified Person”. ▪ Contact Physical Plant if necessary. ▪ All outlets, junction boxes, and electrical panels must have proper covers. ▪ Junction boxes and breaker/disconnects in electrical circuit panels are required to be properly labeled. ▪ Use of unapproved electric cords or equipment in wet or damp locations may result in a short circuit. ▪ Do not connect/disconnect electrical cords with wet hands. Deltran
  26. 26. Prevention Strategy - 2 ▪ Electrical ▪ Do not overload motors or circuits, which can easily become a source of ignition. ▪ Report any problems with lighting fixtures or heating elements to Physical Plant immediately. Deltran
  27. 27. Prevention Strategy – Electrical - 3 ▪ Electrical ▪ Improper use of extension cords is prohibited. ▪ Always plug extension cords and power strips directly into building wiring – no “daisy chaining”. ▪ Use heavy-duty, grounded, single appliance extension cords only. Light/medium duty “zip” cords are prohibited. ▪ Do not use extension cords in place of permanent building wiring. ▪ Do not use extension cords for an extended period of time (90 days is a good rule of thumb). ▪ Have additional outlets installed if necessary. ▪ Use a power strip with breaker protection in lieu of extension cords. Deltran
  28. 28. Prevention Strategy – Electrical - 4 ▪ Electrical ▪ Multiple plug adapters are prohibited. ▪ Have additional wall outlets installed. ▪ Use power strips with breaker protection instead. Deltran
  29. 29. Prevention Strategy – Electrical - 5 ▪ Non-Standard Plug vs. Socket design can create loose-contacts, and fire. Deltran
  30. 30. Prevention Strategy – Flammable & Combustible Materials - 1 ▪ Where possible, substitute flammable materials with safer, less/non flammable, non-toxic materials. ▪ Store flammable liquids properly. ▪ At least one fire extinguisher in the area. ▪ Large storage areas should have a fire protection system installed. ▪ Use flammable liquid storage cabinets where greater quantities of liquids are needed. ▪ Contrary to popular belief, these cabinets are not designed to contain a fire, but to prevent an outside fire from reaching the contents for a period of 10 minutes. Deltran
  31. 31. Prevention Strategy – Flammable & Combustible Materials - 2 ▪ Containers should be tightly sealed when not in use. ▪ Liquids should be stored in an area where temperature is stable to avoid pressure buildup from vaporization. ▪ Approved safety cans are recommended for smaller quantities. ▪ The spring-loaded safety cap prevents spillage, prevents vapors from escaping, acts as a pressure vent if engulfed in fire, and prevents explosion and rocketing of the can. Deltran
  32. 32. Prevention Strategy – Flammable & Combustible Materials - 3 ▪ Quantities of liquids stored outside should be restricted to one day’s supply. ▪ Some flammable liquids, such as benzene and gasoline have a tendency to accumulate a static electric charge, which can release a spark that ignites the liquid. ▪ Always bond metal dispensing and receiving containers together before pouring. ▪ To bond containers, each container is wired together and one container is connected to a good ground point to allow any charge to drain away safely. ▪ Because there is no easy way to bond plastic containers, their use should be limited to smaller sizes (no more than 4L). Deltran
  33. 33. Prevention Strategy – Flammable & Combustible Materials - 4 ▪ To prevent the accumulation of vapors inside of storage areas, a continuous mechanical ventilation system must be in place. ▪ Both makeup and exhaust air openings must be arranged to provide air movement directly to the exterior of the building. ▪ Exhaust ventilation ducts must be exclusive to the system and used for no other purposes. ▪ All nonessential ignition sources must be eliminated where flammable liquids are used or stored. ▪ Common ignition sources include: ▪ Open flames from cutting and welding ▪ Furnaces, matches, heaters, smoking materials ▪ Static electricity, friction sparks ▪ Motors, switches, circuit breakers Deltran
  34. 34. Prevention Strategy – Flammable & Combustible Materials - 5 ▪ Materials that contribute to a flammable liquid fire should not be stored with flammable liquids. For example, ▪ Oxidizers ▪ Organic peroxides Deltran
  35. 35. Prevention Strategy – Flammable & Combustible Materials - 6 ▪ If a spill occurs: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Limit spread by diking with suitable absorbent material. Minimize vapors by covering surface of spill with same absorbent material. Notify supervisor immediately. Summon Fire Department, if necessary. Ensure all sources of ignition are off or controlled. Begin cleanup right away. Deltran
  36. 36. Prevention Strategy – Compressed Gas Cylinders - 1 ▪ Gases in these cylinders can pose fire or explosion hazards, may be toxic, or can displace oxygen in the area. ▪ Perform a visual inspection of the cylinder and refuse delivery if the cylinder appears to be damaged or defective in any way. ▪ Cylinders must be stored in compatible groups, with flammables separated from oxidizers and corrosives. Deltran
  37. 37. Prevention Strategy – Compressed Gas Cylinders - 2 ▪ Oxygen cylinders must be at least 20 feet from flammable and combustible materials. ▪ Separation can be by barrier that has a fire-rating of at least ½ hour, such as concrete block or sheet metal, that is at least 5 feet in height. ▪ Gas cylinders, or any other hazardous material, cannot be stored in public hallways or unprotected areas. ▪ Nonflammable cylinders must be at least 5 feet from exits or unprotected openings such as windows. ▪ Flammable cylinders must be at least 25 feet from exits and windows. ▪ Keep valves closed and put caps on cylinders when not in use. ▪ Never store gas cylinders near radiators or other heat sources (including direct sunlight). ▪ Contact EHSS Fire Safety for bulk storage rooms or new installations of storage areas. Deltran
  38. 38. Prevention Strategy – Fire Protection Systems - 1 ▪ If your building is not equipped with a fire alarm system, occupants will need to communicate to others in the building by yelling “FIRE” as they exit the building, or by other means as defined in the building’s Emergency Action Plan. Deltran
  39. 39. Prevention Strategy – Fire Protection Systems - 2 ▪ Automatic fire alarm systems are installed to facilitate notification of building occupants of a fire emergency. ▪ Various types of smoke and heat detectors, along with manual pull stations, are linked to the alarm system. ▪ When activated, the fire alarm system sends sounds, an audible and/or visual alarm in the building. Deltran
  40. 40. Prevention Strategy – Fire Protection Systems - 3 ▪ Manually activated pull stations are located along building exit routes. ▪ All buildings equipped with fire alarms will have manual pull stations (i.e. red boxes). Deltran
  41. 41. Prevention Strategy – Fire Protection Systems - 4 ▪ Fire suppression systems are more commonly known as “sprinkler systems”, that use water, and is designed to extinguish small fires and reduce the spread of fire to provide building occupants time to evacuate. Deltran
  42. 42. Prevention Strategy – Fire Protection Systems - 5 ▪ The building fire alarm can also be activated by smoke detectors or manually without the sprinklers going off. This is how a fire drill is conducted. Deltran
  43. 43. Prevention Strategy – Fire Protection Systems - 6 ▪ Fire extinguishers can play an important role in the fire protection program. How successfully they can function, however, depends upon the following conditions having been met: ▪ Extinguisher is properly located, is the proper type for the fire, and is in working order. ▪ The fire is discovered while still small enough to be extinguished, and someone is ready, willing, and able to use the extinguisher. Deltran
  44. 44. Prevention Strategy – Fire Protection Systems - 7 ▪ Consider the following factors when selecting portable fire extinguishers : ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Deltran Nature of flammables and combustibles in area, Potential severity of any resulting fire, Effectiveness and ease of use of the extinguisher, Personnel available to operate the extinguisher, their physical abilities and emotional reactions, Environmental conditions Health and operational concerns, Upkeep and maintenance requirements for the extinguisher.
  45. 45. Prevention Strategy – Misc. - 1 ▪ Landscaping must not: ▪ Impede fire vehicle or emergency responder access to a building. ▪ Obstruct access to fire hydrants, fire department connections or other fire sprinkler test valves and other emergency devices. ▪ Obstruct or cause a tripping hazard for occupants evacuating a building. ▪ Obstruct exits from doors, windows, or other designated evacuation points from a building. ▪ Cables, equipment cords, etc. may not be placed in or run through any permitted opening in a rated fire wall or smoke barrier, such as through a door or within ventilation ductwork Deltran
  46. 46. Prevention Strategy – Misc. - 2 ▪ All wood and metal shavings must be cleaned and removed from the building at the end of the job or the workday. ▪ All shops with machinery that produces hazardous shavings or dust must have an approved dust collection system. ▪ This system must be in operation any time the equipment is in use. ▪ For automotive and industrial shops, at the end of the work day or as necessary: ▪ Clean all work areas of oil to prevent buildup. ▪ Return all oils and flammables to their proper storage cabinet/area. ▪ Turn off all power equipment or unplug. ▪ Turn off all fuel valves and power to such systems. ▪ Parts washers may use flammable solvents. If possible, find a less hazardous substitute. ▪ Painting with flammable materials in paint booths to be located away from fire hazards. Deltran
  47. 47. Fire Alarms & Fire Drills •Each Industry has at least two fire mock drills per year. One must evacuate the building immediately each time the fire alarm sounds. • Being a part of training, Prior intimation to be given to all concerned before mock drill, so that no one is intimidated. •The misuse of fire alarms, fire detection devices, or fire extinguishers constitutes a serious offense.
  48. 48. HOW TO EXTINGUISH SMALL FIRES CLASS A- Extinguish ordinary combustibles by cooling the material below its ignition temperature and soaking the fibers to prevent re-ignition. Use pressurized water, foam or multi-purpose (ABC rated) dry chemical extinguisher. DO NOT USE carbon dioxide or ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical extinguisher on Class A fires. CLASS B: Extinguish flammable liquids, greases by removing the oxygen, preventing the vapors from reaching the ignition source or inhibiting the chemical chain reaction. Foam, carbon dioxide, ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical, multi-purpose dry chemical, and halon extinguishers may be used to fight Class B fires.
  49. 49. Contd… • CLASS C – Extinguish energized electrical equipment by using an extinguishing agent that is not capable of conducting electrical current. • Carbon dioxide, ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical, multi-purpose dry chemical and halon* fire extinguishers may be used to fight Class C fires. DO NOT USE WATER EXTINGUISHERS ON ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. • CLASS D: Extinguish combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium with dry powder extinguishing agents specially designated for the material involved. • In most cases, they absorb the heat from the material, cooling it below its ignition temperature.
  50. 50. HOW TO USE A PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER • REMEMBER THE ACRONYM, “P.A.S.S.” • P …….Pull the Pin •A ……..Aim the extinguisher nozzle at base of the flame. •S ………Squeeze trigger by holding the extinguisher erect. •S ………Sweep the extinguisher from side to side. NOTE: PULL A FIRE ALARM BOX AND ALERT OTHERS BEFORE YOU ATTEMPT TO USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER.
  51. 51. Using the Fire Extinguisher
  52. 52. Fire Extinguishers - Water ▪ Red body ▪ Suitable for use on Class A Fires, wood and paper etc. ▪ Not suitable for combustible liquids, cooking fats etc. ▪ Not safe to use on fires involving electricity ▪ Extinguishes by cooling
  53. 53. Fire Extinguishers - Foam ▪ Cream body (Old type) or Red Body with Cream label ▪ Suitable for Class A and B Fires. ▪ Not suitable for use on fires involving electricity ▪ Extinguishes by cooling and sealing the surface of a burning liquid
  54. 54. Fire Extinguishers - Powder ▪ Blue body (Old type) or Red body with blue label. ▪ Best on Class B fires but safe to use on any type of fire. ▪ Works by chemically interfering with the combustion reaction
  55. 55. Fire Extinguishers -Carbon Dioxide ▪ Black body (Old type) or red body with black label (New type) ▪ Best on Class B and C fires but safe to use on any type of fire ▪ Safe to use on fires involving electricity ▪ Extinguishes by reducing oxygen levels and cooling
  56. 56. Fire Extinguishers - Blanket ▪ Any colour body or label but they are usually red or white ▪ For use on any type of fire but best on small contained class B fires and people on fire. ▪ Extinguishes by asphyxiating
  57. 57. Fire Protection 1926.150(c)(1)(viii) ▪ Portable fire extinguishers shall be inspected periodically and maintained in accordance with Maintenance and Use of Portable Fire Extinguishers, NFPA 10.
  58. 58. RESIDENCE HALL FIRE SURVIVAL PROCEDURE When you move in : • Locate at least two emergency exits from your floor and make sure they are free of obstruction •Note location of fire alarms, extinguishers or any other emergency equipment available. •Note location of landmarks which may aid egress when visibility is reduced by smoke. •Refamiliarize yourself with standard fire drill procedures. •Become familiar with University fire and general safety regulations.
  59. 59. ALWAYS: •Make sure the fire doors in halls and stair wells are closed at all times. •Extinguish all cigarettes and matches and empty wastebaskets often. •Close door to your room when you retire. Exit when fire alarm sounds!!!!
  60. 60. NEVER: • Smoke in bed. • Burn candles. • Allow an open flame (cigarette, candle, torch, etc.) or cooking appliance (coffee pot, hot plae, etc.) near common combustible material, i.e., wood, paper, textiles, or flammable liquid. • Ignore fire alarm.
  61. 61. IN THE EVENT OF A FIRE: • Remain calm. Act quickly, not rashly. Your objective is to survive. If you can exit safely, do so. If not, you must work quickly to defend yourself against smoke and flame. • Never open your door without first checking for heat or smoke. Close doors behind you. • Do not allow doors to lock behind you. You may be forced to return.
  62. 62. Cont. • If smoke is encountered during egress, do not walk upright …crawl. The air is cooler and less toxic nearer the floor. • Never use an elevator. • If smoke is present in a stairwell, avoid it. Choose another route • If your clothes catch fire…stop, drop, and roll to extinguish the flames. • If you are in a room where fire starts, try to extinguish the fire if small. If the fire is too large, leave quickly. Close the door and/ or call 101 for the Fire Department.
  63. 63. IF YOU ARE TRAPPED IN YOUR ROOM: • Seal door/window cracks and ventilation grills with tape (preferably duct tape) or towels and/or clothing (preferably wet) to keep smoke out. If there is smoke in the room, open the window to let it out. Hang out an article of cloth, large enough for rescuers to see, out of a corner of the window. Close the window again and seal cracks. Keep window closed to prevent outside smoke from entering. • Do not break the window unless the room has been heavily invaded by smoke and you must get air to survive. •Remember; stay close to the floor for air. Call the Fire department (101), & report the fire location and your situation. •Tie a towel or clothing (preferably wet) around your nose and mouth if necessary to filter smoke. •Do not jump!!
  64. 64. Related Training ▪ Portable Fire Extinguisher Training ▪ Public Assembly Attendee Emergency Procedures Training ▪ Compressed Gas Cylinder Awareness ▪ Electrical Safety Deltran