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LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

This presentation gives an overview on the legal instruments for addressing the emergency preparedness in the event of nuclear and radiation emergencies in India.

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LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

  1. 1. LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Delivered at TOT course to NDRF on “Mobile Radiation Detection Systems MRDS and Response to Radiation Emergencies” at Arokkonam/ Jan.19, 2017 Dr.R.M.Nehru, Officer-in-Charge, Southern Regional Regulatory Centre, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board Anupuram, Kalpakkam-603127 Tamil Nadu nehru@aerb.gov.in
  2. 2. Outline….. 1. Introduction 2. Application of Nuclear Energy & Radiation 3. Role of AERB & Legal Instruments for Emergency Preparedness 4. Typical doses received by workers in medical, industrial and research institutions 5. Summary
  3. 3. Non-Ionizing ( cannot Ionize matter) Radiation Ionizing ( can Ionize matter) Directly Ionizing Radiation (charged particles) Indirectly Ionizing Radiation ( Neutral Particles) What are Radiation Detectors? INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. 21 operational NPPs // 5 are under construction
  5. 5. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board Nuclear Reactor Consists Of------- Fuel - Each fuel rod of Zircaloy contains stacks of uranium dioxide pellets. Zircaloy (2 or 4) is an alloy of zirconium used as fuel clad. Moderator - Used to slow down the neutrons to thermal energies. Sometimes the same material is used as a coolant. Typical moderator includes water, heavy water, and graphite. Coolant - Used to remove the heat from the fuel rods directly if the moderator and coolant are the same material. In cases where a separate moderator is used, coolant tubes are routed through the moderator, removing heat from fuel rods. Control Rods - Used to regulate the distribution of power in the reactor while the reactor is operating. The most important function is to insert to shutdown or stop the nuclear fission process when required. Supporting Structure - Used to keep the fuel rigid either horizontally or vertically, depending on the specific design. Also is used to direct a uniform, or optimum, flow distribution through the reactor. Vessel-either horizontal or vertical - Used to hold the fuel, moderator, coolant, and supporting structure. BWR
  6. 6. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board BWR, PWR, PHWR & LMFBR – Major Design Features Reactor Types Thermal Reactors Fast Reactors Major systems/ components BWR PWR PHWR LMFBR Reactor Vessel Pressure Vessel Pressure Vessel Pressure Tubes Pool type (Low Pressure) Moderator H2O H2O D2O Not Applicable Fuel Enriched-U Enriched-U Natural-U Plutonium-U Coolant H20 H2O D2O Liquid.Sodium Heat Transport System Direct Cycle, Boiling occurs in Reactor Vessel Primary (H2O) and Secondary (H2O) Circuit Primary (D2O) and Secondary (H2O) Circuit Primary(Na), Secondary (Na) & Tertiary (H2O)Circuit
  7. 7. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board How a NPP Works?How a NPP Works?
  8. 8. Application of Radiation Radiography Nuclear Medicine Diagnostic Teletherapy Brachytherapy Radiotherapy Nuclear Medicine Therapy Radiation in Medicine Industrial Radiography Irradiators Nucleonic Gauges Consumer Products Radiation in Industry Medical Industry Agriculture University Radiation in Research
  9. 9. Radiology
  10. 10. Radiography & Fluoroscopy equipmentTypical doses of the order of 0.2 mGy to 10 mGy Radiography Fluoroscopy X-ray unit
  11. 11. C-Arm Used in Operation Theaters Typical dose range : 1 mGy -20 mGy
  12. 12. Mammography Typical doses of the order of 3 mGy to 7 mGy
  13. 13. Computed Tomography Typical doses of the order of 7 mGy to 10 mGy
  14. 14. Interventional Radiology Typical Effective dose range : 10 mSv-70 mSv Typical Skin Doses of the order of 1 Gy to 20 Gy
  15. 15. Other Applications • Dental X-ray (1 mGy-8 mGy) • Orthopantomography/CBCT • Bone Densitometry (~0.1 mGy)
  16. 16. Nuclear Medicine
  17. 17. POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY
  18. 18. Radiation Therapy
  19. 19. Tele = “distance”
  20. 20. Brachy = “Short” •Co-60 /Cs-137 in needles/tubes •Ir-192 in Wires/ Pellet (commonly used) •Co-60 in pellet(s)/ I-125 in Seeds
  21. 21. Research applications
  22. 22. Industrial applications Radiographic Testing is widely used in the; 1. Aerospace industries 2. Military defence 3. Offshore industries 4. Marine industries 5. Power-gen industries 6. Petrochem industries 7. Waste Management 8. Automotive industries 9. Manufacturing industries 10.Transport industries Radiographic testing is a non- destructive testing of components and assemblies that is based on differential absorption of penetrating radiation- either electromagnetic radiation of very short wave- lengths or particulate radiation by the part or test piece being tested Reference: http://www.twggroup.in/radiographic-testing.html http://slideplayer.com/slide/4865849/
  23. 23. Reference: http://www.slideshare.net/ravrak/intro-to-radiography-12ndt Reference: http://www.twggroup.in/radiographic-testing.html
  24. 24. Courtesy: IAEA Typical maximum source activities: 5.5 TBq (150 Ci) of 192Ir; 2.9 TBq (80 Ci) of 75Se; 740 GBq (20 Ci) of 169Yb; 370 GBq (10 Ci) of 60Co; 370 GBq (10 Ci) of 137Cs. Typical GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY PROJECTORS /CAMERAS
  25. 25. Research- Gamma Irradiation Chamber Radiation Symbol
  26. 26. Safety codes and standards are formulated on the basis of nationally and internationally accepted safety criteria for design, construction and operation of specific equipment, structures, systems and components of nuclear and radiation facilities. Safety codes establish the objectives and set minimum requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety guides elaborate various requirements and furnish approaches for their implementation. Safety manuals deal with specific topics and contain detailed scientific, technical information on the subject. These documents are prepared by experts in the relevant fields and are extensively reviewed by advisory committees of the Board before they are published. The documents are revised when necessary, in the light of experience and feedback from users as well as new developments in the field. Regulatory Documents
  27. 27. ATOMIC ENERGY ACT 1962 NO. 33 OF 1962 [15th September, 1962] AFTER AMENDMENTS NO. 59 of 1986 [23rd December, 1986] NO. 29 OF 1987 [8th September, 1987]
  28. 28. Section 14. Control over production and use of atomic energy Section 16. Control over radioactive substances Section 17. Special Provisions as to safety Section 23. Administration of factories Act, 1948 Section 24. Offences and Penalties Section 27. Delegation of Powers 3. Section 3 General Powers of the Central Government Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government shall have power - (a) to produce, develop, use and dispose of atomic energy either by itself or through any authority or Corporation established by it or a Government company and carry out research into any matters connected therewith; (b) to manufacture or otherwise produce any prescribed or radioactive substance and any articles which in its opinion are, or are likely to be, required for, or in connection with, the production, development or use of atomic energy or such research as aforesaid and to dispose of such described or radioactive substance or any articles manufactured or otherwise produced; ATOMIC ENERGY ACT 1962 NO. 33 OF 1962 [15th September, 1962] Section 30. Power to make rules
  29. 29. Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules, 2004…..
  30. 30. Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules, 2004…..
  31. 31. Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules, 2004…..
  32. 32. Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules, 2004…..
  33. 33. Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules, 2004…..
  34. 34. Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules, 2004…..
  35. 35. http://www.aerb.gov.in
  36. 36. ROLE OF THE REGULATORY BODY WITH RESPECT TO EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND PREPAREDNESS AT NUCLEAR AND RADIATION FACILITIES AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO. AERB/SG/G-5
  37. 37. 2. TYPES OF EMERGENCIES AND BASIC RESPONSIBILITIES AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO. AERB/SG/G-5
  38. 38. 3. ORGANISATIONAL ASPECTS - INTERFACES AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO. AERB/SG/G-5
  39. 39. AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO. AERB/SG/G-5
  40. 40. AERB/NPP/SC/O (Rev. 1) NUCLEAR POWER PLANT OPERATION
  41. 41. AERB/NPP/SC/O (Rev. 1)
  42. 42. AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO.AERB/SG/O-6 PREPAREDNESS OF THE OPERATING ORGANISATION FOR HANDLING EMERGENCIES AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
  43. 43. AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO.AERB/SG/O-6 PREPAREDNESS OF THE OPERATING ORGANISATION FOR HANDLING EMERGENCIES AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
  44. 44. AERBSAFETYGUIDENO.AERB/SG/O-6 PREPAREDNESSOFTHEOPERATING ORGANISATIONFORHANDLINGEMERGENCIESAT NUCLEARPOWERPLANTS
  45. 45. AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO.AERB/SG/O-6
  46. 46. AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO.AERB/SG/O-6
  47. 47. SITE EMERGENCY AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO.AERB/SG/O-6
  48. 48. AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO.AERB/SG/O-6
  49. 49. AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO.AERB/SG/O-6 OFF-SITE EMERGENCY
  50. 50. AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO.AERB/SG/O-6
  51. 51. Action Flow Diagram for Site / Off-site Emergencies Abnormal Plant Conditions SED Activates Emergency Control Centre Shift Charge Engineer Alerts Site Emergency Director SED Reviews Radiation Levels at the Site Site Emergency Committee members Informed of Plant / Radiation Status & SEC Convened by SED Site Emergency Declaration by SED Survey of Off-site Radiation Levels Increase in Off –Site Radiation Levels SED Informs Off-site Authorities (OED) Off-site Emergency Declaration by OED Off-site Emergencies Actions Continued Fall in Off-site Radiation Level Below ERL Termination of Off-site Emergency by OED Site Emergency Actions Continued Recovery of Normal plant Status & Normal Radiation Termination of Site Emergency by SED Increase in Radiation Levels Within the Site Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India
  52. 52. Incident site Declaration of Emergency by SED / OED of site Incident site Declaration of Emergency by SED / OED of site State Level State Emergency Response Committee State Level State Emergency Response Committee Incident site/ERCC Emergency Response Co-ordination Committee Incident site/ERCC Emergency Response Co-ordination Committee DAE Level DAE-Emergency control Room/Crisis Management Group remains Activated till emergency is terminated. DAE Level DAE-Emergency control Room/Crisis Management Group remains Activated till emergency is terminated. National Level National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) / NCMC Control room at Delhi is activated and convened National Level National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) / NCMC Control room at Delhi is activated and convened Communication during Off Site Emergency Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India
  53. 53. AERB SAFETY GUIDE NO.AERB/SG/O-6 PREPAREDNESS OF THE OPERATING ORGANISATION FOR HANDLING EMERGENCIES AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
  54. 54. CRITERIA FOR PLANNING, PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE FOR NUCLEAR OR RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY AERB SAFETY GUIDELINES NO. AERB/NRF/SG/EP-5 (Rev. 1)
  55. 55. CRITERIA FOR PLANNING, PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE FOR NUCLEAR OR RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY AERB SAFETY GUIDELINES NO. AERB/NRF/SG/EP-5 (Rev. 1)
  56. 56. CRITERIA FOR PLANNING, PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE FOR NUCLEAR OR RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY AERB SAFETY GUIDELINES NO. AERB/NRF/SG/EP-5 (Rev. 1)
  57. 57. CRITERIA FOR PLANNING, PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE FOR NUCLEAR OR RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY AERB SAFETY GUIDELINES NO. AERB/NRF/SG/EP-5 (Rev. 1)
  58. 58. CRITERIA FOR PLANNING, PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE FOR NUCLEAR OR RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY AERB SAFETY GUIDELINES NO. AERB/NRF/SG/EP-5 (Rev. 1)
  59. 59. CRITERIA FOR PLANNING, PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE FOR NUCLEAR OR RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY AERB SAFETY GUIDELINES NO. AERB/NRF/SG/EP-5 (Rev. 1) TABLE11:CATEGORISATIONOFNUCLEARANDRADIATIONFACILITIESBASED ON HAZARDPOTENTIAL
  60. 60. CRITERIA FOR PLANNING, PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE FOR NUCLEAR OR RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY AERB SAFETY GUIDELINES NO. AERB/NRF/SG/EP-5 (Rev. 1) TABLE11:CATEGORISATIONOFNUCLEARANDRADIATIONFACILITIESBASED ON HAZARDPOTENTIAL
  61. 61. CRITERIAFORPLANNING,PREPAREDNESSANDRESPONSE FORNUCLEARORRADIOLOGICALEMERGENCY AERBSAFETYGUIDELINESNO.AERB/NRF/SG/EP-5(Rev.1)
  62. 62. CRITERIA FOR PLANNING, PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE FOR NUCLEAR OR RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY AERB SAFETY GUIDELINES NO. AERB/NRF/SG/EP-5 (Rev. 1)
  63. 63. SUGGESTED RADIUS OF THE INNER CORDONED AREA (SAFETY PERIMETER) IN A RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY Situation Initial inner cordoned area (safety perimeter) Initial determination — Outside Unshielded or damaged potentially dangerous source 30 m radius around the source Major spill from a potentially dangerous source 100 m radius around the source Fire, explosion or fumes involving a dangerous source 300 m radius Suspected bomb (possible radiological dispersal device), exploded or unexploded 400 m radius or more to protect against an explosion Conventional (non-nuclear) explosion or a fire involving a nuclear weapon (no nuclear yield) 1000 m radius Initial determination — Inside a building Damage, loss of shielding or spill involving a potentially dangerous source Affected and adjacent areas (including floors above and below) Fire or other event involving a potentially dangerous source that can spread radioactive material throughout the building (e.g. through the ventilation system) Entire building and appropriate outside distance as indicated above Data extracted from AERB SAFETY GUIDELINES NO. AERB/NRF/SG/EP-5 (Rev. 1)
  64. 64. OPERATIONAL INTERVENTION LEVELS (OILs) IN RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCIES BASED ON AMBIENT DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS FROM GAMMA-EMITTING RADIONUCLIDES Major exposure conditions OIL Main actions External radiation from a point source 100 μSv/h Isolate the area Recommend evacuation of cordoned area Control access and egress External radiation from ground contamination over a small area 100 μSv/h Isolate the area Recommend evacuation of cordoned area Control access and egress External radiation from ground contamination over a wide area 1 mSv/h Recommend evacuation or substantial shelter External radiation from air contamination with an unknown radionuclide(s) 1 μSv/h Isolate the area (if possible) Recommend evacuation of cordoned area or downwind in case of open area Data extracted from IAEA-TECDOC-1162
  65. 65. International Obligations India is a signatory to • The Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (‘Assistance Convention’). • Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident • The Crisis Management Group (CMG) is the nodal agency under both these conventions for keeping contact with the Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) of IAEA.
  66. 66. Response to Radiological Emergency Radiological Incident : Information From Public / Media / Police/ Hospitals etc. Mobilize Resources : • NDMA • CMG • AERB • DAE ERCs (28) • SDMA / DDMA • MHA/NEC Coordinate Actions Through : • District authorities • NDRF • SDRF / DDRF • Other Resources Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India After Information DC/DM to take Full Charge of the situation Initiate actions DC /DM AERB CMG NDMA
  67. 67. NDRF Arrival of DC/DM(IC) Technical Support Police, SDRF, Transport etc NDMA MHA/NECCMG (DAE) AERB •Inform NCMC •Coordinate at national Level in Consultation with AERB, DAE & MHA •Move NDRF Activate ERC/ Installation and NDRF Bn for Monitoring • Monitoring • Supervision • Advice •Activate state Govt. -Police Support - Transport Facility • Arrange for Medical Support, Air Lifting (if required) • Inform NCMC AFFECTED SITE Monitor the Area & cordoning-off Start Rescue and Relief Operation Provide Technical Support from BARC/NPCIL/ BRIT Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India DC/DM to Co-ordinate (under guidance) • Recovery & Disposal of Source • Rescue & Relief • Large Scale DC and Rehabilitation
  68. 68. Emergency Planning and Preparedness  Lay down the Criteria for Emergency Response.  Review Off-site Emergency Preparedness Plan.  Ensure emergency facilities, equipments and resources are available with response organisations by periodic RI.  Ensure periodic emergency exercises are conducted  Post observers during the emergency exercises.  Ensure conduct of off-site emergency exercise prior to first criticality  Approve any modification of emergency plan or procedure.  Review and update emergency preparedness plans during the PSR Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies – Role of AERB
  69. 69. During Actual Emergency Situation  Obtain information of actions taken by the District Authorities and the operating organisation.  Review and assess the emergency situation  Inform public concerning the emergency situations.  If required, intervene and issue directions to mitigate the consequences of the accident. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India
  70. 70. Post Emergency Situation  Review and advise follow up actions to minimize exposures from radioactive contamination.  Lay down criteria for re-entry into plant areas and affected places.  Review and authorise actions as necessary for recovery, resumption of operations or decommissioning of the concerned plant.  Conduct an overall assessment of the events that led to the emergency, response actions taken during the emergency and post-emergency consequences and action plans. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India
  71. 71. During Emergency Situation in Other Country  Obtain information regarding progression of events and radiological releases.  Get inputs on environmental monitoring in India from responsible organisations (BARC, CMG, NDMA)  Review and assess the impact of emergency in India ( environment, imports, arrival of air crafts and passengers etc ).  Inform public regarding accident progression and impact if any on environment in India.  Advise Indian citizen though appropriate channel. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India
  72. 72. Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/Tunoo/rad-safety-at-hospitals-v-07-25jun2010-peternyan RADIATION ACCIDENTS
  73. 73. Avoidable radiation exposure arising from, for example: Accidents or incidents to be reported REPORT x-ray equipment component failure during interventional radiology, inappropriate or improper monitoring of fluoroscopy and other imaging poorly maintained x-ray equipment non-compliant x-ray equipment
  74. 74. ACCIDENT Failure to use survey meter Equipment failure Safety procedures not followed Regulatory control lacking or inadequate Lack of safety program Inadequate or lack of training Typical Causes of Radiological Accidents...
  75. 75. Reference: AERB Annual Report 2014/2015 Typical doses received by workers in medical, industrial and research institutions
  76. 76. SUMMARY 1. The use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy continue to benefit the society in several ways. 2. Safety systems in Radiation and industrial and research facilities are well-maintained and regulated. 3. Radiation hazards to environment is negligible when compared to other sources. 4. Relevant Legal and Regulatory instruments are in place to address the radiological emergency situations.
  77. 77. THANKING……..THANKING…….. Organizers of this Course (Dr.S.Murali & NDRF Team members), and AERB & YOU !! Also to….

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