1500413 634802926165747500

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1500413 634802926165747500

  1. 1. Total Quality Management - TQM Total Quality Management - TQM The quality journey continues…….. Author: Dr Rhys Rowland-Jones Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  2. 2. Total Quality Management - TQMSession Plan • Introduction to concepts of TQM • Standards and TQM • TQM Reasons for failure • Measurement of Quality Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  3. 3. Total Quality Management - TQMTotal Quality Management • TQM is a philosophy which applies equally to all parts of the organization. • TQM can be viewed as an extension of the traditional approach to quality. • TQM places the customer at the forefront of quality decision making. • Greater emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of every member of staff within an organization to influence quality. • All staff are empowered. Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  4. 4. Total Quality Management - TQM Total Quality Management Doing things right….. ….FIRST time. Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n Internetix (2005)
  5. 5. Total Quality Management - TQMBritish Standards on TQM BS 7850-1:1992 • Total quality management. Guide to management principles. BS 7850-2:1994, ISO 9004-4:1993 • Total quality management. Guidelines for quality improvement. Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  6. 6. Total Quality Management - TQMElements of TQM • Leadership – Top management vision, planning and support. • Employee involvement – All employees assume responsibility for the quality of their work. • Product/Process Excellence – Involves the process for continuous improvement. Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  7. 7. Total Quality Management - TQMElements of TQM • Continuous Improvement – A concept that recognizes that quality improvement is a journey with no end and that there is a need for continually looking for new approaches for improving quality. • Customer Focus on “Fitness for Use” – Design quality • Specific characteristics of a product that determine its value in the marketplace. – Conformance quality • The degree to which a product meets its design specifications. Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  8. 8. Total Quality Management - TQMA fundamental concept of TQM from BS 7850 - a ‘Process’ • “A set of inter-related resources and activities which transform inputs into outputs.” (ISO 8402). • “Any activity that accepts inputs, adds values to these inputs for customers, and produces outputs for these customers. The customers may be either internal or external to the organization.” (BS 7850) Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  9. 9. Total Quality Management - TQM"The Simple Process" Controls Inputs Proces Outputs s Resources (Source: BS 7850: 1992, “Total Quality Management”) Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  10. 10. Total Quality Management - TQM Changing Role of the Process Owner Process 1 Input from As customer supplier Process owner Process 1 Output Input As supplier As customer Process owner Output to As supplier customer (Source: BS 7850: 1992, “Total Quality Management”) Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  11. 11. Total Quality Management - TQM TQM & organizational Cultural ChangeTraditional Approach TQMLack of communication Open communicationsControl of staff EmpowermentInspection & fire fighting PreventionInternal focus on rule External focus on customerStability seeking Continuous improvementAdversarial relations Co-operative relationsAllocating blame Solving problems at their roots Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  12. 12. Total Quality Management - TQM Perceived quality is governed by the gap between customers’ expectations and their perceptions of the product or service product or service perceptions of the Gap Gap expectations for the product or expectations of perceptions of the product or the product or Customers’ Customers’ for the product Customers’ Customers’ perceptions of the product or expectations service Customers’ Customers’ service service or service service Expectations > Expectations = Expectations < perceptions perceptions perceptions Perceived quality Perceived quality is is poor good Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio Source: Slack et al. 2004 n
  13. 13. Total Quality Management - TQM Additional views of Quality in Services • Technical Quality versus Functional Quality – Technical quality — the core element of the good or service. – Functional quality — customer perception of how the good functions or the service is delivered. • Expectations and Perceptions – Customers’ prior expectations (generalized and specific service experiences) and their perception of service performance affect their satisfaction with a service. • Satisfaction = (Perception of Performance) – (Expectation) Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  14. 14. Total Quality Management - TQM Previous Word of mouth Image of product Experience communications or service Customer’s Customer’s expectations perceptions concerning a concerning the product or service product or service A “Gap” model of Quality Customer’s own Gap 4 specification of quality The actual product Gap 1 or service Management’s organization’s concept of the specification of product or service quality Gap 3 Gap 2 Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n Source: Parasuraman, Zeithman and Berry. 1985
  15. 15. Total Quality Management - TQM Continuous Improvement • Philosophy that seeks to make never-ending improvements to the process of converting inputs into outputs. • Kaizen: Japanese word for continuous improvement. Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  16. 16. Total Quality Management - TQMImplementing TQM • Successful Implementation of TQM – Requires total integration of TQM into day-to-day operations. • Causes of TQM Implementation Failures – Lack of focus on strategic planning and core competencies. – Obsolete, outdated organizational cultures. Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  17. 17. Total Quality Management - TQM Obstacles to Implementing TQM • Lack of a company-wide definition of quality. • Lack of a formalized strategic plan for change. • Lack of a customer focus. • Poor inter-organizational communication. • Lack of real employee empowerment. • Lack of employee trust in senior management. • View of the quality program as a quick fix. • Drive for short-term financial results. • Politics and turf issues. Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  18. 18. Total Quality Management - TQM Some criticisms of TQM 1. Blind pursuit of TQM programs 2. Programs may not be linked to strategies 3. Quality-related decisions may not be tied to market performance 4. Failure to carefully plan a program Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  19. 19. Total Quality Management - TQM PDCA Cycle repeated to create continuous improvement Performance Plan Do Act Check “Continuous” improvement Time Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  20. 20. Total Quality Management - TQMRecognizing and rewarding Quality • Promotion of high quality goods and services – Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) (United States) – Deming Prize (Japan) – European Quality Award (European Union) – ISO9000 certification Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  21. 21. Total Quality Management - TQMThe integrated framework of the Baldrige Award criteriaSource: 2004 Criteria for Performance Excellence, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Baldrige National Quality Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899. (www.quality.nist.gov) Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  22. 22. Total Quality Management - TQM Continual improvement of the quality management system Continual improvement of the quality management system Customers Customers (and other Management (and other interested responsibility interested parties) parties) Measurement, Resource analysis and management improvement Satisfaction Requirements Input Product OutputKey: ProductValue adding activity realisationinformation flow Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio Source: BS EN ISO n 9001:2000
  23. 23. Total Quality Management - TQMOverview of the EFQM Excellence Model Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  24. 24. Total Quality Management - TQMQuality Award common elements • All take holistic approach • Customers/people • Measurable characteristics • Visible • Basis taken from TQM Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n
  25. 25. Total Quality Management - TQMSummary • TQM – a way of working • Involves everyone • High prominence on ‘customer’ • Awards based upon TQM Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinactio n

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