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TECHNOLOGY : JAVADOMAIN : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKINGS.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR 1. Balancing the Trade- In This Project, we propose schemes to balance the trade- 2012 Offs between Query offs between data availability and query delay under Delay and Data different system settings and requirements. Mobile nodes Availability in in one partition are not able to access data hosted by MANETs nodes in other partitions, and hence significantly degrade the performance of data access. To deal with this problem, We apply data replication techniques. 2. MeasuRouting: A In this paper we present a theoretical framework for 2012 Framework for MeasuRouting. Furthermore, as proofs-of-concept, we Routing Assisted present synthetic and practical monitoring applications to Traffic Monitoring showcase the utility enhancement achieved with MeasuRouting. 3. Cooperative Profit We model Optimal cooperation using the theory of 2012 Sharing in Coalition- transferable payoff coalitional games. We show that the Based Resource optimum cooperation strategy, which involves the Allocation in Wireless acquisition, deployment, and allocation of the channels Networks and base stations (to customers), can be computed as the solution of a concave or an integer optimization. We next show that the grand coalition is stable in many different settings. 4. Bloom Cast: Efficient In this paper we propose Bloom Cast, an efficient and 2012 Full-Text Retrieval effective full-text retrieval scheme, in unstructured P2P over Unstructured networks. Bloom Cast is effective because it guarantees P2Ps with Guaranteed perfect recall rate with high probability. Recall 5. On Optimizing We propose a novel overlay formation algorithm for 2012 Overlay Topologies unstructured P2P networks. Based on the file sharing for Search in pattern exhibiting the power-law property, our proposal Unstructured Peer-to- is unique in that it poses rigorous performance Peer Networks guarantees. 6. An MDP-Based In this paper, we propose an automated Markov Decision 2012 Dynamic Optimization Process (MDP)-based methodology to prescribe optimal Methodology for sensor node operation to meet application requirements Wireless Sensor and adapt to changing environmental stimuli. Numerical Networks results confirm the optimality of our proposed methodology and reveal that our methodology more closely meets application requirements compared to other feasible policies. 7. Obtaining Provably In this paper, we address The Internet Topology 2012 Legitimate Internet Problems by providing a framework to generate small, Topologies realistic, and policy-aware topologies. We propose HBR,
a novel sampling method, which exploits the inherent hierarchy of the policy-aware Internet topology. We formally prove that our approach generates connected and legitimate topologies, which are compatible with the policy-based routing conventions and rules.8. Extrema Propagation: This paper introduces Extrema Propagation, a 2012 Fast Distributed probabilistic technique for distributed estimation of the Estimation of Sums sum of positive real numbers. The technique relies on the and Network Sizes exchange of duplicate insensitive messages and can be applied in flood and/or epidemic settings, where multipath routing occurs; it is tolerant of message loss; it is fast, as the number of message exchange steps can be made just slightly above the theoretical minimum; and it is fully distributed, with no single point of failure and the result produced at every node.9. Latency Equalization We propose a Latency Equalization (LEQ) service, 2012 as a New Network which equalizes the perceived latency for all clients. Service Primitive10. Grouping-Enhanced This paper proposes a scheme, referred to as Grouping- 2012 Resilient Probabilistic enhanced Resilient Probabilistic En-route Filtering En-Route Filtering of (GRPEF). In GRPEF, an efficient distributed algorithm is Injected False Data in proposed to group nodes without incurring extra groups, WSNs and a multi axis division based approach for deriving location-aware keys is used to overcome the threshold problem and remove the dependence on the sink immobility and routing protocols.11. On Achieving Group- A multicast scheme is stragegyproof if no receiver has 2012 Strategy proof incentive to lie about her true valuation. It is further Multicast group strategyproof if no group of colluding receivers has incentive to lie. We study multicast schemes that target group strategyproofness, in both directed and undirected networks.12. Distributed -Optimal In this paper, we develop a framework for user 2012 User Association and association in infrastructure-based wireless networks, Cell Load Balancing specifically focused on flow-level cell load balancing in Wireless Networks under spatially in homogeneous traffic distributions. Our work encompasses several different user association policies: rate-optimal, throughput-optimal, delay-optimal, and load-equalizing, which we collectively denote ?- optimal user association.13. Opportunistic Flow- In this paper, we propose Consistent Net Flow (CNF) 2012 Level Latency architecture for measuring per-flow delay measurements Estimation Using within routers. CNF utilizes the existing Net Flow Consistent Net Flow architecture that already reports the first and last timestamps per flow, and it proposes hash-based sampling to ensure that two adjacent routers record the
same flows.14. Leveraging a Resource discovery is critical to the usability and 2012 Compound Graph- accessibility of grid computing systems. Distributed Based DHT for Multi- Hash Table (DHT) has been applied to grid systems as a Attribute Range distributed mechanism for providing scalable range- Queries with query and multi-attribute resource discovery. Multi- Performance Analysis DHT-based approaches depend on multiple DHT networks with each network responsible for a single attribute. Single-DHT-based approaches keep the resource information of all attributes in a single node. Both classes of approaches lead to high overhead. In this paper, we propose a Low-Overhead Range-query Multi- attribute (LORM) DHT-based resource discovery approach. Unlike other DHT-based approaches, LORM relies on a single compound graph-based DHT network and distributes resource information among nodes in balance by taking advantage of the compound graph structure. Moreover, it has high capability to handle the large-scale and dynamic characteristics of resources in grids. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of LORM in comparison with other resource discovery approaches. LORM dramatically reduces maintenance and resource discovery overhead. In addition, it yields significant improvements in resource location efficiency. We also analyze the performance of the LORM approach rigorously by comparing it with other multi-DHT-based and single-DHT-based approaches with respect to their overhead and efficiency. The analytical results are consistent with experimental results, and prove the superiority of the LORM approach in theory15. Exploiting Excess Excess capacity (EC) is the unused capacity in a 2012 Capacity to Improve network. We propose EC management techniques to Robustness of WDM improve network performance. Our techniques exploit Mesh Networks the EC in two ways. First, a connection preprovisioning algorithm is used to reduce the connection setup time. Second, whenever possible, we use protection schemes that have higher availability and shorter protection switching time. Specifically, depending on the amount of EC available in the network, our proposed EC management techniques dynamically migrate connections between high-availability, high-backup- capacity protection schemes and low-availability, low- backup-capacity protection schemes. Thus, multiple protection schemes can coexist in the network. The four EC management techniques studied in this paper differ in two respects: when the connections are migrated from
one protection scheme to another, and which connections are migrated. Specifically, Lazy techniques migrate connections only when necessary, whereas Proactive techniques migrate connections to free up capacity in advance. Partial Backup Reprovisioning (PBR) techniques try to migrate a minimal set of connections, whereas Global Backup Reprovisioning (GBR) techniques migrate all connections. We develop integer linear program (ILP) formulations and heuristic algorithms for the EC management techniques. We then present numerical examples to illustrate how the EC management techniques improve network performance by exploiting the EC in wavelength-division- multiplexing (WDM) mesh networks16. Revisiting Dynamic In unstructured peer-to-peer networks, the average 2012 Query Protocols in response latency and traffic cost of a query are two main Unstructured Peer-to- performance metrics. Controlled-flooding resource query Peer Networks algorithms are widely used in unstructured networks such as peer-to-peer networks. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm named Selective Dynamic Query (SDQ). Based on mathematical programming, SDQ calculates the optimal combination of an integer TTL value and a set of neighbors to control the scope of the next query. Our results demonstrate that SDQ provides finer grained control than other algorithms: its response latency is close to the well-known minimum one via Expanding Ring; in the mean time, its traffic cost is also close to the minimum. To our best knowledge, this is the first work capable of achieving a best trade-off between response latency and traffic cost.17. Adaptive A distributed adaptive opportunistic routing scheme for 2012 Opportunistic Routing multihop wireless ad hoc networks is proposed. The for Wireless Ad Hoc proposed scheme utilizes a reinforcement learning Networks framework to opportunistically route the packets even in the absence of reliable knowledge about channel statistics and network model. This scheme is shown to be optimal with respect to an expected average per-packet reward criterion. The proposed routing scheme jointly addresses the issues of learning and routing in an opportunistic context, where the network structure is characterized by the transmission success probabilities. In particular, this learning framework leads to a stochastic routing scheme that optimally “explores” and “exploits” the opportunities in the network.18. Design, This load balancer improves both throughput and 2012
Implementation, and response time versus a single node, while exposing a Performance of A single interface to external clients. The algorithm Load Balancer for SIP achieves Transaction Least-Work-Left (TLWL), Server Clusters – achieves its performance by integrating several features: projects 2012 knowledge of the SIP protocol; dynamic estimates of back-end server load; distinguishing transactions from calls; recognizing variability in call length; and exploiting differences in processing costs for different SIP transactions.19. Router Support for An increasing number of datacenter network 2012 Fine-Grained Latency applications, including automated trading and high- Measurements – performance computing, have stringent end-to-end projects 2012 latency requirements where even microsecond variations may be intolerable. The resulting fine-grained measurement demands cannot be met effectively by existing technologies, such as SNMP, NetFlow, or active probing. Instrumenting routers with a hash-based primitive has been proposed that called as Lossy Difference Aggregator (LDA) to measure latencies down to tens of microseconds even in the presence of packet loss. Because LDA does not modify or encapsulate the packet, it can be deployed incrementally without changes along the forwarding path. When compared to Poisson- spaced active probing with similar overheads, LDA mechanism delivers orders of magnitude smaller relative error. Although ubiquitous deployment is ultimately desired, it may be hard to achieve in the shorter term20. A Framework for Monitoring transit traffic at one or more points in a 2012 Routing Assisted network is of interest to network operators for reasons of Traffic Monitoring – traffic accounting, debugging or troubleshooting, projects 2012 forensics, and traffic engineering. Previous research in the area has focused on deriving a placement of monitors across the network towards the end of maximizing the monitoring utility of the network operator for a given traffic routing. However, both traffic characteristics and measurement objectives can dynamically change over time, rendering a previously optimal placement of monitors suboptimal. It is not feasible to dynamically redeploy/reconfigure measurement infrastructure to cater to such evolving measurement requirements. This problem is addressed by strategically routing traffic sub- populations over fixed monitors. This approach is MeasuRouting. The main challenge for MeasuRouting is to work within the constraints of existing intra-domain traffic engineering operations that are geared for efficiently utilizing bandwidth resources, or meeting
Quality of Service (QoS) constraints, or both. A fundamental feature of intra-domain routing, that makes MeasuRouting feasible, is that intra-domain routing is often specified for aggregate flows. MeasuRouting, can therefore, differentially route components of an aggregate flow while ensuring that the aggregate placement is compliant to original traffic engineering objectives.21. Independent In order to achieve resilient multipath routing we 2012 Directed Acyclic introduce the concept of Independent Directed Acyclic Graphs for Resilient Graphs (IDAGs) in this study. Link-independent (Node- Multipath Routing independent) DAGs satisfy the property that any path from a source to the root on one DAG is link-disjoint (node-disjoint) with any path from the source to the root on the other DAG. Given a network, we develop polynomial time algorithms to compute link-independent and node-independent DAGs. The algorithm developed in this paper: (1) provides multipath routing; (2) utilizes all possible edges; (3) guarantees recovery from single link failure; and (4) achieves all these with at most one bit per packet as overhead when routing is based on destination address and incoming edge. We show the effectiveness of the proposed IDAGs approach by comparing key performance indices to that of the independent trees and multiple pairs of independent trees techniques through extensive simulations22. A Greedy Link Information-theoretic broadcast channels (BCs) and 2012 Scheduler for Wireless multiple-access channels (MACs) enable a single node to Networks With transmit data simultaneously to multiple nodes, and Gaussian Multiple- multiple nodes to transmit data simultaneously to a single Access and Broadcast node, respectively. In this paper, we address the problem Channels of link scheduling in multihop wireless networks containing nodes with BC and MAC capabilities. We first propose an interference model that extends protocol interference models, originally designed for point-to- point channels, to include the possibility of BCs and MACs. Due to the high complexity of optimal link schedulers, we introduce the Multiuser Greedy Maximum Weight algorithm for link scheduling in multihop wireless networks containing BCs and MACs. Given a network graph, we develop new local pooling conditions and show that the performance of our algorithm can be fully characterized using the associated parameter, the multiuser local pooling factor. We provide examples of some network graphs, on which we apply local pooling conditions and derive the multiuser local
pooling factor. We prove optimality of our algorithm in tree networks and show that the exploitation of BCs and MACs improve the throughput performance considerably in multihop wireless networks.23. A Quantization We consider rate optimization in multicast systems that 2012 Theoretic Perspective use several multicast trees on a communication network. on Simulcast and The network is shared between different applications. For Layered Multicast that reason, we model the available bandwidth for Optimization multicast as stochastic. For specific network topologies, we show that the multicast rate optimization problem is equivalent to the optimization of scalar quantization. We use results from rate-distortion theory to provide a bound on the achievable performance for the multicast rate optimization problem. A large number of receivers makes the possibility of adaptation to changing network conditions desirable in a practical system. To this end, we derive an analytical solution to the problem that is asymptotically optimal in the number of multicast trees. We derive local optimality conditions, which we use to describe a general class of iterative algorithms that give locally optimal solutions to the problem. Simulation results are provided for the multicast of an i.i.d. Gaussian process, an i.i.d. Laplacian process, and a video source.24. Bit Weaving A Non- Ternary Content Addressable Memories (TCAMs) have 2012 Prefix Approach to become the de facto standard in industry for fast packet Compressing Packet classification. Unfortunately, TCAMs have limitations of Classifiers in TCAMs small capacity, high power consumption, high heat generation, and high cost. The well-known range expansion problem exacerbates these limitations as each classifier rule typically has to be converted to multiple TCAM rules. One method for coping with these limitations is to use compression schemes to reduce the number of TCAM rules required to represent a classifier. Unfortunately, all existing compression schemes only produce prefix classifiers. Thus, they all miss the compression opportunities created by non-prefix ternary classifiers.25. Cooperative Profit We consider a network in which several service 2012 Sharing in Coalition- providers offer wireless access service to their respective Based Resource subscribed customers through potentially multi-hop Allocation in Wireless routes. If providers cooperate, i.e., pool their resources, Networks such as spectrum and base stations, and agree to serve each others customers, their aggregate payoffs, and individual shares, can potentially substantially increase through efficient utilization of resources and statistical
multiplexing. The potential of such cooperation can however be realized only if each provider intelligently determines who it would cooperate with, when it would cooperate, and how it would share its resources during such cooperation. Also, when the providers share their aggregate revenues, developing a rational basis for such sharing is imperative for the stability of the coalitions. We model such cooperation using transferable payoff coalitional game theory. We first consider the scenario that locations of the base stations and the channels that each provider can use have already been decided apriori. We show that the optimum cooperation strategy, which involves the allocations of the channels and the base stations to mobile customers, can be obtained as solutions of convex optimizations. We next show that the grand coalition is stable in this case, i.e. if all providers cooperate, there is always an operating point that maximizes the providers aggregate payoff, while offering each such a share that removes any incentive to split from the coalition. Next, we show that when the providers can choose the locations of their base stations and decide which channels to acquire, the above results hold in important special cases. Finally, we examine cooperation when providers do not share their payoffs, but still share their resources so as to enhance individual payoffs. We show that the grand coalition continues to be stable.26. CSMACN Carrier A wireless transmitter learns of a packet loss and infers 2012 Sense Multiple Access collision only after completing the entire transmission. If With Collision the transmitter could detect the collision early [such as Notification with carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) in wired networks], it could immediately abort its transmission, freeing the channel for useful communication. There are two main hurdles to realize CSMA/CD in wireless networks. First, a wireless transmitter cannot simultaneously transmit and listen for a collision. Second, any channel activity around the transmitter may not be an indicator of collision at the receiver. This paper attempts to approximate CSMA/CD in wireless networks with a novel scheme called CSMA/CN (collision notification). Under CSMA/CN, the receiver uses PHY-layer information to detect a collision and immediately notifies the transmitter. The collision notification consists of a unique signature, sent on the same channel as the data. The transmitter employs a listener antenna and performs signature correlation to
discern this notification. Once discerned, the transmitter immediately aborts the transmission. We show that the notification signature can be reliably detected at the listener antenna, even in the presence of a strong self- interference from the transmit antenna. A prototype testbed of 10 USRP/GNU Radios demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of CSMA/CN.27. Dynamic Power A major problem in wireless networks is coping with 2012 Allocation Under limited resources, such as bandwidth and energy. These Arbitrary Varying issues become a major algorithmic challenge in view of Channels—An Online the dynamic nature of the wireless domain. We consider Approach in this paper the single-transmitter power assignment problem under time-varying channels, with the objective of maximizing the data throughput. It is assumed that the transmitter has a limited power budget, to be sequentially divided during the lifetime of the battery. We deviate from the classic work in this area, which leads to explicit "water-filling" solutions, by considering a realistic scenario where the channel state quality changes arbitrarily from one transmission to the other. The problem is accordingly tackled within the framework of competitive analysis, which allows for worst case performance guarantees in setups with arbitrarily varying channel conditions. We address both a "discrete" case, where the transmitter can transmit only at a fixed power level, and a "continuous" case, where the transmitter can choose any power level out of a bounded interval. For both cases, we propose online power-allocation algorithms with proven worst-case performance bounds. In addition, we establish lower bounds on the worst-case performance of any online algorithm, and show that our proposed algorithms are optimal.28. Economic Issues in In designing and managing a shared infrastructure, one 2012 Shared Infrastructures must take account of the fact that its participants will make self-interested and strategic decisions about the resources that they are willing to contribute to it and/or the share of its cost that they are willing to bear. Taking proper account of the incentive issues that thereby arise, we design mechanisms that, by eliciting appropriate information from the participants, can obtain for them maximal social welfare, subject to charging payments that are sufficient to cover costs. We show that there are incentivizing roles to be played both by the payments that we ask from the participants and the specification of how resources are to be shared. New in this paper is our
formulation of models for designing optimal management policies, our analysis that demonstrates the inadequacy of simple sharing policies, and our proposals for some better ones. We learn that simple policies may be far from optimal and that efficient policy design is not trivial. However, we find that optimal policies have simple forms in the limit as the number of participants becomes large.29. On New Approaches Society relies heavily on its networked physical 2012 of Assessing Network infrastructure and information systems. Accurately Vulnerability assessing the vulnerability of these systems against Hardness and disruptive events is vital for planning and risk Approximation management. Existing approaches to vulnerability assessments of large-scale systems mainly focus on investigating inhomogeneous properties of the underlying graph elements. These measures and the associated heuristic solutions are limited in evaluating the vulnerability of large-scale network topologies. Furthermore, these approaches often fail to provide performance guarantees of the proposed solutions. In this paper, we propose a vulnerability measure, pairwise connectivity, and use it to formulate network vulnerability assessment as a graph-theoretical optimization problem, referred to as -disruptor. The objective is to identify the minimum set of critical network elements, namely nodes and edges, whose removal results in a specific degradation of the network global pairwise connectivity. We prove the NP- completeness and inapproximability of this problem and propose an pseudo-approximation algorithm to computing the set of critical nodes and an pseudo- approximation algorithm for computing the set of critical edges. The results of an extensive simulation-based experiment show the feasibility of our proposed vulnerability assessment framework and the efficiency of the proposed approximation algorithms in comparison to other approaches.30. Quantifying Video- With the proliferation of multimedia content on the 2012 QoE Degradations of Internet, there is an increasing demand for video streams Internet Links with high perceptual quality. The capability of present- day Internet links in delivering high-perceptual-quality streaming services, however, is not completely understood. Link-level degradations caused by intradomain routing policies and inter-ISP peering policies are hard to obtain, as Internet service providers often consider such information proprietary.
Understanding link-level degradations will enable us in designing future protocols, policies, and architectures to meet the rising multimedia demands. This paper presents a trace-driven study to understand quality-of-experience (QoE) capabilities of present-day Internet links using 51 diverse ISPs with a major presence in the US, Europe, and Asia-Pacific. We study their links from 38 vantage points in the Internet using both passive tracing and active probing for six days. We provide the first measurements of link-level degradations and case studies of intra-ISP and inter-ISP peering links from a multimedia standpoint. Our study offers surprising insights into intradomain traffic engineering, peering link loading, BGP, and the inefficiencies of using autonomous system (AS)-path lengths as a routing metric. Though our results indicate that Internet routing policies are not optimized for delivering high-perceptual- quality streaming services, we argue that alternative strategies such as overlay networks can help meet QoE demands over the Internet. Streaming services apart, our Internet measurement results can be used as an input to a variety of research problems.31. Order Matters Modern wireless interfaces support a physical-layer 2012 Transmission capability called Message in Message (MIM). Briefly, Reordering in MIM allows a receiver to disengage from an ongoing Wireless Networks reception and engage onto a stronger incoming signal. Links that otherwise conflict with each other can be made concurrent with MIM. However, the concurrency is not immediate and can be achieved only if conflicting links begin transmission in a specific order. The importance of link order is new in wireless research, motivating MIM-aware revisions to link-scheduling protocols. This paper identifies the opportunity in MIM- aware reordering, characterizes the optimal improvement in throughput, and designs a link-layer protocol for enterprise wireless LANs to achieve it. Testbed and simulation results confirm the performance gains of the proposed system.32. Static Routing and In this paper, we investigate the static multicast advance 2012 Wavelength reservation (MCAR) problem for all-optical wavelength- Assignment for routed WDM networks. Under the advanced reservation Multicast Advance traffic model, connection requests specify their start time Reservation in All- to be some time in the future and also specify their Optical Wavelength- holding times. We investigate the static MCAR problem Routed WDM where the set of advance reservation requests is known
Networks ahead of time. We prove the MCAR problem is NP- complete, formulate the problem mathematically as an integer linear program (ILP), and develop three efficient heuristics, seqRWA, ISH, and SA, to solve the problem for practical size networks. We also introduce a theoretical lower bound on the number of wavelengths required. To evaluate our heuristics, we first compare their performances to the ILP for small networks, and then simulate them over real-world, large-scale networks. We find the SA heuristic provides close to optimal results compared to the ILP for our smaller networks, and up to a 33% improvement over seqRWA and up to a 22% improvement over ISH on realistic networks. SA provides, on average, solutions 1.5-1.8 times the cost given by our conservative lower bound on large networks.33. System-Level We consider a robust-optimization-driven system-level 2012 Optimization in approach to interference management in a cellular Wireless Networks broadband system operating in an interference-limited Managing Interference and highly dynamic regime. Here, base stations in and Uncertainty via neighboring cells (partially) coordinate their transmission Robust Optimization schedules in an attempt to avoid simultaneous max- power transmission to their mutual cell edge. Limits on communication overhead and use of the backhaul require base station coordination to occur at a slower timescale than the customer arrival process. The central challenge is to properly structure coordination decisions at the slow timescale, as these subsequently restrict the actions of each base station until the next coordination period. Moreover, because coordination occurs at the slower timescale, the statistics of the arriving customers, e.g., the load, are typically only approximately known-thus, this coordination must be done with only approximate knowledge of statistics. We show that performance of existing approaches that assume exact knowledge of these statistics can degrade rapidly as the uncertainty in the arrival process increases. We show that a two-stage robust optimization framework is a natural way to model two-timescale decision problems. We provide tractable formulations for the base-station coordination problem and show that our formulation is robust to fluctuations (uncertainties) in the arriving load. This tolerance to load fluctuation also serves to reduce the need for frequent reoptimization across base stations, thus helping minimize the communication overhead required for system-level interference reduction. Our robust
optimization formulations are flexible, allowing us to control the conservatism of the solution. Our simulations show that we can build in robustness without significant degradation of nominal performance. 34. The Case for Feed- Variable latencies due to communication delays or 2012 Forward Clock system noise is the central challenge faced by time- Synchronization keeping algorithms when synchronizing over the network. Using extensive experiments, we explore the robustness of synchronization in the face of both normal and extreme latency variability and compare the feedback approaches of ntpd and ptpd (a software implementation of IEEE-1588) to the feed-forward approach of the RADclock and advocate for the benefits of a feed-forward approach. Noting the current lack of kernel support, we present extensions to existing mechanisms in the Linux and FreeBSD kernels giving full access to all available raw counters, and then evaluate the TSC, HPET, and ACPI counters suitability as hardware timing sources. We demonstrate how the RADclock achieves the same microsecond accuracy with each counter.TECHNOLOGY : JAVADOMAIN : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORK SECURITYS.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR 1. Design and We have designed and implemented TARF, a robust 2012 Implementation of trust-aware routing framework for dynamic wireless TARF: A Trust-Aware sensor networks (WSN). Without tight time Routing Framework synchronization or known Geographic information, for WSNs TARF provides trustworthy and energy-efficient route. Most importantly, TARF proves effective against those harmful attacks developed out of identity deception; the resilience of TARF is verified through extensive evaluation with both simulation and empirical experiments on large-scale WSNs under various scenarios including mobile and RF-shielding network conditions. 2. Risk-Aware In this paper, we propose a risk-aware response 2012 Mitigation for mechanism to systematically Cope with the identified MANET Routing routing attacks. Our risk-aware approach is based on an Attacks extended Dempster-Shafer mathematical theory of
Evidence introducing a notion of importance factors.3. Survivability In this paper, we study survivability issues for RFID. We 2012 Experiment and first present an RFID survivability experiment to define a Attack foundation to measure the degree of survivability of an Characterization for RFID system under varying attacks. Then we model a RFID series of malicious scenarios using stochastic process algebras and study the different effects of those attacks on the ability of the RFID system to provide critical services even when parts of the system have been damaged.4. Detecting and In this paper, we represent an 2012 Resolving Firewall innovative policy anomaly management framework Policy Anomalies for firewalls, adopting a rule-based segmentation technique to identify policy anomalies and derive effective anomaly resolutions. In particular, we articulate a grid-based representation technique, providing an intuitive cognitive sense about policy anomaly.5. Automatic In this paper, we present a complete solution for 2012 Reconfiguration for dynamically changing system membership in a large- Large-Scale Reliable scale Byzantine-fault-tolerant system. We present a Storage Systems service that tracks system membership and periodically notifies other system nodes of changes.6. Detecting Anomalous In this paper, we introduce the community anomaly 2012 Insiders in detection system (CADS), an unsupervised learning Collaborative framework to detect insider threats based on the access Information Systems logs of collaborative environments. The framework is based on the observation that typical CIS users tend to form community structures based on the subjects accessed7. An Extended Visual Conventional visual secret sharing schemes generate 2012 Cryptography noise-like random pixels on shares to hide secret images. Algorithm for General It suffers a management problem. In this paper, we Access Structures propose a general approach to solve the above- mentioned problems; the approach can be used for binary secret images in non computer-aided decryption environments.8. Mitigating Distributed In this paper, we extend port-hopping to support 2012 Denial of Service multiparty applications, by proposing the BIGWHEEL Attacks in Multiparty algorithm, for each application server to communicate Applications in the with multiple clients in a port-hopping manner without Presence of Clock the need for group synchronization. Furthermore, we Drift present an adaptive algorithm, HOPERAA, for enabling hopping in the presence of bounded asynchrony, namely, when the communicating parties have clocks with clock drifts.9. On the Security and Content distribution via network coding has received a 2012
Efficiency of Content lot of attention lately. However, direct application of Distribution via network coding may be insecure. In particular, attackers Network Coding can inject "bogus” data to corrupt the content distribution process so as to hinder the information dispersal or even deplete the network resource. Therefore, content verification is an important and practical issue when network coding is employed.10. Packet-Hiding In this paper, we address the problem of selective 2012 Methods for jamming attacks in wireless networks. In these attacks, Preventing Selective the adversary is active only for a short period of time, Jamming Attacks selectively targeting messages of high importance.11. Stochastic Model of 2012 Multi virus Dynamics12. Peering Equilibrium Our scheme relies on a game theory modeling, with a 2012 Multipath Routing: A non-cooperative potential game considering both routing Game Theory and congestions costs. We compare different PEMP Framework for policies to BGP Multipath schemes by emulating a Internet Peering realistic peering scenario. Settlements13. Modeling and Our scheme uses the Power Spectral Density (PSD) 2012 Detection of distribution of the scan traffic volume and its Camouflaging Worm corresponding Spectral Flatness Measure (SFM) to distinguish the C-Worm traffic from background traffic. The performance data clearly demonstrates that our scheme can effectively detect the C-Worm propagation.two heuristic algorithms for the two sub problems.14. Analysis of a Botnet We present the design of an advanced hybrid peer-to- 2012 Takeover peer botnet. Compared with current botnets, the proposed botnet is harder to be shut down, monitored, and hijacked. It provides individualized encryption and control traffic dispersion.15. Efficient Network As real-time traffic such as video or voice increases on 2012 Modification to the Internet, ISPs are required to provide stable quality as Improve QoS Stability well as connectivity at failures. For ISPs, how to at Failures effectively improve the stability of these qualities at failures with the minimum investment cost is an important issue, and they need to effectively select a limited number of locations to add link facilities.16. Detecting Spam Compromised machines are one of the key security 2012 Zombies by threats on the Internet; they are often used to launch Monitoring Outgoing various security attacks such as spamming and spreading Messages malware, DDoS, and identity theft. Given that spamming provides a key economic incentive for attackers to recruit the large number of compromised machines, we focus on the detection of the compromised machines in a network
that are involved in the spamming activities, commonly known as spam zombies. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates. In addition, we also evaluate the performance of the developed SPOT system using a two-month e-mail trace collected in a large US campus network. Our evaluation studies show that SPOT is an effective and efficient system in automatically detecting compromised machines in a network. For example, among the 440 internal IP addresses observed in the e-mail trace, SPOT identifies 132 of them as being associated with compromised machines. Out of the 132 IP addresses identified by SPOT, 126 can be either independently confirmed (110) or highly likely (16) to be compromised. Moreover, only seven internal IP addresses associated with compromised machines in the trace are missed by SPOT. In addition, we also compare the performance of SPOT with two other spam zombie detection algorithms based on the number and percentage of spam messages originated or forwarded by internal machines, respectively, and show that SPOT outperforms these two detection algorithms.17. A Hybrid Approach to Real-world entities are not always represented by the 2012 Private Record same set of features in different data sets. Therefore, Matching Network matching records of the same real-world entity Security 2012 Java distributed across these data sets is a challenging task. If the data sets contain private information, the problem becomes even more difficult. Existing solutions to this problem generally follow two approaches: sanitization techniques and cryptographic techniques. We propose a hybrid technique that combines these two approaches and enables users to trade off between privacy, accuracy, and cost. Our main contribution is the use of a blocking phase that operates over sanitized data to filter out in a privacy- preserving manner pairs of records that do not satisfy the matching condition. We also provide a formal definition of privacy and prove that the participants of our protocols learn nothing other than their share of the result and what can be inferred from their share of the result, their input and sanitized views of the input data sets (which are considered public information). Our method incurs considerably lower costs than cryptographic techniques
and yields significantly more accurate matching results compared to sanitization techniques, even when privacy requirements are high.18. ES-MPICH2: A An increasing number of commodity clusters are 2012 Message Passing connected to each other by public networks, which have Interface with become a potential threat to security sensitive parallel Enhanced Security applications running on the clusters. To address this Network Security security issue, we developed a Message Passing Interface 2012 Java (MPI) implementation to preserve confidentiality of messages communicated among nodes of clusters in an unsecured network. We focus on MPI rather than other protocols, because MPI is one of the most popular communication protocols for parallel computing on clusters. Our MPI implementation—called ES- MPICH2—was built based on MPICH2 developed by the Argonne National Laboratory. Like MPICH2, ES- MPICH2 aims at supporting a large variety of computation and communication platforms like commodity clusters and high-speed networks. We integrated encryption and decryption algorithms into the MPICH2 library with the standard MPI interface and; thus, data confidentiality of MPI applications can be readily preserved without a need to change the source codes of the MPI applications. MPI-application programmers can fully configure any confidentiality services in MPICHI2, because a secured configuration file in ES-MPICH2 offers the programmers flexibility in choosing any cryptographic schemes and keys seamlessly incorporated in ES-MPICH2. We used the Sandia Micro Benchmark and Intel MPI Benchmark suites to evaluate and compare the performance of ES- MPICH2 with the original MPICH2 version. Our experiments show that overhead incurred by the confidentiality services in ES-MPICH2 is marginal for small messages. The security overhead in ES-MPICH2 becomes more pronounced with larger messages. Our results also show that security overhead can be significantly reduced in ES-MPICH2 by high- performance clusters.19. Ensuring Distributed Cloud computing enables highly scalable services to be 2012 Accountability for easily consumed over the Internet on an as-needed basis. Data Sharing in the A major feature of the cloud services is that users’ data Cloud are usually processed remotely in unknown machines that users do not own or operate. While enjoying the convenience brought by this new emerging technology, users’ fears of losing control of their own data
(particularly, financial and health data) can become a significant barrier to the wide adoption of cloud services. To address this problem, here, we propose a novel highly decentralized information accountability framework to keep track of the actual usage of the users’ data in the cloud. In particular, we propose an object-centered approach that enables enclosing our logging mechanism together with users’ data and policies. We leverage the JAR programmable capabilities to both create a dynamic and traveling object, and to ensure that any access to users’ data will trigger authentication and automated logging local to the JARs. To strengthen user’s control, we also provide distributed auditing mechanisms. We provide extensive experimental studies that demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.20. BECAN: A Injecting false data attack is a well known serious threat 2012 Bandwidth-Efficient to wireless sensor network, for which an adversary Cooperative reports bogus information to sink causing error decision Authentication at upper level and energy waste in en-route nodes. In this Scheme for Filtering paper, we propose a novel bandwidth-efficient Injected False Data in cooperative authentication (BECAN) scheme for filtering Wireless Sensor injected false data. Based on the random graph Networks – projects characteristics of sensor node deployment and the 2012 cooperative bit-compressed authentication technique, the proposed BECAN scheme can save energy by early detecting and filtering the majority of injected false data with minor extra overheads at the en-route nodes. In addition, only a very small fraction of injected false data needs to be checked by the sink, which thus largely reduces the burden of the sink. Both theoretical and simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of high filtering probability and energy saving.21. A Flexible Approach There is an increasing need for fault tolerance 2012 to Improving System capabilities in logic devices brought about by the scaling Reliability with of transistors to ever smaller geometries. This paper Virtual Lockstep presents a hypervisor-based replication approach that can be applied to commodity hardware to allow for virtually lockstepped execution. It offers many of the benefits of hardware-based lockstep while being cheaper and easier to implement and more flexible in the configurations supported. A novel form of processor state fingerprinting is also presented, which can significantly reduce the fault detection latency. This further improves reliability by triggering rollback recovery before errors are recorded to
a checkpoint. The mechanisms are validated using a full prototype and the benchmarks considered indicate an average performance overhead of approximately 14 percent with the possibility for significant optimization. Finally, a unique method of using virtual lockstep for fault injection testing is presented and used to show that significant detection latency reduction is achievable by comparing only a small amount of data across replicas22. A Learning-Based Despite the conventional wisdom that proactive security 2012 Approach to Reactive is superior to reactive security, we show that reactive Security security can be competitive with proactive security as long as the reactive defender learns from past attacks instead of myopically overreacting to the last attack. Our game-theoretic model follows common practice in the security literature by making worst case assumptions about the attacker: we grant the attacker complete knowledge of the defenders strategy and do not require the attacker to act rationally. In this model, we bound the competitive ratio between a reactive defense algorithm (which is inspired by online learning theory) and the best fixed proactive defense. Additionally, we show that, unlike proactive defenses, this reactive strategy is robust to a lack of information about the attackers incentives and knowledge23. Automated Security Despite the conventional wisdom that proactive security 2012 Test Generation with is superior to reactive security, we show that reactive Formal Threat Models security can be competitive with proactive security as long as the reactive defender learns from past attacks instead of myopically overreacting to the last attack. Our game-theoretic model follows common practice in the security literature by making worst case assumptions about the attacker: we grant the attacker complete knowledge of the defenders strategy and do not require the attacker to act rationally. In this model, we bound the competitive ratio between a reactive defense algorithm (which is inspired by online learning theory) and the best fixed proactive defense. Additionally, we show that, unlike proactive defenses, this reactive strategy is robust to a lack of information about the attackers incentives and knowledge.24. Automatic Byzantine-fault-tolerant replication enhances the 2012 Reconfiguration for availability and reliability of Internet services that store Large-Scale Reliable critical state and preserve it despite attacks or software Storage Systems errors. However, existing Byzantine-fault-tolerant storage systems either assume a static set of replicas, or
have limitations in how they handle reconfigurations (e.g., in terms of the scalability of the solutions or the consistency levels they provide). This can be problematic in long-lived, large-scale systems where system membership is likely to change during the system lifetime. In this paper, we present a complete solution for dynamically changing system membership in a large- scale Byzantine-fault-tolerant system. We present a service that tracks system membership and periodically notifies other system nodes of membership changes. The membership service runs mostly automatically, to avoid human configuration errors; is itself Byzantine-fault- tolerant and reconfigurable; and provides applications with a sequence of consistent views of the system membership. We demonstrate the utility of this membership service by using it in a novel distributed hash table called dBQS that provides atomic semantics even across changes in replica sets. dBQS is interesting in its own right because its storage algorithms extend existing Byzantine quorum protocols to handle changes in the replica set, and because it differs from previous DHTs by providing Byzantine fault tolerance and offering strong semantics. We implemented the membership service and dBQS. Our results show that the approach works well, in practice: the membership service is able to manage a large system and the cost to change the system membership is low.25. JS-Reduce Defending Web queries, credit card transactions, and medical 2012 Your Data from records are examples of transaction data flowing in Sequential corporate data stores, and often revealing associations Background between individuals and sensitive information. The serial Knowledge Attacks release of these data to partner institutions or data analysis centers in a nonaggregated form is a common situation. In this paper, we show that correlations among sensitive values associated to the same individuals in different releases can be easily used to violate users privacy by adversaries observing multiple data releases, even if state-of-the-art privacy protection techniques are applied. We show how the above sequential background knowledge can be actually obtained by an adversary, and used to identify with high confidence the sensitive values of an individual. Our proposed defense algorithm is based on Jensen-Shannon divergence; experiments show its superiority with respect to other applicable solutions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that systematically investigates the role of sequential
background knowledge in serial release of transaction data.26. Mitigating DistributedNetwork-based applications commonly open some 2012 Denial of Service known communication port(s), making themselves easy Attacks in Multiparty targets for (distributed) Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Applications in the Earlier solutions for this problem are based on port- Presence of Clock hopping between pairs of processes which are Drifts synchronous or exchange acknowledgments. However, acknowledgments, if lost, can cause a port to be open for longer time and thus be vulnerable, while time servers can become targets to DoS attack themselves. Here, we extend port-hopping to support multiparty applications, by proposing the BIGWHEEL algorithm, for each application server to communicate with multiple clients in a port-hopping manner without the need for group synchronization. Furthermore, we present an adaptive algorithm, HOPERAA, for enabling hopping in the presence of bounded asynchrony, namely, when the communicating parties have clocks with clock drifts. The solutions are simple, based on each client interacting with the server independently of the other clients, without the need of acknowledgments or time server(s). Further, they do not rely on the application having a fixed port open in the beginning, neither do they require the clients to get a "first-contact” port from a third party. We show analytically the properties of the algorithms and also study experimentally their success rates, confirm the relation with the analytical bounds.27. On the Security and Content distribution via network coding has received a 2012 Efficiency of Content lot of attention lately. However, direct application of Distribution via network coding may be insecure. In particular, attackers Network Coding can inject "bogus” data to corrupt the content distribution process so as to hinder the information dispersal or even deplete the network resource. Therefore, content verification is an important and practical issue when network coding is employed. When random linear network coding is used, it is infeasible for the source of the content to sign all the data, and hence, the traditional "hash-and-sign” methods are no longer applicable. Recently, a new on-the-fly verification technique has been proposed by Krohn et al. (IEEE S&P 04), which employs a classical homomorphic hash function. However, this technique is difficult to be applied to network coding because of high computational and communication overhead. We explore this issue further
by carefully analyzing different types of overhead, and propose methods to help reducing both the computational and communication cost, and provide provable security at the same time.28. Security of Bertino- Recently, Bertino, Shang and Wagstaff proposed a time- 2012 Shang-Wagstaff Time- bound hierarchical key management scheme for secure Bound Hierarchical broadcasting. Their scheme is built on elliptic curve Key Management cryptography and implemented with tamper-resistant Scheme for Secure devices. In this paper, we present two collusion attacks Broadcasting on Bertino-Shang-Wagstaff scheme. The first attack does not need to compromise any decryption device, while the second attack requires to compromise single decryption device only. Both attacks are feasible and effective.29. Survivability Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been 2012 Experiment and developed as an important technique for many high Attack security and high integrity settings. In this paper, we Characterization for study survivability issues for RFID. We first present an RFID RFID survivability experiment to define a foundation to measure the degree of survivability of an RFID system under varying attacks. Then we model a series of malicious scenarios using stochastic process algebras and study the different effects of those attacks on the ability of the RFID system to provide critical services even when parts of the system have been damaged. Our simulation model relates its statistic to the attack strategies and security recovery. The model helps system designers and security specialists to identify the most devastating attacks given the attackers capacities and the systems recovery abilities. The goal is to improve the system survivability given possible attacks. Our model is the first of its kind to formally represent and simulate attacks on RFID systems and to quantitatively measure the degree of survivability of an RFID system under those attacks.30. Persuasive Cued This paper presents an integrated evaluation of the 2012 Click-Points Design, Persuasive Cued Click-Points graphical password Implementation, and scheme, including usability and security evaluations, and Evaluation of a implementation considerations. An important usability Knowledge- Based goal for knowledge-based authentication systems is to Authentication support users in selecting passwords of higher security, Mechanism in the sense of being from an expanded effective security space. We use persuasion to influence user choice in click-based graphical passwords, encouraging users to select more random, and hence more difficult to guess, click-points.
31. Resilient Modern computer systems are built on a foundation of 2012 Authenticated software components from a variety of vendors. While Execution of Critical critical applications may undergo extensive testing and Applications in evaluation procedures, the heterogeneity of software Untrusted sources threatens the integrity of the execution Environments environment for these trusted programs. For instance, if an attacker can combine an application exploit with a privilege escalation vulnerability, the operating system (OS) can become corrupted. Alternatively, a malicious or faulty device driver running with kernel privileges could threaten the application. While the importance of ensuring application integrity has been studied in prior work, proposed solutions immediately terminate the application once corruption is detected. Although, this approach is sufficient for some cases, it is undesirable for many critical applications. In order to overcome this shortcoming, we have explored techniques for leveraging a trusted virtual machine monitor (VMM) to observe the application and potentially repair damage that occurs. In this paper, we describe our system design, which leverages efficient coding and authentication schemes, and we present the details of our prototype implementation to quantify the overhead of our approach. Our work shows that it is feasible to build a resilient execution environment, even in the presence of a corrupted OS kernel, with a reasonable amount of storage and performance overhead.TECHNOLOGY : JAVADOMAIN : IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DATA MININGS.NO TITLES ABSTRACT YEAR 1. A Survival Modeling In this paper, we propose a survival modeling approach 2012 Approach to to promoting ranking diversity for biomedical Biomedical Searchinformation retrieval. The proposed approach concerns Result Diversification with finding relevant documents that can deliver more Using Wikipedia different aspects of a query. First, two probabilistic models derived from the survival analysis theory are proposed for measuring aspect novelty. 2. A Fuzzy Approach for In this paper, we propose a new fuzzy clustering 2012 Multitype Relational approach for multitype relational data (FC-MR). In FC- Data Clustering MR, different types of objects are clustered simultaneously. An object is assigned a large
membership with respect to a cluster if its related objects in this cluster have high rankings.3. Anonimos: An LP- We present Anonimos, a Linear Programming-based 2012 Based Approach for technique for anonymization of edge weights that Anonymizing preserves linear properties of graphs. Such properties Weighted Social form the foundation of many important graph-theoretic Network Graphs algorithms such as shortest paths problem, k-nearest neighbors, minimum cost spanning Tree and maximizing information spread.4. A Methodology for In this paper, we tackle discrimination prevention in data 2012 Direct and Indirect mining and propose new techniques applicable for direct Discrimination or indirect Discrimination prevention individually or Prevention in Data both at the same time. We discuss how to clean training Mining datasets and outsourced datasets in such a way that direct and/or indirect discriminatory decision rules are converted to legitimate (non-discriminatory) Classification rules.5. Mining Web Graphs In this paper, aiming at providing a general framework 2012 for Recommendations on mining Web graphs for recommendations, (1) we first propose a novel diffusion method which propagates similarities between different nodes and generates recommendations; (2) then we illustrate how to generalize different recommendation problems into our graph diffusion framework.6. Prediction of User’s Predicting users behavior while serving the Internet can 2012 Web-Browsing be applied effectively in various critical applications. Behavior: Application Such application has traditional tradeoffs between of Markov Model modeling complexity and prediction accuracy. In this paper, we analyze and study Markov model and all- Kth Markov model in Web prediction. We propose a new modified Markov model to alleviate the issue of scalability in the number of paths.7. Prototype Selection This paper provides a survey of the prototype selection 2012 for Nearest Neighbor methods proposed in the literature from a theoretical and Classification: empirical point of view. Considering a theoretical point Taxonomy and of view, we propose a taxonomy based on the main Empirical Study characteristics presented in prototype selection and we analyze their advantages and drawbacks, the nearest neighbor classifier suffers from several drawbacks such as high storage requirements, low efficiency in classification response, and low noise Tolerance.8. Query Planning for We present a low-cost, scalable technique to answer 2012 Continuous continuous aggregation queries using a network of Aggregation Queries aggregators of dynamic data items. In such a network of over a Network of data aggregators, each data aggregator serves a set of Data Aggregators data items at specific coherencies.
9. Revealing Density- In this paper, we introduce a novel density-based 2012 Based Clustering network clustering method, called gSkeletonClu (graph- Structure from the skeleton based clustering). By projecting an undirected Core-Connected Tree network to its core-connected maximal spanning tree, the of a Network clustering problem can be converted to detect core connectivity components on the tree.10. Scalable Learning of This study of collective behavior is to understand how 2012 Collective Behavior individuals behave in a social networking environment. Oceans of data generated by social media like Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, and YouTube present opportunities and challenges to study collective behavior on a large scale. In this work, we aim to learn to predict collective behavior in social media11. Weakly Supervised This paper proposes a novel probabilistic modeling 2012 Joint Sentiment-Topic framework called joint sentiment-topic (JST) model Detection from Text based on latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), which detects sentiment and topic simultaneously from text. A reparameterized version of the JST model called Reverse-JST, obtained by reversing the sequence of sentiment and topic generation in the modeling process, is also studied.12. A Framework for Due to a wide range of potential applications, research on 2012 Personal Mobile mobile commerce has received a lot of interests from Commerce Pattern both of the industry and academia. Among them, one of Mining and Prediction the active topic areas is the mining and prediction of users’ mobile commerce behaviors such as their movements and purchase transactions. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, called Mobile Commerce Explorer (MCE), for mining and prediction of mobile users’ movements and purchase transactions under the context of mobile commerce. The MCE framework consists of three major components: 1) Similarity Inference Model (SIM) for measuring the similarities among stores and items, which are two basic mobile commerce entities considered in this paper; 2) Personal Mobile Commerce Pattern Mine (PMCP-Mine) algorithm for efficient discovery of mobile users’ Personal Mobile Commerce Patterns (PMCPs); and 3) Mobile Commerce Behavior Predictor (MCBP) for prediction of possible mobile user behaviors. To our best knowledge, this is the first work that facilitates mining and prediction of mobile users’ commerce behaviors in order to recommend stores and items previously unknown to a user. We perform an extensive experimental evaluation by simulation and show that our proposals produce excellent results.
13. Efficient Extended Extended Boolean retrieval (EBR) models were proposed 2012 Boolean Retrieval nearly three decades ago, but have had little practical impact, despite their significant advantages compared to either ranked keyword or pure Boolean retrieval. In particular,EBR models produce meaningful rankings; their query model allows the representation of complex concepts in an and-or format; and they are scrutable, in that the score assigned to a document depends solely on the content of that document, unaffected by any collection statistics or other external factors. These characteristics make EBR models attractive in domains typified by medical and legal searching, where the emphasis is on iterative development of reproducible complex queries of dozens or even hundreds of terms. However, EBR is much more computationally expensive than the alternatives. We consider the implementation of the p-norm approach to EBR, and demonstrate that ideas used in the max-score and wand exact optimization techniques for ranked keyword retrieval can be adaptedto allow selective bypass of documents via a low-cost screening process for this and similar retrieval models. We also propose term independent bounds that are able to further reduce the number of score calculations for short, simple queries under the extended Boolean retrieval model. Together, these methods yield an overall saving from 50 to 80percent of the evaluation cost on test queries drawn from biomedical search.14. Improving Aggregate Recommender systems are becoming increasingly Recommendation important to individual users and businesses for Diversity Using providingpersonalized recommendations. However, Ranking-Based while the majority of algorithms proposed in Techniques recommender systems literature have focused on improving recommendation accuracy (as exemplified by the recent Netflix Prize competition) , other important aspects of recommendation quality, such as the diversity of recommendations, have often been overlooked. In this paper, we introduce and explore a number of item ranking techniques that can generate recommendations that have substantially higher aggregate diversity across all users while maintaining comparable levels of recommendation accuracy. Comprehensive empirical evaluation consistently shows the diversity gains of the