Climatic Factors and Mosquito Species in Rural and Urban Areas at Kantharom District, Srisaket ProvinceStudents: Jirasak Chaichana, Panida Promson, Patamaporn Singhansaree, AthitReangthogn, Surapon Noonsung, and students from M 6/2Teacher: S t i t K iT h Satapisat Kraisee, K t Kantararom school, K t h l Kantararom Di t i t S i k t 33130 www.kr.ac.th District, Srisaket 33130, k thScientists: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Krisanadej Jaroensutasinee, Assoc. Prof. Dr. MullicaJaroensutasinee, Siriwan Wongkoon, Walailak University
Contents1 Introduction2 Research question3 Materials and Methods4 Results and Discussion5 Acknowledgements
Introduction• K h l is located at l i d 15 1036 °N and l Kantararom school i l d latitude 15.1036 N d longitude i d 104.57538 °E, Kantararom district, Srisaket. Kantararom district is located on the sandy silt plateau and has several small ponds with 100,157 populations, 2,636 households, population density in urban area of 141 individuals/km2 and in rural area of 9 individuals/km2.
Introduction • There were 330 dengue incidence with a death rate of 0.30 at Sisaket in 2008 • Since 1st January – 31st July 2010, there were 1,200 dengue incidences which was ranked fourth dengue incidence rate in northeastern region. (Ministry of Health: online 2010).
Introduction rainfalls Growth rate of temperature the mosquito larva Cause may be… population densityrelative humidity location of the community
IntroductionWe examined how urban andrural areas differ in number andmosquito diversity. The relationship between pthe type and number of mosquito Our Olarvae associated with changes in Purposes. ph idit and temperature.humidity d t t The results from this studywill help us gain a betterunderstanding about denguecontrol and management. g
Research question Research questionDo mosquito number and species in urban and rural species in urban and ruralareas at Kantararom district differ? If yes, how do they differ? If yes, how do theydiffer?Are there some differences re there some differences between climatic factors and the number of mosquito larvae in number of mosquito larvae inurban and rural areas at Kantharom District, SrisaketProvince?
Materials and Methods Materials and Methods (a) (b)Study site yWe selected urban and rural areas at Kantararom district, Srisaket into 53 studysites: 10 urban sites and 43 rural sites (Fig. 1a,b).
Results and Discussion At urban area t urban area, there were two genera of mosquitoes: Aedes spp. and Culex spp. For d d l Aedes, there were Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus . and Aedes At rural area t rural area, there were g q three genera of mosquitoes: Aedes spp., Culex spp. and Anopheles spp. This indicates that rural areas might be more that rural areas might be more malaria risk than urban area.
Results and Discussion Urban areasThe number of Aedes aegypti larvae rural areas
Results and Discussion Urban areasThe number of Aedes albopictus larvae rural areas
Results and Discussion Urban areasThe number of Culex spp. larvae spp. rural areas
Results and Discussion Urban areas rural areas (a) House index (b) Container index and (c) Breteau index in urban
Results and Discussion amount of rainfall Date 50.00 highest temperature 400 45.00 lowest temperature 350 40.00 300 °C) all 35.00 mount of rain fa 250Temperature (° 30.00 200 25.00 20.00 150 15.00 100 50 am 10.00 10 00T 5.00 0 Aug‐2009 Aug‐2010 May‐2009 Jun‐2009 Jul‐2009 Sep‐2009 Oct‐2009 Nov‐2009 Dec‐2009 Jan‐2010 Feb‐2010 Mar‐2010 Apr‐2010 May‐2010 Jun‐2010 Jul‐2010 Sep‐2010 Oct‐2010 0.00 ‐2009 ‐2009 ‐2009 ‐2009 ‐2009 ‐2009 ‐2009 ‐2010 ‐2010 ‐2010 ‐2010 ‐2010 ‐2010 ‐2010 ‐2010 ‐2010 ‐2009 ‐2010 M M May‐ Jun‐ Jul‐ Aug‐ Sep‐ Oct‐ Dec‐ Jan‐ Feb‐ Mar‐ May‐ Jun‐ Jul‐ Aug‐ Sep‐ Oct‐ Nov‐ Apr‐ Months Months Figure 4. The amount of rainfall in Figure 3 M / i t Fi 3. Max/min temperature in K th t i Kantharom Kantharom Area Srisaket Province area during May 2009 to October 2010. during May 2009 to October 2010.
Relativ ve humidity 0 100 120 20 40 60 80 May‐…… Jun‐2009 Jul‐2009 Aug‐2009 Sep‐2009 Oct‐2009 Nov‐2009October 2010. Dec‐2009 Jan‐2010 Feb‐2010 Mar‐2010 Apr‐2010 May‐…… Jun‐2010 Jul‐2010 Aug‐2010 minimum relative humidity maximum relative humidity Sep‐2010Figure 5. Max/min relative humidity inKantharom area during May 2009 to Oct‐2010 The number of de engue Fever pa atients 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 May‐2009 9 Jun‐2009 9 Jul‐2009 9 Aug‐2009 9 Sep‐2009 9 Oct‐2009 9 Nov‐2009 9 Dec‐2009 9 2009 to October 2010. Jan‐20100 Feb‐2010 0 Months Mar‐2010 0 Rural area Rural area Apr‐2010 0 Urban area May‐2010 0 Jun‐2010 0 Jul‐2010 0 Aug‐2010 0 Sep‐2010 0 at urban ( ) and at rural ( ) areas during May Figure 6. The number of dengue fever patients Oct‐2010 0 Results and Discussion
Results and DiscussionFigure 7. a) The relationship of the number of rainy days b) The relationship of the number of rainy daysand the number of A aegypti l d h b f Ae. i larvae. and th number of d d the b f dengue i id incidences. As the number of rainy days increased, the number of Ae. aegypti and the number of dengue incidences increased (Figure 7a,b). This strongly indicated that climatic factors (in this case, the number of rainy days) strongly influences the number of mosquito larvae. The increases in the number of mosquito larvae will increase the chance of dengue vectors to transmit the dengue virus at a higher rate. Moreover, during rainy days, people tend to stay inside their houses which may also increase the chance of being bitten by Ae. aegypti females. As we already know that Ae. aegypti tends to stay inside the house and lays their eggs in the indoor water containers.
References R fS.C. Tewari, V. Thenmozhi, C. R. Katholi, R. Manavalan, A. Munirathinam and A. Gajanana. (2004).Dengue vector prevalence and virus infection in a rural area in south India. Tropical Medicine and International Health 9(4): 499-507.S. Wongkoon, M. Jaroensuthasinee and K. Jaroensuthasinee. (2011). Climatic variability and dengue virus transmission in ChiangRai, Thailand. Biomedica 27: 5-13.S. Thammapalo, V ChS Th l V. Chongsuwiwatwong, D McNeil and A G t (2005) i t D. M N il d A. Geater. (2005). The climatic factors influencing the occurrence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 36 (1) , 191 196 191-196.P.-C. Wu, H.-R. Guo, S.-C. Lung, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Su. (2007). Weather as an effective predictor for occurrence of dengue fever in Taiwan. Acta Tropica 103: 50 57 50–57.
Acknowledgements A k l d tThis work is supported in part by GLOBE through Mosquito project, IPST and GLOBE southern Mosquito project, IPST and GLOBE southern network. We thank Assoc. Prof. Dr. Krisanadej Jaroensutasinee, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mullica Jaroensutasinee, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mullica Jaroensutasinee, Siriwan Wongkoon for some suggestions on experimental design and data suggestions on experimental design and data analysis. We thank the director of Kantararom school, Mr. Rita Nantapan for supporting this school, Mr. Rita Nantapan for supporting this project.