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Disaster management

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Disaster management

  1. 1. Common disasters and disaster management GUIDED BY: DR. RAJEEV YADAV, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, P.S.M. DEPARTMENT. BY: DR. PRIYANKA KAPOOR, RESIDENT,DEPT. OF PSM, SMS MEDICAL COLLEGE.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION DISASTER: It is defined as any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health and health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area. (WHO)
  3. 3. Hazard  Any phenomenon that has the potential to cause disruption or damage to people and their environment.  When hazard involves elements of risks, vulnerabilities and capacities, they can turn into disasters.  Hazards may be inevitable but disasters can be prevented. “A hazard is natural event while the disaster is its consequence. A hazard is perceived natural event which threatens both life and property…… A disaster is a realization of this hazard.” -JohnWhitlow
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF DISASTERS DISASTERS NATURAL DISASTERS MAN-MADE DISASTERS DISASTERS
  5. 5. BENEATH EARTHS SURFACE(TECTONIC) • a) earthquake • b) tsunamis • c) volcanic eruptions AT EARTHS SURFACE (TOPOLOGICAL) • a) landslides • b) avalanches ABOVE EARTHS SURFACE • a) meteorological (hydrological) • b) biological
  6. 6. ABOVE EARTH’S SURFACE: METEOROLOGICAL BIOLOGICAL  WINDSTORMS : > cyclone >Typhoon > Hurricane  TORNADOES  HAILSTORMS (SNOWSTORMS)  SEA-SURGES  FLOODS  DROUGHTS  EPIDEMICS OF DISEASES  LOCUST SWARMS ( group of insects or bees)
  7. 7. BY WARFARE • CONVENTIONAL • NUCLEAR • BIOLOGICAL • CHEMICAL BY ACCIDENTS • Vehicular • drowning • Collapse of building • Explosions • Fires • Biological • Chemical including poisons
  8. 8. NATURAL DISASTERS
  9. 9. TYPES OF NATURAL DISASTERS  Avalanches:  It is a mass of snow which is set in motion by its own weight through a violent disturbance in equilibrium.
  10. 10. Earthquakes  An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust (7 major plates) that creates seismic waves. It manifests by vibration, shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground.  The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the focus. The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the epicenter. Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife. It is usually the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse, fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes, that are actually the human disaster.  UNDP has selected ALWER and BIKANER ( seismic zone) for DRR ( disaster risk reduction) project. http://www.ndma.gov.in/en/hazard-risk-response.html
  11. 11. Volcanic eruptions  Volcanic eruption itself may cause harm following the explosion of the volcano or the fall of rock.  Second, lava may be produced which destroys many buildings and plants it encounters.  Third, volcanic ash generally meaning the cooled ash - may form a cloud, and settle thickly in nearby locations. When mixed with water this forms a concrete-like material. In sufficient quantity ash may cause roofs to collapse under its weight but even small quantities will harm humans if inhaled.
  12. 12. Floods o A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. o It may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levels, with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries. o Reasons includes a steep increase in population, rapid urbanization growing developmental and economic activities in flood plains coupled with global warming, inadequate carrying capacity of rivers, drainage congestion and erosion of river- banks. Cyclones, cyclonic circulations and cloud bursts also cause flash floods
  13. 13. Droughts  If a particular area has no rainfall or less rain than normal for a long period of time is called drought.  it is not only lack of rainfall that causes drought, hot dry winds, very high temperature and evaporation of moisture from the ground can result in conditions of drought.
  14. 14. Tsunamis  Tsunamis are caused by undersea earthquakes. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "wave train".  Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events.  The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history with over 2,79,000 people affected in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean, 10,749 deaths , 5,640 persons missing , 11,827 hectares of crops damaged , 300,000 fisher folk lost their livelihood. http://www.ndma.gov.in/en/hazard-risk-response.html
  15. 15. Tornadoes A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.  They are often referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the word cyclone is used to name any closed low pressure circulation. Tornadoes come in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust.
  16. 16. cyclones  Cyclones are caused by atmospheric disturbances around a low-pressure area distinguished by swift and often destructive air circulation. Cyclones are usually accompanied by violent storms and bad weather.  Cyclones are given many names in different regions of the world –They are known as Typhoons in the China Sea and Pacific Ocean; Hurricanes in theWest Indian islands in the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean; Tornadoes in the Guinea lands ofWest Africa and southern USA.; Willy -willies in north-westernAustralia and tropical cyclones in the Indian Ocean.
  17. 17. MAN-MADE DISASTERS "anthropogenic/ man made disasters" means threats having an element of human intent, negligence, or error; or involving a failure of a man-made system. Airplane crashes and terrorist attacks are examples of man-made disasters: they cause pollution, kill people, and damage property.
  18. 18. Mumbai, Floods July 2005 Mumbai Terrorist Attacks (26/2011) Flood, Assam & Bihar 2004 MAJOR DISASTERS IN INDIA (1982-2013) June 2013, Uttrakhand Heavy Rainfall & Floods Earthquake, Bhuj Jan 2001 Earthquake, Latur Sept 1993 Tsunami Dec 2004 Bhopal Gas Disaster, Dec 1984 Earthquake, Oct 2005, cloud burst 2010, flood 2014 Kosi Floods, Aug, 2008 Cyclone Aila, West Bengal, 2009 Avalanche Feb 2005 Odisha super cyclone, 1999,PHAILIN Cyclone 2013 SIKKIM EARTHQUAKE, 2011
  19. 19. VULNERABILITY PROFILE OF INDIA (2013)  More than 58.6 per cent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes .  over 40 million hectares (12%) of its land is prone to floods and river erosion.  close to 5,700 kms, out of the 7,516 kms long coastline is prone to cyclones and tsunamis.  68% of its cultivable area is vulnerable to droughts.  Hilly areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches. http://www.ndma.gov.in/en/vulnerability-profile.html Last Updated onThursday, 26 September 2013 16:55
  20. 20. DISASTER MANAGEMENT “AN APPLIED SCIENCE WHICH SEEKS, BY THE SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS OF DISASTERS, TO IMPROVE MEASURES RELATING TO PREVENTION, PREPAREDNESS , RESPONSE AND RECOVERY.”
  21. 21. PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT Disaster Preparedness Disaster Impact Disaster Response Disaster Recovery Disaster Mitigation
  22. 22. Integrated Disaster Management Prepared- ness Response Recovery Mitigation Activities prior to a disaster. • Preparedness plans • Emergency exercises •Training, •Warning systems Activities that reduce effects of disasters • Building codes & zoning •Vulnerability analyses • Public education Activities following a disaster. • Temporary housing • Claims processing • Grants • Medical care Activities during a disaster. • Public warning systems • Emergency operations • Search & rescue
  23. 23. Disaster preparedness Preparedness should be in the form of money, manpower and materials  Evaluation from past experiences about risk  Location of disaster prone areas  Organization of communication, information and warning system  Ensuring co-ordination and response mechanisms
  24. 24. Contd...  Development of public education programme  Co-ordination with media  National & international relations  Keeping stock of foods, drug and other essential commodities.
  25. 25. E.g.: Indian Meteorological department (IMD) plays a key role in forewarning the disaster of cyclone-storms by detection tracing. It has 5 centres in Kolkata, Bhubaneswar, Vishakhapatnam, Chennai & Mumbai. In addition there are 31 special observation posts setup along the east coast of India. The International Agencies which provides humanitarian assistance to the disaster strike areas are United Nation agencies.  Office for the co-ordination of Humanitarian Affair (OCHA)  World Health Organization (WHO)  UNICEF  World Food Programme (WFP)  Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAD) E.g.: Non Governmental Organizations  Co-Operative for assistance and Relief Every where (CARE)  International committee of Red cross
  26. 26. Disaster impact
  27. 27. RESPONSE  Taken immediately prior to and following disaster impact.  Typical measures include :  Implementation of plans  Mass evacuation  Search and Rescue  Provision of emergency food, shelter, medical assistance etc.  Maintenance of law and order  Survey and assessment
  28. 28. Policies related to emergency/disaster management 1. “First come, first treated” principle will not be followed during emergencies. 2. Triage protocol 3. ABCDE care is provided  Airway  Breathing  Circulation  Disability limitation  Exposure / environmental control
  29. 29. Aim of Triage To achieve the greatest good for the greatest number of casualties
  30. 30. Basis of Triage ( in Mass Casualty Incident)  Severity of injury  Number of injured  Available resources and  Survival chances of the victims
  31. 31. Procedures of Triage  TRIAGE FIRST BEFORE TREATMENT!  Do not take more than 60 seconds per patients  Determine best facility for definitive care in the emergency department and the field  The triage categories include a) Emergent b) Urgent c) Non-urgent
  32. 32. Emergent Category  Major trauma  Acute myocardial infarction  Airway obstruction  Tension pneumothorax  Flail Chest  Hypovolemic shock (Class III and IV)  Burns with inhalation injury management should begin upon arrival
  33. 33. Urgent  Vertebral and Spine Injury  Femoral shaft fracture  Closed head injury  Burns  Acute Appendicitis They all are at risk if not treated in a few hours
  34. 34. Non-urgent  Skin lacerations  Contusions  Abrasions  Upper extremity fractures  Fever  Associated medical conditions
  35. 35. Triage Protocol/System Red: High priority for treatment & transfer Yellow: Medium Priority Green: Ambulatory patients Black: Dead or Moribund patients
  36. 36. THE GOLDEN HOUR  Amount of time from injury to the definitive care.  Care given within the first hour, mortality and morbidity is favorably reduced Aims to correct the main threats to life: Blocked airways Severe bleeding START
  37. 37. Procedures of START (time <60 seconds / patient)  Respiratory  assess for RR and adequacy  not breathing – check for foreign body obstruction; remove loose dentures; reposition head with C-spine precautions  Does not initiate respiratory effort – BLACK  RR > 30/min – RED  RR< 30/min – do not tag;  assess perfusion: pulse or capillary refill
  38. 38. Procedures of START  Perfusion  assess capillary refill (> or < 2 secs)  >2 secs – RED  <2 secs – do not tag yet; assess mental status  If capillary refill cannot be assessed  radial pulse not palpable SBP < 80mmHg  Control hemorrhage – using walking patients or self
  39. 39. Procedures of START  Mental Status  simple commands:  “open and close your eyes”  “squeeze my hands”  cannot follow – RED  can follow -- YELLOW
  40. 40. Hospital Roles in a Disaster  Duty chart well displayed on notice board.  Unit head should take round in casualty to evaluate casualty ward,  Information to all resident doctors and senior docs of concerned deptt timely whenever a information of mass casualty.  Keeping all medicines & equipments ready to deal the mass casualty before it reaches.  Evacuation of crowd that can be hindrance in proper treatment.  Follow triage and apply tag on patients according to seriousness.
  41. 41. Disaster Management Team  Medical Superintendent  Additional Medical Superintendent  Nursing superintendent  Chief medical officer (Casualty)  HOD’d of all the dept.s  Blood bank incharge  Security officers  Dietician  Transport officer  Sanitary personnel
  42. 42. EQUIPMENTS:  Resuscitation equipment  IV sets and IV fluids  Disposable needles, syringes & gloves  Dressing & suturing materials and splints  Oxygen delivery devices  Suction catheter and machine  ECG monitors, defibrillators and ventilators  Cut down sets, tracheostomy sets and lumbar puncture sets  Linens and blankets
  43. 43. Overcrowding  The less equipped hospitals are especially vulnerable because of the high risk of overcrowding even before a disaster occurs.  During the influx of pts to a hospital, or situation, temporary pt care areas may have to be established. Lobby areas and corridors, Chapels and other prayer areas have been used.
  44. 44. RECOVERY  Communities and the nation are assisted in returning to their proper/normal level of functioning following a disaster.  It includes:  Water supply  Food safety  Basic sanitation and personal hygiene  Vector control  Animal control  Communicable disease control
  45. 45. MITIGATION  It is the effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters.  Mitigation is taking action now —before the next disaster.  To reduce human and financial consequences later (analyzing risk, reducing risk, ensuring against risk). Eg. improving structural qualities of schools, houses and such other buildings so that medical causalities can be minimized.  Similarly ensuring the safety of health facilities and public health services including water supply and sewerage system to reduce the cost of rehabilitation and reconstruction.
  46. 46. DISASTER-EFFECTS  Deaths  Disability  Increase in communicable disease  Psychological problems  Food shortage  Socioeconomic losses  Shortage of drugs and medical supplies.
  47. 47. Institutional Framework Disaster Management Structure According to disaster management act 2005, NDMA is Apex body with Prime Minister as Chairperson. National Executive Committee - Secretaries of 14 Ministries and Chief of Integrated Defence Staff. Centre Level Central Ministries; National Disaster Management Authority, National Institute of Disaster Management National Disaster Response Force (NDRF). State Level SDMA headed by Chief Minister. State Executive Committee (SEC). District Level DDMA headed by District Magistrate. Interface between Govt. and Public.
  48. 48. Nodal agencies for disaster management  Floods: ministry of water resources , (central water commission)  Cyclones, earthquakes : Indian meteorological department  Epidemics: ministry of health and family welfare  Tsunami: Indian National Centre for Oceanic Information Services  Landslides: Geological Survey of India  Avalanche: DRDO ( Defence research and development organisation)  Chemical disasters: ministry of environment and forests  Industrial disaster: ministry of labor  Rail accidents: ministry of railway  Air accidents: ministry of civil aviation  Fire: ministry of home affairs  Nuclear incidents: department of atomic energy  Mine disasters: department of mines
  49. 49. Disaster Reduction Day  NIDM observes "Disaster Reduction Day" on the Second Wednesday of October.  UN General Assembly in 2009, designated October 13 as International Day for Disaster Reduction.  2013 Theme -“Living with Disability and Disasters”.  Rallies and lectures for awareness for disaster reduction amongst youth, children and general people.
  50. 50.  FOR INFORMATION ON DISASTERS DIALTOLL FREE No. 1070  Log on to http://www.ndmindia.nic.in

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