Common disasters and disaster
DR. RAJEEV YADAV,
DR. PRIYANKA KAPOOR,
RESIDENT,DEPT. OF PSM,
SMS MEDICAL COLLEGE.
It is defined as any occurrence that causes
damage, ecological disruption, loss of human
life or deterioration of health and health
services on a scale sufficient to warrant an
extraordinary response from outside the
affected community or area. (WHO)
Any phenomenon that has the potential to cause
disruption or damage to people and their
When hazard involves elements of risks,
vulnerabilities and capacities, they can turn into
Hazards may be inevitable but disasters can be
“A hazard is natural event while the disaster is its
consequence. A hazard is perceived natural event
which threatens both life and property…… A disaster
is a realization of this hazard.”
CLASSIFICATION OF DISASTERS
• a) earthquake
• b) tsunamis
• c) volcanic
AT EARTHS SURFACE
• a) landslides
• b) avalanches
• a) meteorological
• b) biological
ABOVE EARTH’S SURFACE:
EPIDEMICS OF DISEASES
LOCUST SWARMS (
group of insects or bees)
• Collapse of building
• Chemical including
TYPES OF NATURAL DISASTERS
It is a mass of snow which is set in motion by its own
weight through a violent disturbance in equilibrium.
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in
the Earth's crust (7 major plates) that creates seismic waves. It manifests
by vibration, shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground.
The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the focus.
The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the epicenter.
Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife. It is usually the
secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse,
fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes, that are actually the
UNDP has selected ALWER and BIKANER ( seismic zone) for DRR
( disaster risk reduction) project. http://www.ndma.gov.in/en/hazard-risk-response.html
Volcanic eruption itself may cause harm following the explosion
of the volcano or the fall of rock.
Second, lava may be produced which destroys many buildings
and plants it encounters.
Third, volcanic ash generally meaning the cooled ash - may
form a cloud, and settle thickly in nearby locations. When mixed
with water this forms a concrete-like material. In sufficient quantity
ash may cause roofs to collapse under its weight but even small
quantities will harm humans if inhaled.
o A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges
o It may result from the volume of water within a body of water,
such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levels, with the
result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries.
o Reasons includes a steep increase in population, rapid
urbanization growing developmental and economic activities in
flood plains coupled with global warming, inadequate carrying
capacity of rivers, drainage congestion and erosion of river-
banks. Cyclones, cyclonic circulations and cloud bursts also
cause flash floods
If a particular area has no rainfall or less rain than normal for a
long period of time is called drought.
it is not only lack of rainfall that causes drought, hot dry winds,
very high temperature and evaporation of moisture from the ground
can result in conditions of drought.
Tsunamis are caused by undersea earthquakes. Tsunamis
generally consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from
minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "wave train".
Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events.
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural
disasters in human history with over 2,79,000 people affected in 14
countries bordering the Indian Ocean, 10,749 deaths , 5,640 persons
missing , 11,827 hectares of crops damaged , 300,000 fisher folk lost
their livelihood. http://www.ndma.gov.in/en/hazard-risk-response.html
A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact
with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare
cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
They are often referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the
word cyclone is used to name any closed low pressure circulation.
Tornadoes come in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose
narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud
of debris and dust.
Cyclones are caused by atmospheric disturbances
around a low-pressure area distinguished by swift and
often destructive air circulation. Cyclones are usually
accompanied by violent storms and bad weather.
Cyclones are given many names in different regions of
the world –They are known as
Typhoons in the China Sea and Pacific Ocean;
Hurricanes in theWest Indian islands in the Caribbean Sea
and Atlantic Ocean;
Tornadoes in the Guinea lands ofWest Africa and southern
Willy -willies in north-westernAustralia and tropical
cyclones in the Indian Ocean.
"anthropogenic/ man made disasters" means threats having an
element of human intent, negligence, or error; or involving a failure
of a man-made system.
Airplane crashes and terrorist attacks are examples of man-made
disasters: they cause pollution, kill people, and damage property.
MAJOR DISASTERS IN INDIA (1982-2013)
June 2013, Uttrakhand Heavy
Rainfall & Floods
Latur Sept 1993
2005, cloud burst
2010, flood 2014 Kosi Floods,
VULNERABILITY PROFILE OF INDIA
More than 58.6 per cent of the landmass is
prone to earthquakes .
over 40 million hectares (12%) of its land is
prone to floods and river erosion.
close to 5,700 kms, out of the 7,516 kms long
coastline is prone to cyclones and tsunamis.
68% of its cultivable area is vulnerable to
Hilly areas are at risk from landslides and
Last Updated onThursday, 26 September 2013 16:55
“AN APPLIED SCIENCE WHICH SEEKS,
BY THE SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS
TO IMPROVE MEASURES RELATING TO PREVENTION,
PREPAREDNESS , RESPONSE AND RECOVERY.”
Activities prior to a disaster.
• Preparedness plans
• Emergency exercises
Activities that reduce
effects of disasters
• Building codes &
• Public education
Activities following a
• Temporary housing
• Claims processing
• Medical care
Activities during a
• Public warning
• Search & rescue
Preparedness should be in the form of
money, manpower and materials
Evaluation from past experiences about risk
Location of disaster prone areas
Organization of communication, information
and warning system
Ensuring co-ordination and response
Development of public education
Co-ordination with media
National & international relations
Keeping stock of foods, drug and
other essential commodities.
E.g.: Indian Meteorological department (IMD) plays a key role in
forewarning the disaster of cyclone-storms by detection tracing. It has
5 centres in Kolkata, Bhubaneswar, Vishakhapatnam, Chennai &
Mumbai. In addition there are 31 special observation posts setup
along the east coast of India.
The International Agencies which provides humanitarian assistance to
the disaster strike areas are United Nation agencies.
Office for the co-ordination of Humanitarian Affair (OCHA)
World Health Organization (WHO)
World Food Programme (WFP)
Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAD)
E.g.: Non Governmental Organizations
Co-Operative for assistance and Relief Every where
International committee of Red cross
Taken immediately prior to and following disaster impact.
Typical measures include :
Implementation of plans
Search and Rescue
Provision of emergency food, shelter, medical assistance
Maintenance of law and order
Survey and assessment
Policies related to
1. “First come, first treated” principle will not
be followed during emergencies.
2. Triage protocol
3. ABCDE care is provided
Exposure / environmental control
Aim of Triage
To achieve the greatest
good for the greatest
number of casualties
Basis of Triage
( in Mass Casualty Incident)
Severity of injury
Number of injured
Available resources and
Survival chances of the
Procedures of Triage
TRIAGE FIRST BEFORE TREATMENT!
Do not take more than 60 seconds per
Determine best facility for definitive care in
the emergency department and the field
The triage categories include
(Class III and IV)
Burns with inhalation
management should begin upon
Vertebral and Spine Injury
Femoral shaft fracture
Closed head injury
They all are at risk if not treated in a few hours
Red: High priority for treatment & transfer
Yellow: Medium Priority
Green: Ambulatory patients
Black: Dead or Moribund patients
THE GOLDEN HOUR
Amount of time from injury to the definitive
Care given within the first hour, mortality and
morbidity is favorably reduced
Aims to correct the main threats to life:
Procedures of START
(time <60 seconds / patient)
assess for RR and adequacy
not breathing – check for foreign body
obstruction; remove loose dentures; reposition
head with C-spine precautions
Does not initiate respiratory effort – BLACK
RR > 30/min – RED
RR< 30/min – do not tag;
assess perfusion: pulse or capillary refill
Procedures of START
assess capillary refill (> or < 2 secs)
>2 secs – RED
<2 secs – do not tag yet; assess mental
If capillary refill cannot be assessed
radial pulse not palpable SBP < 80mmHg
Control hemorrhage – using walking
patients or self
Procedures of START
“open and close your eyes”
“squeeze my hands”
cannot follow – RED
can follow -- YELLOW
Hospital Roles in a Disaster
Duty chart well displayed on notice board.
Unit head should take round in casualty to evaluate
Information to all resident doctors and senior docs of
concerned deptt timely whenever a information of mass
Keeping all medicines & equipments ready to deal the
mass casualty before it reaches.
Evacuation of crowd that can be hindrance in proper
Follow triage and apply tag on patients according to
Disaster Management Team
Additional Medical Superintendent
Chief medical officer (Casualty)
HOD’d of all the dept.s
Blood bank incharge
IV sets and IV fluids
Disposable needles, syringes & gloves
Dressing & suturing materials and splints
Oxygen delivery devices
Suction catheter and machine
ECG monitors, defibrillators and ventilators
Cut down sets, tracheostomy sets and lumbar
Linens and blankets
The less equipped hospitals are especially
vulnerable because of the high risk of
overcrowding even before a disaster occurs.
During the influx of pts to a hospital, or
situation, temporary pt care areas may have
to be established. Lobby areas and corridors,
Chapels and other prayer areas have been
Communities and the nation are assisted in returning
to their proper/normal level of functioning following a
Basic sanitation and personal hygiene
Communicable disease control
It is the effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact
Mitigation is taking action now —before the next disaster.
To reduce human and financial consequences later (analyzing risk,
reducing risk, ensuring against risk).
Eg. improving structural qualities of schools, houses and such other
buildings so that medical causalities can be minimized.
Similarly ensuring the safety of health facilities and public health services
including water supply and sewerage system to reduce the cost of
rehabilitation and reconstruction.
Increase in communicable disease
Shortage of drugs and medical
Disaster Management Structure
According to disaster management act 2005, NDMA is
Apex body with Prime Minister as Chairperson.
National Executive Committee - Secretaries of 14 Ministries
and Chief of Integrated Defence Staff.
Central Ministries; National Disaster Management Authority,
National Institute of Disaster Management
National Disaster Response Force (NDRF).
SDMA headed by Chief Minister.
State Executive Committee (SEC).
DDMA headed by District Magistrate.
Interface between Govt. and Public.
Nodal agencies for disaster
Floods: ministry of water resources , (central water commission)
Cyclones, earthquakes : Indian meteorological department
Epidemics: ministry of health and family welfare
Tsunami: Indian National Centre for Oceanic Information
Landslides: Geological Survey of India
Avalanche: DRDO ( Defence research and development
Chemical disasters: ministry of environment and forests
Industrial disaster: ministry of labor
Rail accidents: ministry of railway
Air accidents: ministry of civil aviation
Fire: ministry of home affairs
Nuclear incidents: department of atomic energy
Mine disasters: department of mines
Disaster Reduction Day
NIDM observes "Disaster Reduction Day" on the
Second Wednesday of October.
UN General Assembly in 2009, designated October 13
as International Day for Disaster Reduction.
2013 Theme -“Living with Disability and Disasters”.
Rallies and lectures for awareness for disaster
reduction amongst youth, children and general people.
FOR INFORMATION ON DISASTERS
DIALTOLL FREE No. 1070
Log on to http://www.ndmindia.nic.in