Concept• The trade union came in to being as an agent of workers and working class.• Over the years workers struggled hard to achieve an adequate measure of their protection against exploitation.• With the growth of modern industrial establishment, involving the employment of large no. of workers under the condition of poor bargaining power at individual level, the growth of trade union became necessary.
• A continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining and improving the condition of their working lives.• A continuous long term association of employees, formed and maintained for the specific purpose of advancing and protecting the interests of members in their working relationship.• A trade union is any combination, whether temporary or permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relation between workmen and employer, or between workmen and workmen, and between employer and employer or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business.• Thus as a whole trade union is an instrument of defense against exploitation and provide a forum for collecting the forces of working class.
Characteristics………..• Trade union are voluntary association of either employee or employer or independent workers• Trade union are generally permanent combination.• Trade union formed by collective actions of workers• Basic objective of any trade union is to promote and protect the economic, social and vocational interest of workers/members• Trade union are adoptable to the changing socio-economic- legal - political environment.• Trade union are designed to eliminate the exploitatation of the workers through workers participation in the management.
Why UNION???• Trade union emerged due to group psychology• Trade union is an organizing centre, it provide the locus for collecting the forces for working class.• Trade union provide job security to the employees.• Trade union can negotiate with management on the industrial conflicts.• Right of workers i.e. wages and condition of work are protected by the trade union.
THEORIES /APPROCHES OF Trade UnionIndustrial Democracy Approach by Webbs:The trade union is the extension of principle of democracy in the sphere of industry.They sought a solution for industrial conflict by equality and collective agreement.Trying to transform industrial autocracy to democracyTrade union as a means by which worker can cope up with the stronger political and economic power.
Social psychological approach Robert Hoxie• Trade union have emerged due to group psychology, social psychological environment rather than economic reason.• Unionism affects not only production but also the established rights(employer’s rights to run his business, worker’s right to work, )ethical standard, distribution of wages, and law and order.
Capitalism approach by Tannenbaum• The fundamental cause of exploitation of workers is the use of machine.• The machines threatens the security of individuals workers and they react in self defense., through the union to attempt to control the machine.• So trade unions are the byproducts of an industrial society in which automation (machine) has destroyed the old way of life and robbed the workers of his identity, purpose and creativity.• So trade-union are the spontaneous reaction of the growth of capitalism
Anti capitalism Approach by Marx• Marx said that trade union is an instrument for destroying the capitalist class.• Trade union is necessary to bring about revolutionary and fundamental changes in social class order.• With the development of industry, the proletariat are not only increase in number, it become concentrated in greater mass, its strength grows.• The increasing improvement of machinery, the collision between workmen and bourgeois take the character of two class.• Therefore the worker began to form combination in form of trade union against bourgeois to fight for their interest.
Sarvodaya Approach by Gandhi• Sarvodaya principle of truth, trusteeship and non violence.• Trade union is an institution in which capital and labour are not antagonistic bur are supplementary.• Capitalist being the trustees of the labour welfare of the laboring class under them.• Gandhian approach of trade unionism is not merely related to material aspect but to the moral and intellectual aspect.• He advocated that a trade union strive for all round betterment of the working class including training of its members in supplementary occupations to avoid risk of uncertainty of job.• Trade union is a moral institution who can uphold the dignity of labour by following the principle of equality and trusteeship
Structure of trade union • The union of different countries have different lines of trade unions depends on socio-economic compulsions of industrialization and political and economic factors. TRADE UNION On the basis of purpose On the basis of Membership structureReformist Union Revolutionary Union •Craft Union •Industrial Union •Staff unionBusiness Unionism Anarchist Union •General unionUplift Unionism Predatory Union Political Union Guerrilla Union
Reformist Union• It aim to retain the present structure of capitalist society.• They want to maintain the usual employee-employer relationship by eliminating the competitive system of production.• They never wish to destroy the current existing social, economic and political structure. BUSINESS UNIONISM UPLIFT UNIONISM Here smooth and cordial relationship It is also called friendly or ideal exist between employee and employer unionism aim to act as an social, All their problems and conflicts are solved intellectual and moral values of the by collective bargaining and peaceful workers. means of demonstration. It puts more emphasis on insurance Employees seek to achieve economic benefits, health, education and welfare objectives measure. It favors voluntary arbitration and avoid strikes. Lockout and political actions.
Revolutionary Unions• It seek to achieve their objectives by destroying the existing capitalist structure and replacing with socialist or communist structure.• They try to destroy the existing economic system by revolutionary measure.• Anarchist Union: such union aim at destroying the present economic system by resorting to revolutionary measure.• Political union: seek to redistribute the wealth by giving effective share to the workers. The get power basically through political actions only.• Predatory union: they seek their objectives without sticking to any approach.• Guerrilla Union: they believe in exploitation, violence and non cooperation. They are generally non democratic. They dont believe in cooperation with their employees.
Membership structure: as par the variation in the composition of members Craft union: it covers all workers engage in a single occupation or craft irrespective of the industries form an union.• All craft union links together those workers who possess similar skills, craft training, apprenticeship and specialization.• Example: all workers of textile industries. Industrial and staff union:• Unions organized on the basis of an industry rather than craft is called industrial union.• All workers skill, unskilled and semi-skilled working in a particular industry regardless of the difference in crafts, skill position or gender form together an industrial union• E.g.. Textile labour association, engineering mazdoor sabha Mumbai.
Staff union:• it’s a combination of craft union and industrial relation is called staff union.• Staff union is mostly formed by the workers of tertiary sectors like health, tour and travel industryGeneral Union:• It comprises workers of various industries and various skills• Membership is open to all type/class of workers.• Workers of different industries and different occupation formed general union.• E.g. Jamshedpur trade union.
Structure of Trade union in India • In India trade unions are affiliated by two types of organization. • The national federation • The federation of unionThe national Federation is the apex trade union that bringscoordination in the activities of different trade union.These are politically learned and the leadership to such federation areprovided by politicians.They act as a coordinating agency for various trade union under theircontrol.Various union combines together to form federation of union for thepurpose of gaining more solidarity and strength.Such federation can take collective action when needed.INTUC, AITUC, Hind Mazdoor Sabha,Bharatiya Mazdoorsabha,NATIONAL Labor OrganizationAll India BANK EMPLOYEE ASSOCIATION, All India Railway Menassociation, All India electricity employee association.
Functions of Trade Unions• As par as the trade union act 1926, to secure better wage and living condition for workers.• To provide confidence to workers• To imbibe sincerity and discipline in workers.• To take welfare measure to improve the morale of workers.• Trade unions perform a number of functions in order to achieve the objectives. These functions can be broadly classified into three categories: (i) Militant functions, (ii) Fraternal functions
• Militant Functions One set of activities performed by trade unions leads to the betterment of the position of their members in relation to their employment.• The aim of such activities is to ensure adequate wages, secure better conditions of work and employment, get better treatment from employers, etc.• When the unions fail to accomplish these aims by the method of collective bargaining and negotiations, they adopt an approach and put up a fight with the management in the form of go-slow tactics, strike, boycott, gherao, etc.• Hence, these functions of the trade unions are known as militant or fighting functions. Thus, the militant functions of trade unions can be summed up as: To achieve higher wages and better working conditions To raise the status of workers as a part of industry To protect labors against victimization and injustice
• Fraternal Functions Another set of activities performed by trade unions aims at rendering help to its members in times of need, and improving their efficiency.• Trade unions try to foster a spirit of cooperation and promote friendly industrial relations and diffuse education and culture among their members.• They take up welfare measures for improving the morale of workers and generate self confidence among them.• They also arrange for legal assistance to its members, if necessary.• Besides, these, they undertake many welfare measures for their members, e.g., school for the education of children, library, reading-rooms, in-door and out-door games, and other recreational facilities.• Some trade unions even undertake publication of some magazine or journal.• These activities, which may be called fraternal functions, depend on the availability of funds, which the unions raise by subscription from members and donations from outsiders, and also on their competent and enlightened leadership.• Thus, the fraternal functions of trade unions can be summed up as: To take up welfare measures for improving the morale of workers To generate self confidence among workers To encourage sincerity and discipline among workers To provide opportunities for promotion and growth To protect women workers against discrimination INTRAMURAL ,EXTRAMURAL AND POLITICAL ACTIVITIES
INTRAMURAL ACTIVITIES: It refer to welfare schemes of unions, which are carried on with in the four wall of the organization.• Improvement in wages, better safety provision,• Ways are collective bargaining, group discussion, negotiations, strikes and boycott. EXTRAMURAL ACTIVITIES: Perform outside the boundary of the organization for the general welfare of members.• Trade union helps the members by providing educational, recreational, housing facilities to the members POLITICAL ACTIVITIES: In a democratic country, trade union plays an important role in the politics of the country.• They made their representation to the legislative assembly and parliament through general election to safeguard the interest of workers.