Media Literacy in Education


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Media Literacy in Education

  1. 1. Media Literacy in Education EPS 590 HER/GSEYouth and Citizenship in a Digital Age Elementary Education: Kelsey Swanson Secondary Education: Danielle Litak Higher Education: Sasha Harrison Career/Adult Learners: Jessica Bauer
  2. 2. Introduction OverviewVideo Literacy: Where do we stand in education and wherecan we go in the future to help students?Internet and Media Literacy in Education: Tools1. Social Media- FB, Twitter, Skype,2. User generated Content- Youtube, Wikipedia, Blogs3. Advertising-Pop ups, Videos, Websites, etc.US Curriculum and Media LiteracyCase StudiesInternational Comparisons
  3. 3. Introduction: Media Literacy at each Level of EducationElementary Education: Kelsey Swanson (Taiwan,Canada)Secondary Education: Danielle Litak (Singapore, Canada)Higher Education: Sasha Harrison (Pacific Region, Hong Kong)Career/Adult Learners: Jessica Bauer (China, UK)Conclusion/Discussion Questions
  4. 4. Media Literacy andElementary Education Kelsey Swanson
  5. 5. Media Literacy Education in Elementary/Primary Levels in The United States, Taiwan and CanadaMedia Literacy Education for citizenship, critical engagement, consciousconsuming, deep thinking.When can this begin?"Media literacy should not be considered as an add-on to the already crowdedcurriculum. A truly interdisciplinary activity, media literacy should be conceivedas a means of facilitating the integration of critical thinking skills, aesthetics, thestudy of value messages, and the study of the social and political implications ofmedia texts. Media education should permeate many activities in geographyand global education, science, and language arts which will be conditioned bythe mass media experiences young people bring to the classroom.-Barry Duncan
  6. 6. Media Literacy at the Elementary Level - United StatesYoung children are exposed to great amounts of mass media daily: television, magazines, videogames, radio, internet etc. No official U.S. policies regarding Media Literacy Education at theelementary level, but recognition of importance of teaching children to consciously consumeimages. Keep children safe, especially in age of internet. Many sets of Best Practices have beenestablished. An example from Cynthia L. Schiebe of Project Look Sharp and Ithaca College,published in American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 48, No. 1 Sept. 2004:1. Who made - and sponsored - this message, and what is their purpose?2. Who is the target audience and how is the message specifically targeted to thataudience?3. What are the different techniques used to inform, persuade, entertain, and attractattention?4. What messages are communicated (and/or implied) about certain people, places,events, behaviors, lifestyles, and so forth?5. How current, accurate, and credible is the information in this message?6. What is left out of this message that might be important to know?
  7. 7. Media Literacy at the Elementary Level - TaiwanMinistry of Educations "Media Literacy Education Policy WhitePaper" 2002.Officially included in elementary curriculum and textbooks as of2011.Teacher training and competition."Through interactive teaching and guidance, students will get toknow the media from childhood, cultivate the correct attitude,and spend more time on their language abilities, reading, as wellas image and Internet skills...elementary school students will betaught to approach and use media in the correct way”
  8. 8. Media Literacy at the Elementary Level - CanadaCanada has many established policies regarding MediaLiteracy Education at all school levels.Why? Three reasons…In 1989, Ontario, where over one-third of Canadaspopulation resides, became the first educational jurisdictionin North America to make media literacy a mandatorycomponent of basic school curriculum.By 2002 all provinces mandated Media Literacy as part ofcurriculum.At elementary level, Media Lit learned in part through
  9. 9. Media Literacy andSecondary Education Danielle Davies Litak
  10. 10. Secondary Education Case Study #1 – United States Best Practices: 2004, Montana Example: All Montana High Schools OPI-Office of Public Instruction, Big 6, ISTE-International Society for Technology in Education, AASL-American Association of School Librarians Media literacy standards required completion by grades 4, 8,& 12; all MT schools United States media literacy curriculum is varied and not mandated Literacy/Library Media Technology1 identify the task and determine the resources use digital tools and resources for problem solving needed and decision making2 must locate sources, use information, and collaborate and communicate globally in a digital present findings environment3 evaluate the product and learning process apply digital tools and skills with creativity and innovation to express themselves, construct knowledge, and develop products and processes4 use information safely, ethically and legally possess a functional understanding of technology concepts and operations5 pursue personal interests through literature and other creative expressions
  11. 11. United States-Montana Information Literacy/Library Media Required Benchmarks Grade 8 Grade 121 Analyze problem, identify resources, evaluate and Evaluate problem, determine information needed, select resources evaluate and select resources2 Locate multiple resources using search tools, Locate multiple resource using a variety of search evaluate resources, locate and extract information tools, evaluate resources, locate, extract, organize and from multiple resources, organize and manage manage information using wide variety of resources, information, create product to present findings create and defend a product that presents findings3 Assess quality and effectiveness of product, Assess quality and effectiveness of product, evaluate evaluate how process meet the need of product process in order to revise strategies4 legally obtain, store and disseminate text, data, legally obtain, store and disseminate text, data, images images or sounds, credit ideas and works of others, or sounds, follow copyright and fair use guidelines, participate and collaborate in participate and collaborate in intellectual and social networks following safe and intellectual and social networks following safe and accepted practices accepted practices5 Use and respond to variety of print, digital, and Use and critique variety of print, digital, and genres for genres for pleasure and personal growth, analyze pleasure and personal growth, evaluate multiple and respond to multiple resources and creative resources and other creative expressions from diverse expressions for diverse cultures including Montana cultures, including Montana American Indians, access American Indians, access and use libraries and other and use resources and information from all types of information for personal use and make connections information environments to pursue personal and to resources beyond school library creative interests
  12. 12. Secondary Education Case Study #2 - Singapore Best Practices: 2007, Future-Schools@Singapore Example: Jurong Secondary School (& Ngee Anne Secondary School) MOE-Ministry of Education, IDA-Infocomm Development Authority, and private companies Media Literacy and ICT tested in chosen Future Schools for later countrywide implementationProject Focus Curriculum Innovationse-Problem based learning (e-PBL & Vtrek System) PBL integrated into Science, Maths, and HumanitiesMedia literacy curriculum Weekly Media Literacy program for Secondary 1 & 2Community based learning Community-based interactive learning trailsAssessment of 21st Century Skills Communities of Practice http//
  13. 13. Singapore Ten Dimensions of ICT Education2010.pdf 1 National ICT in Education Vision 2 National ICT in Education Plans and Policies 3 Complementary National ICT and Education 4 ICT Infrastructure and Resources in Schools 5 Professional Development for Teachers and School Leaders 6 Community/Partnerships 7 ICT in National Curriculum 8 Teaching and Learning Pedagogies 9 Assessment 10 Evaluation and Research
  14. 14. Secondary Education Case Study #3 - Canada Best Practices: 1987-2006, Ontario Ministry of Education Example: All Ontario Schools WNCP-Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education, APEF-Atlantic Provinces Education Foundation, MNet-Media Awareness Network, AML-Association for Media Literacy Media Literacy mandated in all provinces of Canada in English/Language Arts; K-12Four Strands Media Literacy Strand ExpectationsOral Communication Demonstrate an understanding of a variety of media textsReading & Literature Studies identify some media forms and explain how the conventions and techniques associated with them are used to create meaningWriting create a variety of media texts for different purposes and audiences, using appropriate forms, conventions, and techniquesMedia Studies reflect on and identify their strengths, areas for improvement, and the strategies they found most helpful in understanding and creating media texts
  15. 15. Canada-Ontario Media Education Curriculum Subject Area Strand Expectations1 Physical Education (1-8) Healthy Living Healthy Active Living (9-12) Healthy Living & Living Skills Health for Life (11) Determinants of Health & Community Health2 Canada & World Studies (9-10) Global Connections, Understanding & Managing Change, Methods of Geographic Inquiry & Communication, Human-Environment Interactions, Communities: Local, National, and Global, Change & Continuity, Methods of Historical Inquiry & Communication, Informed Citizenship Canada & World Studies (11-12) Includes: Citizenship & Heritage, Social, Economic, and Political Structures, Building Knowledge & Understanding3 Social Science & Humanities (11- Growth & Development, Social Challenges, Law Making, Public & 12) Private Law, Law & Society, The Evolving Nature of Law, Law Reform4 Technological Education (9-10) Technology Fundamentals, Technology, the Environment and Society, Communication Technology Skills Technological Education (11-12) Technology, the Environment and Society, Impact & Consequences
  16. 16. Media Literacy andHigher Education Sasha Harrison
  17. 17. Media Literacy- Higher Ed.- United States- Guam “ As the World Wide Web and similar Internet hosts have become an integral part of everyday life, some mental health professionals have noted that a percentage of people using the Web do so in a compulsive and out-of-control manner” (Internet Addiction, 2004) Recent study by Miniwatts International (2005) shows -more than 872 million Internet users in the world 146.9% growth in Internet use during 2000-2005 Population of 165,575, Internet use in Guam increased nearly 900% since 2000 (Miniwatts International, 2005) http://www.igi-
  18. 18. Media Literacy- Higher Ed. Level – Pacific RegionPacific Island University- use of technology by students and professorsTechnology shaped social changeStudent’s probability of success increasingly measured by ability to utilizetechnology, “information literacy (IL)” (Mackey & Jacobson, 2004; Ragains,2001; Wright, 2000)Faculty- DVDs and videos, presentation software, Web, virtual classroom, videoconferencing and distance-learning, “anytime, anywhere”Libraries restructured, electronic databases, including electronic referencesand full-text journal articlesDanger associated with the overuse/ over-reliance of information resources
  19. 19. Media Literacy- Higher Ed. –Hong Kong Research project, 12-month period, technology- enhanced assessment, teacher education, virtual learning communities Hong Kong Institute of Education (HKIEd) Blackboard ML Learning Management System at Institutional level rather than just at departmental level University Grants Committee (UGC)-funded project that involves collaboration among tertiary institutions in Hong Kong Learning-oriented assessment project (LOAP) developing awareness and good practices in learning- oriented assessment OL education Online learning technology changed landscape of teaching, learning, and assessment http://www.igi-
  20. 20. Media Literacy and Adult Education Jessica Bauer
  21. 21. Career and Adult Learner Populations Case Study #1- The United States Decentralized approach to policy implementation Focused more on usage of media and ICT tools and less on analysis of media and ICT Closely tied to 21st Century learning skills leading to emphasis on K-12 populations, less on adults Example initiatives: SF –KQED Adult Learning Media Literacy Project (City College of San Francisco) Media Education Foundation (MEF)!/MediaEd media-is-changing-your-news-diet/ The Transmission Project
  22. 22. Career and Adult Learner Populations Case Study #2- The People’s Republic of China Utilize a more centralized approach Similar to US, focused on use rather than analysis Importance of media literacy recently acknowledged though mainly at primary and high school levels Expectation it will enhance domestic and global citizenship in the 21st Century Example initiatives: Chinese Ministry of Education “Information Technology Curriculum Guide in Primary and Secondary Schools” (2000) “The Outline for National Mid- and Long-term Education Reform and Development Plan” (2010-2020) The Chinese Language and Literature Network
  23. 23. Career and Adult Learner Populations Case Study #3- The United Kingdom More centralized approach One of the lead countries in terms of media literacy education scope and reach Multi-layered focus on both usage and analysis European Commission on Media “considers media literacy as an important factor for active citizenship in today’s information society.” Example initiatives: UK Film Council- Media Literacy Task Force UK- UNESCO Literacy for Life Ofcom & Associate Parliamentary Media Literacy Group
  24. 24. ConclusionsProblem with defining media literacy Often appears to lead to focus on usage Now movement towards interest in analysis given media-saturated world and advancement in techFormal policies are not always easy to find—decentralized or weak centralized approachFocus mostly on K-12 education and teachereducation, though need for adult media literacy isacknowledged in literature and policy discussionsUNESCO ITC and Literacy
  25. 25. Conclusions and Discussion QuestionsELEMENTARY: Though many schools and districts across the country areintegrating components of media literacy into the curriculum, official policiesregarding media literacy education have not been implemented on a nationalscale in The United States, what methods could we use to fix this?SECONDARY: Is the United States Department of Education’s decentralizedapproach to policy implementation at fault for a fragmented Media Literacycurriculum? Should the United States be looking to private companies forcurriculum development and implementation support?HIGHER ED: How can we enrich our courses and instructional approaches tomeet the needs of students? Is technology essential to higher educationclassrooms or should they have already formally learned to use it by this age?ADULT: What thoughts do you have about the problematic nature of definingmedia literacy? Is this really the larger problem underpinning a lack of suchformal policies meant to incorporate media literacy into our educationalsystems?