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Semantics 2

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Semantics 2

  1. 1. السّلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركةه SEMANTICS Lecture : Dian Ekawati, M.Pd.
  2. 2. Semantics Relations among Words SYAIMA FAUZIYAH ANWARI 1122040078
  3. 3. Hyponymy A hyponym is a subordinate, specific term whose referent is included in the referent of a superordinate term.
  4. 4. Part/Whole Relationships A second important hierarchical relationship between words is the one found in pairs such as hand and arm or room and house. In each pair, the referent of the first term is part of the referent of the second term.
  5. 5. Synonymy Two words are said to be synonymous if they mean the same thing. The “vice versa” is important: without it, we would be defining hyponymy.
  6. 6. Examples : almost = nearly answer = reply assure = guarantee awful = terrible
  7. 7. Antonymy The word antonymy derives from the Greek root anti- (‘opposite’) and denotes opposition in meaning. In contrast to synonymy and hyponymy, antonymy is a binary relationship that can characterize a relationship between only two words at a time.
  8. 8. Gradable Antonymy are opposites along a scale in that when someone says ‘I am not high’ it does not necessarily mean ‘I am short’. Non-gradable antonyms do not present such flexibility: when we say ‘I am married’ the only antonym available in this sentence would be ‘I am single’. True and false may show a clearer contrast. Clear either/or conditions are expressed by complementary antonyms as, open/closed, dead/alive, on/off.
  9. 9. Converseness Converseness characterizes a reciprocal semantic relationship between pairs of words.
  10. 10. Polysemy A word is polysemous (or polysemic) when it has two or more related meanings.
  11. 11. Homonymy Words are homonymic when they have the same written or spoken form but different senses. Homographs have the same spelling but different meanings (and pronunciations). Homophones have the same pronunciation but different senses.
  12. 12. Synonymy • Synonymy: words that have the same meanings or that are closely related in meaning • E.g. answer/reply – almost/nearly – broad/wide – buy/purchase – freedom/ liberty • ‘sameness’ is not ‘total sameness’- only one word would be appropriate in a sentence. – E.g. Sandy only had one answer correct on the test. (but NOT reply) • Synonyms differ in formality – E.g buy/purchase – automobile/car
  13. 13. Antonymy • Antonymy: words that are opposites in meaning, e.g. hot & cold. • Types • Gradable= not absolute, question of degree – Hot & cold – small & big • Non-gradable: – Dead & alive – asleep & awake E.g. happy/sad married/single present/absent fast/slow
  14. 14. Synonymy & Antonymy Synonymy or Antonymy  Flourish – thrive  Intelligent – stupid  Casual – informal  deep-profound  Drunk – sober  Sofa – couch  Hide – conceal  cheap – expensive  Rich - wealthy a. synonym b. antonym c. synonym d. synonym e. antonym f. Synonym g. Synonym h. Antonym i. synonym
  15. 15. Hyponymy • Hyponymy: Words whose meanings are specific instances of a more general word, i.e. one thing is included (kind of) in another thing. – e.g. cats and dogs are hyponyms of the word animal. • In this case cats and dogs are co-hyponyms share the same ‘superordinate’ • Other e.g. daffodil & flower / carrot & vegetable / ant & insect
  16. 16. Homophones and Homonyms • Homonymy: A word which has two or more entirely distinct (unrelated) meanings, – e.g. bank: ‘financial institution’ ; ‘of a river’. – Bat: ‘flying creature’ or ‘used in sports’ – Race: ‘contest of speed’ or ‘ethnic group’ • Homophony: Different words pronounced the same but spelled differently, – e.g. two, to and too. – Flour and flower – Meat and meet – Right and write
  17. 17. Polysemy • Polysemy: A word which has multiple meanings related by extension, – e.g. bright: ‘shining’ ; ‘intelligent’ – ‘Head’ of the body and the person at the top of a company. – ‘Foot’ of a body and of a mountain and of the bed or chair. – ‘Run’ a person runs, the water runs
  18. 18. Metonymy • What do you think about these sentence? – He drank the whole bottle. (container-content) – The White House announced. (king-crown) – I gave her a hand. (whole-part) • A word substituted for another word with which it is closely associated e.g. bottle is used for water • Metonymy is "a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something." A short definition is "part for whole."
  19. 19. THANK YOU  BYE – BYE SEE YA ^_^

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