SHARIFAH ROQAIYAH BT SYED MUD PUAD<br />NURUL HUSNA BT ALIAS<br />SITI SARAH BT MOHD SAIFUDDIN<br />YIP SOOK HAN<br />NOOR...
 Pregnant mothers often suspect that they are carrying more than one baby (or more).<br />Suddenly your pregnancy is fille...
 One day, Pn. Laila received the surprise of her life. She is having pregnant!” Her mind is whiring with question. How do ...
 ULTRASOUND CONFIRMATION<br />DOPPLER HEARTBEAT COUNT<br />HcG (HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN) LEVELS TEST<br />AFP (ALPHAF...
ULTRASOUND CONFIRMATION<br />AN IMAGING TEST THAT USES SOUND WAVES TO SEE HOW A FETUS DEVELOPING IN THE MOTHER WOMB.<br />...
TWIN ULTRASOUND PICTURE <br />15 WEEKS<br />
DOPPLER HEARTBEAT COUNT<br />Using harmless sound waves, a Doppler systems can detect fetal heartbeat.<br />If there are m...
HcG (HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN) LEVELS TEST<br />HcG is a glycoprotein hormone detectable in pregnant women's blood or ...
HCG PREGNANCY TEST<br />
AFP (ALPHAFETOPROTEIN) SCREENING<br />Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that measures the level of alpha-fetopro...
Pregnant mother suspected that they are carrying more than one baby.<br /> Suddenly her pregnancy is filled with double de...
1) How to know it is twin or single baby?<br />
 If the pregnancy is twin, it have a big difference with carrying for just one baby.<br /> The pregnant mother will know w...
 Check if you having a more symptoms than expected like experienced an increase in morning sickness) and it effects might ...
 Take a routine ultrasound. During a routine ultrasound, your doctor should be able to detect whether or not you are actua...
2 ) What is the comparison between identical and non-identical twin?<br />
3) How twin are form?<br />
Fraternal (Non-identical) twins are formed when two egg cells are fertilized; each egg by a different sperm so that two em...
4 ) What are the common symptoms of twin pregnancy ?<br />
Weight Gain<br />Early weight gain of up to ten pounds in the first trimester can result due to increased blood volume and...
Measuring large for gestational age <br />Increased uterus size can be a strong indicator of multiple pregnancy.<br />
Severe morning sickness symptoms, including nausea, fatigue and vomiting <br />
Abnormally high results from an alphfetoprotein (AFP) test<br />
Feeling Fetal Movement Early In Pregnancy<br />
5 ) There are 3 different way that identical twins can develop. How it develop?<br />
і)  Only one placenta that feeds the babies, but there can be two amniotic sacs.<br /> There is 1 placenta and 2 amniotic ...
іі) Only one placenta and one amniotic sac<br /> The pregnancy is referred to as having a “ mono-chorial” placenta and is ...
ііі) Two placentae and each embryo has its own amniotic sac<br /> There are two placentas and two amniotic sacs<br /> Refe...
6 ) What are the types of twins?<br />twins<br />dizygotic<br />monozygotic<br />Bi-chorial and Bi-amniotic<br />Mono-chor...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Pbl twins

1,847 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,847
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
24
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Pbl twins

  1. 1.
  2. 2. SHARIFAH ROQAIYAH BT SYED MUD PUAD<br />NURUL HUSNA BT ALIAS<br />SITI SARAH BT MOHD SAIFUDDIN<br />YIP SOOK HAN<br />NOOR ASYIKIN BT KAMARAZAMAN<br />
  3. 3. Pregnant mothers often suspect that they are carrying more than one baby (or more).<br />Suddenly your pregnancy is filled with double and delight, probably a double dose of anxienty also. People are very fascinated with twins and other multiples. It seems mysterious how one pregnancy can result in more than one baby.<br />
  4. 4. One day, Pn. Laila received the surprise of her life. She is having pregnant!” Her mind is whiring with question. How do I know its twin ? It is twins ? Could you behaving more than one ? How do I know its twins ? What are some of the signals of a multiple pregnancy ? How twins are made ? How did this happen ? If I’ve had twins, how can find out whether my babies are identical or none identical ?<br /> You as a doctor, what would you tell Pn. Laila regarding to twins pregnancy ?<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8. ULTRASOUND CONFIRMATION<br />DOPPLER HEARTBEAT COUNT<br />HcG (HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN) LEVELS TEST<br />AFP (ALPHAFETOPROTEIN) SCREENING <br />
  9. 9. ULTRASOUND CONFIRMATION<br />AN IMAGING TEST THAT USES SOUND WAVES TO SEE HOW A FETUS DEVELOPING IN THE MOTHER WOMB.<br />A CLEAR, WATER-BASED GEL WILL BE PLACED ON MOTHER’S BELLY AND PELVIS AREA AND THEN MOVES A HAND-HELD PROBE OVER THE AREA. <br />THE GEL HELPS THE PROBE TRANSMIT SOUND WAVES. <br />THESE WAVES BOUNCE OFF THE BODY STRUCTURES, INCLUDING THE DEVELOPING FETUS, TO CREATE A PICTURE ON THE ULTRASOUND MACHINE.<br />
  10. 10. TWIN ULTRASOUND PICTURE <br />15 WEEKS<br />
  11. 11. DOPPLER HEARTBEAT COUNT<br />Using harmless sound waves, a Doppler systems can detect fetal heartbeat.<br />If there are more than one heartbeat detected, <br /> indicating a multiple pregnancy.<br />HAND-HELD DOPPLER<br />
  12. 12. HcG (HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN) LEVELS TEST<br />HcG is a glycoprotein hormone detectable in pregnant women's blood or urine about 10 days post-conception.<br /> It increases at a rapid rate, peaking about 10 weeks into the pregnancy.<br /> Twins may produce an elevated level of HcG.<br /> However, the standard HcG level for twins also falls within the normal range for singletons.<br />
  13. 13. HCG PREGNANCY TEST<br />
  14. 14. AFP (ALPHAFETOPROTEIN) SCREENING<br />Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that measures the level of alpha-fetoprotein in the mothers' blood during the second trimester.<br /> AFP is a protein normally produced by the fetal liver and is present in the fluid surrounding the fetus (amniotic fluid), and crosses the placenta into the mother's blood.<br />Abnormal levels of AFP may indicate twin pregnancy . <br /> This is because more than one fetus is making the protein.<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Pregnant mother suspected that they are carrying more than one baby.<br /> Suddenly her pregnancy is filled with double delight and probably a double dose anxiety also.<br /> People are very fascinated with twins and other multiples.<br />It seems mysterious how one pregnancy can result in more than one baby.<br /> One day Pn. Laila received the surprise of her life. She having pregnant. <br />
  17. 17. 1) How to know it is twin or single baby?<br />
  18. 18. If the pregnancy is twin, it have a big difference with carrying for just one baby.<br /> The pregnant mother will know whether her pregnancy is twin or not by :<br /> Checking their weight. When a woman carries twins, she gains more weight than average and her uterus is also larger than normal for her projected due dates.<br />
  19. 19. Check if you having a more symptoms than expected like experienced an increase in morning sickness) and it effects might be more severe than normal<br /> Verify for hcG level, if it is abnormal high level of this hormone, maybe the pregnant mother carry a twins.<br /> Find out if there is more than one fetal heartbeat in uterus. If you are having twins, a doctor should be able to hear two different heartbeats when he places a doppler device (doptone) on your abdomen.<br />
  20. 20. Take a routine ultrasound. During a routine ultrasound, your doctor should be able to detect whether or not you are actually pregnant with twins.<br />
  21. 21. 2 ) What is the comparison between identical and non-identical twin?<br />
  22. 22.
  23. 23. 3) How twin are form?<br />
  24. 24. Fraternal (Non-identical) twins are formed when two egg cells are fertilized; each egg by a different sperm so that two embryos are formed. Fraternal twins can be of the same or opposite sex and they don't have to look at all alike.<br />Identical twins are formed when one egg after being fertilized by one sperm, divides into two halves. The two halves are genetically identical. Identical twins are usually of the same sex.<br />Conjoined (Siamese) twins are formed exactly like identical twins, but during the split, the embryo does not separate completely to form two separate babies and the twins develop attached to one another.<br />
  25. 25. 4 ) What are the common symptoms of twin pregnancy ?<br />
  26. 26. Weight Gain<br />Early weight gain of up to ten pounds in the first trimester can result due to increased blood volume and uterine size.<br />By the end of the second trimester, most mothers of twins have gained fifteen to twenty-five pounds, whereas singleton pregnancies usually produce gains of ten to twenty pounds. <br />
  27. 27. Measuring large for gestational age <br />Increased uterus size can be a strong indicator of multiple pregnancy.<br />
  28. 28. Severe morning sickness symptoms, including nausea, fatigue and vomiting <br />
  29. 29. Abnormally high results from an alphfetoprotein (AFP) test<br />
  30. 30. Feeling Fetal Movement Early In Pregnancy<br />
  31. 31. 5 ) There are 3 different way that identical twins can develop. How it develop?<br />
  32. 32. і) Only one placenta that feeds the babies, but there can be two amniotic sacs.<br /> There is 1 placenta and 2 amniotic sacs then the pregnancy is referred to as having a “ mono-chorial ” placenta and is “ bi-amniotic “. <br />
  33. 33. іі) Only one placenta and one amniotic sac<br /> The pregnancy is referred to as having a “ mono-chorial” placenta and is “ mono-amniotic”<br />
  34. 34. ііі) Two placentae and each embryo has its own amniotic sac<br /> There are two placentas and two amniotic sacs<br /> Referred to as having a “bi-chorial” pregnancy and is “ bi-amniotic”.<br />
  35. 35. 6 ) What are the types of twins?<br />twins<br />dizygotic<br />monozygotic<br />Bi-chorial and Bi-amniotic<br />Mono-chorial<br />And Bi-amniotic<br />Mono-chorial and mono-amniotic<br />Siamese twin<br />

×